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Kalvarija (About this soundpronunciation ) is a city in southwestern Lithuania, located in the Marijampolė County, close to the border with Poland.

Kalvarija
City
Church in Kalvarija
Church in Kalvarija
Coat of arms of Kalvarija
Coat of arms
Kalvarija is located in Lithuania
Kalvarija
Kalvarija
Location of Kalvarija
Coordinates: 54°25′0″N 23°13′0″E / 54.41667°N 23.21667°E / 54.41667; 23.21667Coordinates: 54°25′0″N 23°13′0″E / 54.41667°N 23.21667°E / 54.41667; 23.21667
Country Lithuania
Ethnographic regionSuvalkija
CountyMarijampole County flag.svg Marijampolė County
MunicipalityKalvarija Municipality
EldershipKalvarija eldership
Capital ofKalvarija Municipality
Kalvarija eldership
First mentioned1667
Granted city rights1791
Population
 (2011)
 • Total4,457
Time zoneUTC+2 (EET)
 • Summer (DST)UTC+3 (EEST)

Contents

Etymology and namesEdit

Variants of the name include Kalvarijos, Kalvariya, Kalwarja,[1] Kalvarye (Yiddish), Kalwaria (Polish), Kalvarien (German), Calvaria, Kalvaria, Kalwariya, and Kalwarya.[2] The town is named so because it was established in the 17th century as a shrine commemorating the crucifixion of Jesus.

HistoryEdit

 
Winter synagogue
 
Old synagogue from the 18th century

In 1705 the first wooden church was built. In 1713, local Jews received permission from King August II to build a synagogue and Jewish craftsmen were first permitted to practice their crafts without having to be members of the craft guilds. In 1791 Stanisław August Poniatowski recognized that Kalvarija had the right to call itself a town and confirmed the municipality's coat of arms. Kalvarija developed rapidly when the new St. PetersburgWarsaw road was constructed at the beginning of the 19th century. 1840 saw the construction of a new Catholic church, which still stands today. By the outbreak of World War I, Kalvarija had over 10,000 inhabitants; the destruction of two-thirds of the town during the war caused the population decline. During World War II, in 1941, a mass execution of 38 Jews of the city was perpetrated by Gestapo soldiers and Lithuanian policemen.[3]

International relationsEdit

ReferencesEdit

Notes
  1. ^ United States Board on Geographic Names - Kalvarija (54° 24' 00" N, 023° 14' 00" E). Accessed 2009-11-19.
  2. ^ "Kalvarija, Lithuania". Jewishgen.org. Retrieved 2009-11-19.
  3. ^ http://www.holocaustatlas.lt/EN/#a_atlas/search/vcntfr=0.vcntto=500/page/6/item/82/

External linksEdit