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The Kangwŏn Line is a 145.8 km (90.6 mi) electrified standard-gauge trunk line of the Korean State Railway of North Korea, connecting Kowŏn on the P'yŏngra Line to P'yŏnggang, providing an east–west connection between the P'yŏngra and Ch'ŏngnyŏn Ich'ŏn lines.[1]

Kangwŏn Line
Overview
Native name강원선(江原線)
TypeHeavy rail, Passenger/freight rail
Regional rail
StatusOperational
LocaleSouth Hamgyŏng
Kangwŏn
TerminiKowŏn
P'yŏnggang
Stations23
Operation
OpenedMainline: 1913-1916
OwnerChosen Government Railway (1913–1945)
Korean State Railway (since 1945)
Korail (part, since 1953)
Operator(s)Korean State Railway
Korail (part, since 1953)
Depot(s)Wŏnsan
Technical
Line length145.8 km (90.6 mi) in use
Number of tracksSingle track
Track gauge1,435 mm (4 ft 8 12 in) standard gauge
Minimum radius300 m (980 ft)
Electrification3000 V DC Overhead line
Route map

DPRK-Kangwon Line.png

P'yŏngra Line to P'yŏngyang
Electric locomotive shops
0.0
Kowŏn
(bridge appx 80 m (260 ft))
7.5
Chŏnt'an
1.6
1.8
(bridge appx 180 m (590 ft))
(bridge appx 40 m (130 ft))
1.8
(bridge appx 60 m (200 ft))
12.1
Ryongdam
22.0
Ongp'yŏng
(bridge appx 135 m (443 ft))
(bridge appx 50 m (160 ft))
2.0
narrow-gauge railway to mine
0.0
2.6
2.1
(bridge appx 65 m (213 ft))
29.4
Munch'ŏn
(bridge appx 105 m (344 ft))
36.5
Tŏgwŏn
(bridge appx 115 m (377 ft))
(bridge appx 105 m (344 ft))
42.0
0.0
Wŏnsan
(tunnel appx 1,700 m (5,600 ft))
abandoned alignment
Wŏnsan Hwamul Branch
4.6
Wŏnsan Hwamul
Locomotive shops
46.1
Kalma
(new bridge appx 135 m (443 ft))
(old bridge appx 180 m (590 ft))
(bridge appx 85 m (279 ft))
52.8
Paehwa
(bridge appx 50 m (160 ft))
57.7
Anbyŏn
64.1
Namsan
73.5
Kwangmyŏng
(bridge appx 70 m (230 ft))
81.6
Ryongjiwŏn
(bridge appx 105 m (344 ft))
88.1
Kosan
(bridge appx 95 m (312 ft))
(tunnel appx 265 m (869 ft))
(bridge appx 55 m (180 ft))
(tunnel appx 315 m (1,033 ft))
(tunnel appx 100 m (330 ft))
(bridge appx 85 m (279 ft))
(bridge appx 100 m (330 ft))
(tunnel appx 270 m (890 ft))
(bridge appx 105 m (344 ft))
(bridge appx 75 m (246 ft))
(bridge appx 80 m (260 ft))
(tunnel appx 125 m (410 ft))
(bridge appx 60 m (200 ft))
(tunnel appx 70 m (230 ft))
97.4
Tonggari
102.5
Rakch'ŏn
(bridge appx 80 m (260 ft))
(tunnel appx 190 m (620 ft))
(bridge appx 75 m (246 ft))
(bridge appx 55 m (180 ft))
(tunnel appx 470 m (1,540 ft))
(bridge appx 65 m (213 ft))
106.4
Sambang
(tunnel appx 280 m (920 ft))
(bridge appx 100 m (330 ft))
(tunnel appx 375 m (1,230 ft))
(tunnel appx 480 m (1,570 ft))
(tunnel appx 60 m (200 ft))
(bridge appx 55 m (180 ft))
(tunnel appx 145 m (476 ft))
(bridge appx 40 m (130 ft))
(bridge appx 50 m (160 ft))
(tunnel appx 140 m (460 ft))
(tunnel appx 350 m (1,150 ft))
(bridge appx 80 m (260 ft))
(bridge appx 50 m (160 ft))
(bridge appx 60 m (200 ft))
(bridge appx 50 m (160 ft))
114.1
Sep'o Ch'ŏngnyŏn
121.3
Sŏngsan
(tunnel appx 640 m (2,100 ft))
126.3
Kŏmbullang
(viaduct appx 65 m (213 ft))
131.1
Ri'mok
142.0
Pokkye
145.8
P'yŏnggang
(bridge appx 45 m (148 ft))
152.6
Kagok
Closed
162.6
Wŏljŏngri
Closed
167.6
Ch'ŏrwŏn
Closed
171.3
Paengmagoji
South Korea since 1953
176.9
Sintalli
181.3
Taegwangri
188.3
Sinmangri
191.9
Ryŏnch'ŏn
200.5
Chŏn'gok
203.0
Hant'an'gang
North Korea until 1950
206.0
Ch'osŏngri
Korean State Railway
Korail
Kangwon Line
Chosŏn'gŭl
Hancha
Revised RomanizationGangwonseon
McCune–ReischauerKangwŏnsŏn

Although the line continues south across the Korean Demilitarized Zone, it is non-operational south of P'yŏnggang.

The ruling gradient is 25‰, the minimum curve radius is 300 m (980 ft); there are 94 bridges with a total length of 3,493 m (11,460 ft), and 18 tunnels with a total length of 6,243 m (20,482 ft). There are 23 stations on the line, with an average distance between stations of 6.5 km (4.0 mi). Wŏnsan Station is the most important station on the line; in addition to its passenger infrastructure, locomotive and freight car maintenance facilities are located there.[2]

On 5 August 2015, South Korean President Park Geun-hye attended a ceremony launching work on the reconstruction of the 9.3 km (5.8 mi) BaengmagojiWoljeong-ri section of Korail's Gyeongwon Line, which has been closed since the Korean War, as part of events marking the 70th anniversary of the partition of Korea. The works are to begin in October and are expected to be finished by 2017; the US $129 million project is being funded by the Unification Ministry. Park also stated her hope that the remaining 2.4 km (1.5 mi) section across the DMZ would be rebuilt soon, which would re-establish the old Kyŏngwŏn Line connecting Seoul to Wŏnsan.[3]

HistoryEdit

For the original line's history and other information prior to 1945, see Gyeongwon Line (1911–1945)

 
American aerial bombing of a station south of Wŏnsan in 1950.

The Kangwŏn Line's Wŏnsan-P'yŏnggang section was opened, along with the rest of the Kyŏngwŏn Line from Seoul to Wŏnsan, on 16 August 1914 (the Wŏnsan−Ryongjiwŏn section was completed on 21 August 1913, PokkyeKŏmbullang on 25 September 1913, Kosan−Ryongjiwŏn on 21 October 1913, Kŏmbullang−Sep'o on 21 June 1914, and Sep'o−Kosan on 16 August 1914,[4] forming an important east–west transversal line.

The Wŏnsan−Kowŏn section was built as part of the Hamgyŏng Line of the Chosen Government Railway (Sentetsu); this line ran on the routing of Wŏnsan−Kowŏn (now part of the Kangwŏn Line), Kowŏn−Ch'ŏngjin (now part of the P'yŏngra Line), and Ch'ŏngjin−Sangsambong (now part of the Hambuk Line).[5] The Wŏnsan−Kowŏn section was completed in two parts: Wŏnsan−Ongp'yŏng (at the time called Munch'ŏn Station) on 1 August 1915, and Munch'ŏn−Kowŏn−Kŭmya on 21 July 1916; the Kowŏn−Kŭmya section is now part of the P'yŏngra Line.[6]

The south end of what is now the Kangwŏn line was where the first railway electrification projects in Korea took place. The first of these was the privately owned Kŭmgangsan Electric Railway, which was first opened in 1924 from Ch'ŏrwŏn to Kimhwa, and by 1931 had been extended all the way to Naegŭmgang.[7] Also in the 1930s, Sentetsu, together with the South Manchuria Railway, was developing plans to create an electrified railway all the way from Pusan in Korea to Xinjing, capital of Manchukuo.[8] The first stage of this plan was the electrification of the Kyŏngwŏn, Kyŏnggyŏng and Kyŏngin lines,[8] and in March 1940, the Imperial Diet budgeted 3.6 million Yen for electrification equipment for this plan.[9] Electrification of the PokkyeKosan section of the Kyŏngwŏn line began in December 1940; it was completed and commissioned on 27 March 1944,[10] and commercial electric operations commenced on 1 April 1944.[11]

After the partition of Korea following the end of the Pacific War, the Kyŏngwŏn Line was split along the 38th parallel between the stations of Hantangang and Ch'osŏngri, and the Korean State Railway, established following the nationalisation of all railways in North Korea in 1946,[1] merged the truncated Wŏnsan−Ch'osŏngri section of the Kyŏngwŏn Line with the Wŏnsan−Kowŏn section of the former Hamgyŏng Line to create the Kangwŏn Line. Following the end of the Korean War and the establishment of the Military Demarcation Line, the section south of Wŏljŏngri ended up in South Korea, where the Korean National Railroad reabsorbed it into the Kyŏngwŏn Line. The section from P'yŏnggang to Kagok has been closed since the end of the war, and since then the line has its current name, from the two termini: P'yŏnggang and Wŏnsan. The line was severely damaged during the Korean War, but was quickly repaired after the war.[1] The Kowŏn−Sep'o Ch'ŏngnyŏn section of the line was electrified in September 1980, and the electrification of the Sep'o Ch'ŏngnyŏn−P'yŏnggang section was completed in early 1986.[2]

ServicesEdit

FreightEdit

The Kangwŏn Line serves the ports at Wŏnsan and Munch'ŏn, and a number of industries including the smelter at Munch'ŏn and the May 18th Works; the primary goods received on the line are anthracite, zinc concentrates, coke, solvents etc., while the most important outbound goods include seafood and machinery. There is also a significant amount of through traffic on the line destined for points in North and South Hwanghae on the Ch'ŏngnyŏn Ich'ŏn line and beyond, such as coking coal imported from China for the Hwanghae Iron & Steel Complex, wood imported from Russia and chemical fertilisers produced in the Hamhŭng area.[2] At Kalma is located the 4 June Rolling Stock Works, the DPRK's largest manufacturer of railway freight and passenger cars.[12] A number of other important industries are located on the Wŏnsan Port Line, which connects to the Kangwŏn Line at Kalma.

PassengerEdit

The following passenger trains are known to operate on this line:[13]

  • Express trains 13/14, operating between P'yŏngyang and P'yŏnggang, run on this line between Kowŏn and P'yŏnggang;
  • Semi-express trains 117/118, operating between Taedonggang and P'yŏnggang, run on this line between Kowŏn and P'yŏnggang;
  • Semi-express trains 128-129-130/131-132-133, operating between Kalma and Rajin, run on this line between Kalma and Kowŏn.

In the 1980s, there was a passenger service operated between Sariwŏn and Hamhŭng which ran via the Ch'ŏngnyŏn Ich'ŏn line and the Sep'o-Kowon section of the Kangwŏn line and another between Wŏnsan and P'yŏnggang,[2] but this train was not present in the 2002 passenger timetables.[13]

RouteEdit

MainlineEdit

Between Wŏnsan and Paehwa stations there is a bypass line under construction which will allow passenger trains to avoid passing through the primarily freight-only Kalma Station.

A yellow background in the "Distance" box indicates that section of the line is not electrified.

Distance (km) Station Name Former Name
Total S2S Transcribed Chosŏn'gŭl (Hanja) Transcribed Chosŏn'gŭl (Hanja) Connections
(former)
0.0 0.0 Kowŏn 고원 (高原) P'yŏngra Line
7.5 7.5 Chŏnt'an 전탄 (前灘)
12.1 4.6 Ryongdam 룡담 (龍潭) Ch'ŏnnae Line
22.0 9.9 Ongp'yŏng 옥평 (玉坪) Munch'ŏn 문천 (文川) Munch'ŏn Port Line
29.4 7.4 Munch'ŏn 문천 (文川) Munp'yŏng 문평 (文坪)
36.5 7.1 Tŏkwŏn 덕원 (徳源) Songdowŏn Line
42.0 5.5 Wŏnsan 원산 (元山) Wŏnsan Hwamul Branch
46.1 4.1 Kalma 갈마 (葛麻) Wŏnsan Port Line
52.8 6.7 Paehwa 배화 (培花)
57.7 4.9 Anbyŏn 안변 (安辺) Kŭmgangsan Ch. Line
64.1 6.4 Namsan 남산 (南山)
73.5 9.4 Kwangmyŏng 광명 (光明) Sŏg'wangsa 석왕사
(釈王寺)
81.6 8.1 Ryongjiwŏn 룡지원
(龍池院)
88.1 6.5 Kosan 고산 (高山)
97.4 9.3 Tonggari 동가리
(董家里)
102.5 5.1 Rakch'ŏn 락천 (楽川) Sambang 삼방 (三防)
106.4 3.9 Sambang 삼방 (三防) Sambanghyŏp 삼방협
(三防峡)
114.1 7.7 Sep'o Ch'ŏngnyŏn 세포청년
(洗浦青年)
Sep'o 세포 (洗浦) Ch. Ich'ŏn Line
121.3 7.2 Sŏngsan 성산 (城山)
126.3 5.0 Kŏmbullang 검불랑
(剣仏浪)
131.1 4.8 Ri'mok 리목 (梨木)
142.0 10.9 Pokkye 복계 (福渓)
145.8 3.8 P'yŏnggang 평강 (平康)
Section past P'yŏnggang closed
152.6 6.8 Kagok 가곡 (佳谷) Closed
Demilitarized Zone
162.6 10.0 Woljŏngri 월정리
(月井里)
Closed
167.6 5.0 Ch'ŏrwŏn 철원 (鉄原) Closed
(Kŭmgangsan Line)
Section south of Sintalli in use by Korail; in DPRK before the Korean War
176.9 9.3 Sintalli 신탄리
(新炭里)
181.3 4.4 Taegwangri 대광리
(大光里)
191.9 10.3 Ryŏnch'ŏn 련천 (漣川)
200.5 8.6 Chŏn'gok 전곡 (全谷)
203.0 2.5 Hant'an'gang 한탄강
(漢灘江)
Prior to the Korean War, this was the terminus of the northern line. Reopened by KNR in 1975.
206.0 3.0 Ch'osŏngri 초성리
(哨城里)
Korail Gyeongwon Line
Originally opened 5 October 1950 as a UN munitions facility.

Wŏnsan Hwamul BranchEdit

This is a short electrified branch to Wŏnsan Hwamul (Freight) Station, which is adjacent to the Kŭmgang Prime Mover Factory in Kalma-dong; the station has several tracks dedicated to serving the factory.

Distance (km) Station Name
Total S2S Transcribed Chosŏn'gŭl (Hanja) Connections
0.0 0.0 Wŏnsan 원산 (元山) Kangwŏn Line
Wŏnsan Hwamul 원산화물 (元山貨物)

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b c Kokubu, Hayato. 将軍様の鉄道 (in Japanese). Shōgun-sama no Tetsudō. p. 85. ISBN 978-4-10-303731-6.
  2. ^ a b c d "Kangwŏn Line". The traffic and geography in North Korea (in Korean).
  3. ^ "South Korea to reinstate line to the DMZ". Railway Gazette. 7 August 2015.
  4. ^ "경영원칙 > 경영공시 > 영업현황 > 영업거리현황" (in Korean). Korail. Retrieved 17 September 2015.
  5. ^ 朝鮮総督府官報 (The Public Journal of the Governor-General of Korea), Shōwa No. 669, 28 March 1929 (in Japanese)
  6. ^ Japanese Government Railways (1937). 鉄道停車場一覧 昭和12年10月1日現在 [The List of the Stations as of 1 October 1937] (in Japanese). Tokyo: Kawaguchi Printing Company. pp. 498–501, 504–505.
  7. ^ "金剛山電気鉄道について" (in Japanese).
  8. ^ a b "松田新市三菱電機技師の戦中戦後の電気車設計" [Matsuda Shinichi Electric car design after the war by Mitsubishi Electric Engineer]. 北山敏和の鉄道いまむかし [Kitayama Toshikazu no Railroad Today].
  9. ^ "デロイを探せ!(その43-1) 三菱電機技報(1942年1月号)におけるデロイ" [Find Deloi! (Part 43-1) Delroy in Mitsubishi Electric Technical Report (January 1942)]. ゴンブロ!(ゴンの徒然日記) [Gombro! (Tuesday's diary of Gon)] (in Japanese). 22 June 2013.
  10. ^ "デロイを探せ!(その8)デロイ就役の経緯(年表)" [Find Deloi! (Part 8) Background of Delroy (Chronology)]. ゴンブロ!(ゴンの徒然日記) [Gombro! (Tuesday's diary of Gon)] (in Japanese). 17 November 2011.
  11. ^ "デロイを探せ!(その36) 戦後直後の韓国側における電化計画" [Find Deloi! (Part 36) Electrification plan at the Korean side immediately after the war]. ゴンブロ!(ゴンの徒然日記) [Gombro! (Tuesday's diary of Gon)] (in Japanese). 26 August 2012.
  12. ^ "潮起潮落:【原创】朝鲜铁路机车车辆概况一览分页 第1页" [The ebb and flow:【Original】Korean Railway Locomotives and Vehicles Overview Page 1]. Cchere.com (in Chinese). Retrieved 21 January 2016.
  13. ^ a b Kokubu, Hayato. 将軍様の鉄道 (in Japanese). Shōgun-sama no Tetsudō. p. 124. ISBN 978-4-10-303731-6.