Kanara or Canara, also known as Karavali is the historically significant stretch of land situated by the southwestern coast of India, alongside the Arabian Sea in the present-day Indian state of Karnataka.[1] The subregion comprises three civil districts, namely: Uttara Kannada, Udupi, and Dakshina Kannada.[2] Kassergode was included prior to the States Reorganisation Act.

Kanara, Karnataka, India
Kanara (spotlighted in orange) occupies Karnataka's entire seaboard
Country India
Largest cityMangalore
HeadquartersUttara Kannada: Karwar

Udupi: Udupi

Dakshina Kannada: Mangalore
TaluksUttara Kannada: Karwar, Ankola, Kumta, Honnavar, Bhatkal, Sirsi, Siddapur, Yellapur, Mundgod, Haliyal, Joida, Dandeli

Udupi: Udupi, Karkala, Kundapur, Baindur, Brahmavar, Kaup, Hebri

Dakshina Kannada: Mangalore, Moodabidri, Bantwal, Belthangady, Sullia, Puttur, Kadaba
 • Total18,730 km2 (7,230 sq mi)
 • OfficialKannada
Time zoneUTC+5:30 (IST)
Vehicle registration
Coastline320 km (200 mi)
Sex ratio1,040 /
LiteracyIncrease 87.03% (Highest in Karnataka)

Etymology edit

According to historian Severino da Silva, the ancient name for this region is Parashurama Srushti (creation of Parashurama).[3] According to him and Stephen Fuchs, the name Canara is the invention of Portuguese, Dutch, and English people who visited the area for trade from the early sixteenth century onwards. The Bednore Dynasty, under whose rule this tract was at that time, was known to them as the Kannada Dynasty, i.e., the dynasty speaking the Kannada language. "Karāvalli", the Kannada word for 'coast', is the term used by Kannada-speakers to refer to this region.[4] The letter 'd' being always pronounced like 'r' by the Europeans, the district was named by them as 'Canara' (a corruption of the word "Kannada"). This name was retained by the British after their occupation of the district in 1799, and has remained ever since. However, they also say that this issue is controversial.[4]

History edit

Since antiquity, much of the Canara coast (now spelled as 'Kanara') occupied a culturally distinct area known as Tulu Nadu.[5] Historically, Tulu Nadu lay between the Gangavalli River in the north and the Chandragiri River in the south.[6] Currently, Tulu Nadu consists of the Udupi and Dakshina Kannada districts of Karnataka, and the Manjeshwaram taluk of Kerala.[7] The Uttara Kannada district in general is considered to be the southernmost part of the Konkan coast.[8] Specifically, the littoral region north of the Gangavalli River is traditionally included in the Konkan.[9]

The Portuguese occupied Kanara from 1498–1763. During this period, the geographical extent of Canara stretched from the southern banks of the Kali River in Karwar in the north to the northern banks of the Chandragiri River in Kasaragod in the south.[10]

In 1799, after the conclusion of the Fourth Mysore War, the British took over the region and established the Canara district of the Madras Presidency. The district was bifurcated into the North and South Canara districts in 1859.[11] The North Canara (also sometimes cited as 'North Kanara') district was transferred to the Bombay Presidency whereas the South Canara (also sometimes referred as 'South Kanara') district remained under the jurisdiction of the Madras Presidency. South Canara encompassed the undivided territory of the contemporary Udupi, Dakshina Kannada, and Kasaragod districts.[11]

After India's independence in 1947, the Bombay Presidency was reconstituted as the Bombay State. Following the States Reorganisation Act, 1956, the southern portion of Bombay State was added to Mysore State, which was renamed Karnataka in 1972. Kasaragod was included in Kerala.[12] Subsequently, North and South Canara were renamed Uttara Kannada and Dakshina Kannada respectively. In 1997, Udupi district was carved out of the bigger Dakshina Kannada district.[12]

Geography edit

The Kanara region forms the coast of Karnataka situated on the south-western portion of Peninsular India.[13] Coastal Karnataka forms the northern segment of the Malabar coast.[14] Kanara constitutes an area of about 10,000 square kilometres (4,000 square miles).[15] It is bounded by Konkan to the north, the Western Ghats to the east, the Kerala Plains to the south, and the Arabian Sea to the west.[16] It stretches from north to south for about 225 kilometres (140 miles) and has a maximum width of about 64 kilometres (40 miles) in the south.[17]

Civil administration edit

Contemporary Kanara extends from the village of Majali in the north to the village of Talapady in the south.[10] The three districts in the region: Uttara Kannada, Udupi, and Dakshina Kannada have their capitals in Karwar, Udupi, and Mangalore respectively.[18]

Demographics edit

Religion in Kanara regions

  Hinduism (76.49%)
  Islam (16.42%)
  Christianity (5.9%)
  Others (1.19%)

The Kanara region have 3 Districts: Uttara Kannada, Udupi, and Dakshina Kannada. The combined population of these districts, according to the 2011 Census is about 47,04,179 .

Religious Demographics edit

Hinduism is the largest and the most dominant religion in the region with over 35,98,634 followers.

Islam is the second largest religion in the region. Many believe it to be had existed before the Muslim conquests of India. It has over 7,72,874 followers.

Christianity is the third largest religion in the region with over 2,81,718 followers .

Languages edit

Languages of Kanara

  Kannada (31.69%)
  Tulu (29.44%)
  Konkani (13.01%)
  Beary (7.64%)
  Malayalam (4.96%)
  Marathi (3.62%)
  Others (9.64%)

The main languages that are closely associated with the Kanara region are Kannada, Konkani and Tulu.

Kannada edit

Kannada is the official language of Karnataka but is spoken natively by less than a third of the population of Kanara. A vast majority of the people in Kanara, however, understand and speak Kannada as a second language, except in isolated rural villages in Tulu-dominated regions in the south or the villages lying at the north quite close to Goa where there is a prevalence of Konkani. Various Kannada dialects are spoken in the region, including: Achchagannada by Halakki Vokkaligas, Havigannada by the Havyakas of Uttara Kannada and Dakshina Kannada, Kundagannada spoken in and around Kundapura, Aregannada by the Gowda community in Dakshina Kannada, etc.

Konkani edit

Konkani is an Indo-Aryan language which is native to the Konkan coast and is closely related to Marathi. Speakers of various dialects of Konkani are settled along the entire Kanara coast with the concentration being higher at the northern and southern tips of the Kanara coast, namely Karwar and Mangalore respectively. Most Konkani speakers living in Kanara are descendants of Goans who fled from Goa in the 16th and 17th centuries to escape persecution at the hands of the Portuguese. However, since the Kanara coast overlaps with the Konkan coast at its northern tip, the Konkani people in Karwar might be native to Karwar itself, as opposed to descendants of people who fled from modern day Goa.

Tulu edit

Tulu is strongly associated with the culture and identity of southern Kanara. Prevalence of Tulu starts in the southern part of the Udupi district; somewhere around the Udupi taluka of the Udupi district. From there onwards, it is dominant in the entire Dakshina Kannada district and also has a significant presence in the Kasaragod district which is in northern Kerala. It is a South Dravidian language, which branched off from Proto-South-Dravidian before Tamil and Kannada did, as evidenced by the fact that it contains archaic features which are lost in Tamil and Kannada. Tulu is closely associated with the cultures of the cities Udupi and Mangalore.

Others edit

Marathi is spoken in the northern parts of the Uttara Kannada district. Due to its close proximity to Kerala, Dakshina Kannada has a sizeable minority of Malayalam speakers. The Beary language is spoken by the Beary Muslim community of Dakshina Kannada.

See also edit

Notes edit

^A Konkan is now held to include all the land which lies between the Western Ghats and the Indian Ocean, from the latitude of Daman on the north to that of Terekhol, on the Goa frontier, on the south.[19] Although most sources generally assign Kanara (Karavali) to the Malabar Coast,[15] some other sources consider it to be a subterritory of the Konkan Coast.[20] Consequently, this segment is thought to overlap the Konkan and Malabar Coast continuum;[16] and usually corresponds to the southernmost and northernmost stretches of these locales respectively.[21][17]

Citations edit

  1. ^ Arnold, Alison, ed. (2017). "Coastal Karnataka". The Garland Encyclopedia of World Music: South Asia: The Indian Subcontinent. Garland Encyclopedia of World Music. Routledge. ISBN 9781351544382. Coastal Karnataka, formerly called the Canara Coast, is the part of Indias southwestern coastline north of Kerala and south of Goa. [sic]
  2. ^ K., Prakashnarayana (2018). "Geography of Karnataka". Know Our Karnataka: A book for Competitive Exams. pp. 27–36. Popularly known as Canara region or Karavali...
  3. ^ Silva 1958, p. 74
  4. ^ a b Silva & Fuchs 1965, pp. 1§2
  5. ^ "This city has six names in six languages, and the official one Mangaluru, is the least popular". The News Minute. 6 November 2014. Retrieved 15 September 2019.
  6. ^ Bhatt, P. Gururaja (1969). Antiquities of South Kanara. Prabhakara Press. p. 2.
  7. ^ "Tulu Nadu Region". keralatourism.org. Government of Kerala. Retrieved 15 September 2018.
  8. ^ Charlesworth, Neil (2001). Peasants and Imperial Rule: Agriculture and Agrarian Society in the Bombay Presidency 1850–1935. Cambridge South Asian Studies. Vol. 32 (revised ed.). CUP. p. 60. ISBN 9780521526401.
  9. ^ Memorandum on Maharashtra-Mysore border dispute to the Commission on Maharashtra-Mysore-Kerala boundary disputes. 1967. Government of Maharashtra. p. 59.
  10. ^ a b Shastry, Bhagamandala Seetharama (2000). Borges, Charles J. (ed.). Goa-Kanara Portuguese Relations, 1498–1763. XCHR studies series. Vol. 8. Concept Publishing Company. ISBN 9788170228486.
  11. ^ a b "Chapter 3 – Profile of the Study Area: Coastal Karnataka" (PDF). Shodhganga. Retrieved 15 September 2019.
  12. ^ a b Bhat, N. Shyam (1998). South Kanara, 1799–1860: A Study in Colonial Administration and Regional Response. Mittal Publications. ISBN 9788170995869.
  13. ^ "India: Coastal areas". Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. 16 October 2019. Retrieved 19 October 2019. From Goa south to Cape Comorin (the southernmost tip of India) is the Malabar coastal plain...
  14. ^ Goldberg, Maren (ed.). "Malabar Coast". Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. Retrieved 19 September 2019. Malabar Coast...the southern part of India's western coast, approximately from the state of Goa southward...
  15. ^ a b Pletcher, Kenneth (ed.). "Kanara". Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. Retrieved 19 September 2019. Kanara, region along the Malabar Coast of the Arabian Sea, western Karnataka state, India.
  16. ^ a b Pletcher, Kenneth (ed.). "Karnataka Coast". Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. Retrieved 19 September 2019. Karnataka Coast, coastal lowlands in western Karnataka state, southwestern India... it is bounded by Konkan to the north... The region forms a transitional zone between Maharashtra (north) and Kerala (south) states.
  17. ^ a b Ghori, G.K. (18 September 2019). "Karnataka". Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. Retrieved 19 October 2019. The coastal plain represents a northward continuation of the Malabar Coast...
  18. ^ "Profile of Coastal Karnataka". Coastal Karnataka Calling!!! Tourism and the Coastal Investors Meet – December 2003. 2003. pp. 2–4. Coastal Karnataka consists of three districts - Uttara Kannada, Udupi and Dakshina Kannada. [sic]
  19. ^ Nairne, Alexander Kyd (1988). History of the Konkan. Asian Educational Services. p. ix. ISBN 9788120602755.
  20. ^ Turley, Jeffrey Scott; Souza, George Bryan (2017). The Commentaries of D. García de Silva y Figueroa on his Embassy to Shāh ʿAbbās I of Persia on Behalf of Philip III, King of Spain. European Expansion and Indigenous Response. BRILL. pp. 163, 222. ISBN 9789004346321. The coastline of the Karnataka region was called Konkan (present-day Karavali) and runs from Thane... to Mangalore. Kanara (Canara or Canera...) is a subregion of Karnataka that forms the southern part of the Konkan coast...
  21. ^ Banerjee, Lalit Kumar (2002). Diversity of coastal plant communities in India. ENVIS & EMCBTAP-Botanical Survey of India, Ministry of Environment & Forests. p. 6. The South of the river Narmada to Mangalore is known as Konkan coast...

References edit

  • Silva, Severine; Fuchs, Stephen (1965). The Marriage Customs of the Christians in South Canara. 2. Vol. 24. Asian Folklore Studies, Nanzan University, Japan.
  • Silva, Severine (1961). History of Christianity in Canara. Vol. I. Coompta, North Canara: Star of Kanara Press.

Further reading edit

  • Michell, George, ed. (2012). Kanara, a Land Apart: The Artistic Heritage of Coastal Karnataka (Illustrated ed.). Marg Foundation. ISBN 9788192110639.

External links edit