Kapes (genus)

Kapes is an extinct genus of procolophonid parareptile from the Lower and Middle Triassic of the United Kingdom and Russia. It is a member of the subfamily Procolophoninae.[1] The type species K. amaenus was named in 1975 from the banks of the Vychegda River in the Komi Republic of Russia. In 1983, a new species was brought into the genus, K. majmesculae. K. majmesculae was first named in 1968 as a member of the genus Tichvinskia. A third Russian species, K. serotinus, was named in 1991. In 2002, Kapes bentoni was named from the Middle Triassic Otter Sandstone Formation of Devon, England, extending the geographic range of Kapes. In the same paper, K. serotinus was synonymized with K. majmesculae and another Russian species was assigned to Kapes called K. komiensis. K. komiensis was first named in 1975 (in the same paper K. amaenus was named in) as a member of the genus Macrophon.[2]

Temporal range: Lower - Middle Triassic
Kapes full skeleton.jpg
Skeleton of Kapes bentoni
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Reptilia
Clade: Parareptilia
Order: Procolophonomorpha
Family: Procolophonidae
Subfamily: Procolophoninae
Genus: Kapes
Ivakhnenko, 1975
  • K. amaenus Ivakhnenko, 1975 (type)
  • K. komiensis(Ivakhnenko, 1975 [originally Macrophon komiensis])
  • K. majmesculae(Ochev, 1968 [originally Tichvinskia majmesculae])
  • K. bentoni Spencer and Storrs, 2002
Skull of Kapes bentoni


Below is a cladogram from Ruta et al. (2011) showing the placement of Kapes within Procolophonidae:[3]


Coletta seca

Pintosaurus magnidentis

Sauropareion anoplus

Kitchingnathus untabeni

Phaanthosaurus ignatjevi

Phaanthosaurus simus


Eumetabolodon dongshengensis

Theledectes perforatus

Tichvinskia vjatkensis


Pentaedrusaurus ordosianus

Neoprocolophon asiaticus

Sclerosaurus armatus

Scoloparia glyphanodon

Leptopleuron lacertinum

Soturnia caliodon

Hypsognathus fenneri


Eumetabolodon bathycephalus

Procolophon trigoniceps

Teratophon spinigenis

Thelerpeton oppressus

Timanophon raridentatus

Thelephon contritus

Anomoiodon liliensterni


Kapes amaenus

Kapes bentoni

Kapes komiensis

Kapes majmesculae


  1. ^ Cisneros, J. C. (2008). "Phylogenetic relationships of procolophonid parareptiles with remarks on their geological record". Journal of Systematic Palaeontology. 6 (3): 345–366. doi:10.1017/S1477201907002350. S2CID 84468714.
  2. ^ Spencer, P. S.; Storrs, G. W. (2002). "A Re-evaluation of Small Tetrapods from the Middle Triassic Otter Sandstone Formation of Devon, England". Palaeontology. 45 (3): 447. doi:10.1111/1475-4983.00245.
  3. ^ Ruta, M.; Cisneros, J. C.; Liebrecht, T.; Tsuji, L. A.; Müller, J. (2011). "Amniotes through major biological crises: Faunal turnover among Parareptiles and the end-Permian mass extinction". Palaeontology. 54 (5): 1117. doi:10.1111/j.1475-4983.2011.01051.x.