Kalam language

Kalam is a Kalam language of Papua New Guinea. It is closely related to Kobon, and shares many of the features of that language. Kalam is spoken in Middle Ramu District of Madang Province and in Mount Hagen District of Western Highlands Province.[2]

Kalam
Native toPapua New Guinea
RegionMiddle Ramu District, Madang Province;
Mount Hagen District, Western Highlands Province
Native speakers
(15,000 cited 1991)[1]
Language codes
ISO 639-3kmh
Glottologkala1397

Thanks to decades of studies by anthropologists such as Ralph Bulmer and others, Kalam is one of the best-studied Trans-New Guinea languages to date.

DialectsEdit

There are two distinct dialects of Kalam that are highly distinguishable from each other.[3]

  • Etp, with 20,000 speakers, is centered in the Upper Kaironk and Upper Simbai Valleys.
  • Ti, with 5,000 speakers is centered in the Asai Valley. It includes the Tai variety.

Kobon is closely related.

Kalam has an elaborate pandanus avoidance register used during karuka harvest that has been extensively documented. The Kalam pandanus language, called alŋaw mnm (pandanus language) or ask-mosk mnm (avoidance language), is also used when eating or cooking cassowary.[4]

PhonologyEdit

ConsonantsEdit

[5]:5
Bilabial Dental-alveolar Palatalized dental Palatal Velar Labial-velar
Voiceless stops p t c k
Voiceless fricative s
Voiced prenasalized stops b d j g
Nasals stops m n ɲ ŋ
Lateral l
Semivowels j w

VowelsEdit

[5]:6
Front Central Back
High (i) (u)
Mid e o
Low a

EvolutionEdit

Below are some Kalam reflexes of proto-Trans-New Guinea proposed by Pawley (2012, 2018).[3][6][7][8] Data is from the Etp dialect unless otherwise noted. Data from Ti, the other one of the two major dialects is also given when noted.

proto-Trans-New Guinea Kalam
(?)*su- ‘bite’ su-
*(mb,m)elak ‘light, lightning, brightness’ melk [melɨk] ‘light’
*[w]ani ‘who?’ an
*am(a,i) ‘mother’ ami
*ambi ‘man’ b [mbə]
*apus[i] ‘grandparent’ aps [aβɨs] ‘grandmother’
*aya ‘sister’ ay
*-i(t,l) ‘2DL verbal suffix’ -it
*iman ‘louse’ iman
*imbi ‘name’ yb [yimp]
*-it ‘2/3 dual verbal suffix’ -it
*k(aw,o)nan ‘shadow/spirit’ kawnan ‘spirit of the dead’
*k(o,u)ma(n,ŋ)[V] ‘neck, nape’ koŋam (metathesis) (cf. Kobon uŋam, loss of *k)
*kakV- ‘carry on shoulder’ kak-
*kamb(a,u)u[na] ‘stone’ kab [kamp]
*kanim ‘cuscus’ kmn ‘game mammal (generic)’
*kin(i,u)[m]- ‘sleep’ kn- [kɨn]
*kindil ‘root’ kdl [kɨndɨl]
*kinV- ‘sleep’ kn-
*kumut, *tumuk ‘thunder’ tumuk
*kumV- ‘die’ kum-
*m(o,u)k ‘milk, sap, breast’ muk (Ti dialect mok)
*ma- ‘not’ ma-
*ma(n,k,L)[a] ‘ground’ man
*maŋgat[a] ‘teeth’ meg [meŋk]
*maŋgV ‘compact round object, egg’ magi
*mapVn ‘liver’ mapn
*mbalaŋ ‘flame’ malaŋ, maŋlaŋ
*mbapa ‘father’ bapi
*mo[k,ŋg]Vm ‘joint’ mogm
*muk ‘brain’ muk
*muk ‘milk’ muk (Ti dialect mok)
*mund-maŋgV ‘heart’ mudmagi
*mV ‘taro’ m
*mVkVm ‘jaw, cheek’ mkem ‘cheek’
*mVn[a]-‘be, live, stay’ md-
*n(o,u)man ‘mind, soul’ noman ‘soul’
*na ‘1SG’ -n-, -in ‘1SG subj. agreement’
*niman ‘louse’ iman
*nok ‘water’ ñg
*nu ‘1PL independent’ -nu-, -un ‘1PL subj. agreement’
*nV ‘child’ ñi ‘son’
*nVŋg- ‘know, hear, see’ ng- (Ti dialect), nŋ- ‘see, perceive, etc.’
*ŋaŋ[a] ‘baby’ -ŋaŋ ‘baby’
*panV ‘female’ pañ ‘daughter’
*sambV ‘cloud’ seb [semp]
*saŋ ‘story, song’ saŋ ‘women’s song’
*saŋgil ‘hand, finger’ (?) saglaŋ ‘little finger’
*si(m,mb)(i,u) ‘guts’ sb [sɨmp]
*sisi ss [sɨs] ‘urine’
*sVkVm ‘smoke’ skum, sukum
*takVn[V] ‘moon’ takn [taɣɨn]
*tu ‘axe’ tu
*tuk- ‘cut’ tk- ‘sever’
*tumuk, *kumut ‘thunder’ tumuk
*tVk- ‘cut, cut off’ tk- ‘sever, cut off’
*-un ‘1st plural subject’ -un
*-Vn ‘1SG subj. agreement’ -n, -in
*walaka ‘testicles’ walak
*wani ‘who?’ an
*wati ‘fence’ wati
*yaka ‘bird’ yakt

VerbsEdit

Kalam has eight tense-aspect categories. There are four past tenses, two present tenses, and two future tenses, which are all marked using suffixes:[7]

  • past habitual
  • remote past (yesterday or earlier)
  • today’s past
  • immediate past
  • present habitual
  • present progressive
  • immediate future
  • future

Intransitive verbs in Kalam can be classified as either active or stative. Some active intransitive verbs are:[7]

  • am- ‘go’
  • kn- ‘sleep’
  • jak- ‘stand, dance’
  • kum- ‘die, cease to function’

Some stative verbs are:[7]

  • pag- ‘(of things) break, be broken’
  • sug- ‘(of a fire) go out’
  • yn- ‘burn, be burnt, fully cooked’
  • wk- ‘(of solid objects and surfaces) crack, burst, shatter’

Serial verb constructionsEdit

Transitivity is derived using resultative or cause-effect serial verb constructions.[7]

(1)

pak sug-
strike extinguished
‘put out a fire’

(2)

pak wk-
strike shattered
‘knock something to bits, shatter something’

(3)

pug sug-
blow extinguished
‘blow out a flame’

(4)

puŋi ask-
pierce opened
‘prise something open’

(5)

puŋi lak-
pierce split
‘split something by wedging or levering’

(6)

taw pag yok-
step.on broken displaced
‘break something off by stepping on it’

(7)

tb kluk yok-
cut gouge displaced
‘gouge something out’

Other serial verb constructions in Kalam include:[7]:117

  • d ap (get come) ‘bring’
  • d am (get go) ‘take’
  • am d ap (go get come) ‘fetch’
  • d nŋ (touch perceive) ‘feel’
  • ñb nŋ (eat perceive) ‘taste’
  • tb tk (cut sever) ‘cut off’

NounsEdit

CompoundsEdit

Some examples of nominal compounds in Kalam:[7]

(1)

bin-b
woman-man
‘person, people’

(2)

ña-pañ
son-daughter
‘child, children’

(3)

aps-basd
grandmother-grandfather
‘grandparents’

(4)

ami-gon bapi-gon
mother-children father-children
‘nuclear family, parents and children’

(5)

kmn-as
game.mammal-small.wild.mammal
‘wild mammals’

(6)

kaj-kayn-kobti
pig-dog-cassowary
‘large animals’

(7)

kmn-kaj-kobti
game.mammal-pig-cassowary
‘animals that provide ceremonially valued meat’

(8)

mñ-mon
vine-tree
‘land, country, territory, world’

(9)

kneb ameb owep wog wati gep
sleeping going coming garden fence making
‘everyday activities’

Animal namesEdit

Fauna classification (folk taxonomy) in the Kalam language has been extensively studied by Ralph Bulmer and others. Kalam speakers classify wild mammals into three major categories:[7]

Other animal categories are:[7]

  • yakt ‘flying birds and bats’
  • kobticassowaries
  • kaj ‘pigs’ (formerly including cattle, horses, and goats when first encountered by the Kalam)
  • kayn ‘dogs’
  • soyŋ ‘certain snakes’
  • skinks

Rodent names include:[6]

Marsupial names include:[6]

Reptile names and folk taxonomy in Kalam:[10]

Frog names in Kalam are:[9]

Note: Cophixalus shellyi, Choerophryne darlingtoni, and Oxydactyla brevicrus also tend to be identified by Kalam speakers as lk if calling from low vegetation, but as gwnm (usually applied to Cophixalus riparius and Xenorhina rostrata) if found in daytime hiding spots.[9]

Plant categories include:[7]

  • mon ‘trees and shrubs’ (excluding palms and pandans); e.g., bljanMacaranga spp.’ is a mon that has four named kinds
  • ‘vines and robust creepers’


A comprehensive list of Kalam plant and animal names is given below.[6]

Kalam plant and animal names
Kalam Scientific name Common name Type
(?) mañ, wnb Tahitian chestnut
(G) ald, ajay, gagn, gmdoŋ = gumdoŋ, gubodm, jam, jejaw, kaj-kot = kaj-kut, kdiplŋ, kiaw, kopnm, kosay, kubap, mluk-ps, mŋay, mseŋ wask, mutuŋ, (K) old = (G) ald, mutuŋ, wask, weñ, yam, yluŋ Ficus spp.
(G) cb-yng; ymanŋn pl-pat moustached treeswift
(G) kosad, (K) kosod Themeda australis kangaroo grass
(G) mab-yb, (K) mon-yb; ymn Frullania sp.
(G) slek yakt, (K) slk-yakt blue-capped ifrit
(K) ald-magi-ket, (G) ald-magl-ket; maldapan-kl Rhamphocharis crassirostris spotted berrypecker
(K) als aydk, (G) als ladk Levieria becarriana
(K) añmi, (G) añml, bawl, dawl, kuyn, ? smay-kolay Cyathea sp. or spp.
(K) gudi = (G) gudl; cod, ktem Pandanus antaresensis
(K) gudi-ws = (G) gudl-ws Anisomys imitator rat that feeds on pandanus nuts
(K) gudi-ws, (G) guld-ws Anisomys imitator
(K) gusay-kob, (G) gusalkob; molaj shield bug
(K) jolbeg pk, (G) jolbeg pok, jolbeg sml Rhipidura atra females and immature males
(K) jolbeg pk, (G) jolbeg pok; jolbeg sml black fantail females and immature males
(K) kotp spider's web generic
(K) kuŋb pk, (G) kuŋb pok sickle-crested bird-of-paradise mature male
(K) magi kotp, (G) magl katp painted ringtail possum's nest
(K) maydapan = (G) maldapan flowerpecker
(K) maydapan, (G) maldapan berrypecker generic
(K) mmañp Whitehead's swiftlet
(K) mmañp, (G) mmeñp Pacific swallow
(K) mmañp, (G) mmeñp swiftlet generic
(K) mon-yb, (G) mab-yb moss generic
(K) old = (G) ald, alud Ficus augusta
(K) old, (G) ald, alud Ficus hesperidiiformis
(K) pd = (G) ped Dioscorea generic
(K) pd, (G) ped Dioscorea spp., Dioscorea alata yam generic
(K) sakp, (G) sakay Saccharum edule generic
(K) slk-ñu, (G) slek-ñu Pittosporum tenuivalve
(K) slk-yakt, (G) slekyakt Ifrita kowaldi
(K) slp, (G) slup tail feathers of certain long-tailed birds-of-paradise
(K) tdpn-mon, (G) tdpn-mab Meliosma pinnata
(K) yabay, (G) yabal lesser bird-of-paradise
(PL) alnaw majnb pandanus generic
? Gallinago hardwickii ? snipe sp.
? aleg Lepidagathis sp.
? aŋmip, jmad, klŋan Morelia viridis green tree python
? dob Accipiter buergersi Buerger's goshawk
? glmd red-sided eclectus parrot
? god Accipiter novaehollandiae
? gogiben aydk Dioscorea sp.
? gokal Eurystomus orientalis
? gokal Oriolus szalayi oriole
? gokob Cracticus cassicus black-headed butcherbird
? gopkob Amalocichla incerta lesser New Guinea thrush
? kabay asdal, ? kabay kl Diphyllodes magnificus
? kabay wog-dep; (K) kabay pk, (G) kabay pok Parotia carolae
? kabi-kas-ket Gerygone chloronota grey-headed tree warbler
? kaj-tmd, god Falco peregrinus peregrine falcon
? kaj-ypl-si-dak, ? koptt, ? yptt, ? yptut Ducula chalconota red-breasted imperial pigeon
? kapi-kñopl, kñopl Rallus philippensis
? kiaw Ficus copiosa, Ficus wassa
? kmn sbi Phalanger permixteo
? kodkol Acanthophis antarcticus
? koŋak sd-ket, koŋak mseŋ-ket, kapi koŋak Rallus pectoralis slate-breasted rail
? koptt, ? kaj-ypl-si-dak, ? yptut Ducula zoeae Zoe's imperial pigeon
? kosodyakt Mirafra javanica bush-lark
? kotleg, jjgayaŋ Monachella muelleriana river flycatcher
? kulep Aegotheles archboldi
? kulep Eurostopodus archboldi Archbold's nightjar
? kulwak, ? tabal Charmosyna josefinae phases
? madaw, ? takp Phalanger orientalis
? mmañp Collocalia vanikorensis lowland swiftlet
? mosak kejŋ Macruromys major bamboo rat
? mukbel Gallicolumba jobiensis white-breasted ground dove
? mumjel Ninox connivens barking owl
? mumjel, mumjel magi nokom Podargus ocellatus little Papuan frogmouth
? mutuŋ Ficus calopilina, Ficus pachyrrachis
? sataw Micropechis ikaheka small-eyed snake
? sbaw Cacomantis castaneiventris
? sdwey-madwey Chalcites lucidus shining cuckoo
? señŋ Timeliopsis fulvigula mountain straight-billed honeyeater
? sjweywey Acanthiza murina thornbill
? skek Sericornis papuensis Papuan wren-warbler
? skp Schefflera inophylloides, Schefflera stolleana
? spsep gs Neositta chrysoptera Papuan sittella
? tabal Josephine's lory
? tumuk-yakt Charmosyna placentis yellow-fronted blue-eared lory
? wask Ficus arfakiensis
? waymad Euodia
? yabagay Megapodius freycinet scrubhen
? yabay asdal Paradisaea rudolphi
? yaked Echimipera sp.
abben Uromys anak black-tailed tree rat or highland giant tree rat
ablabl, binmuŋ Ascarina philippinensis
ablay Schefflera forbesii
abok Artocarpus lacucha
abownm Talegalla jobiensis brown-collared brushturkey
acc, aknaŋ, alsas, cbam, gajt, kaban, kadŋ, ken, keykal, kñg, kolem, kolem lkañ, kolem tud, kowñak, luol, magepnap, mayj, moyg, mugut, ñnagl, nmug, pd ñn agal, pd sgoy, sajep, sam, sbi, sgoy, sobu, soŋ, suan, wanab Dioscorea spp. yam cultivated kinds
ackol, ackolkol, koptob sphagnum moss
acomc = acowmc Callicarpa longifolia
act, kaban, (K) pd, (G) ped; suan Dioscorea alata
adbt, ckl, (K) mkol (=alp mkol), (G) mokol fruit-bat kinds
add Vaccinium keysseri
adlup, dlep Cypraea annulus Cypraea annulus shells and necklaces
admaw, admaw lkañ, aŋmd, awel, bitbit, glaŋm, gum, kceki sblam, kmn sblam, ñg-pakn, plin, sblam, sskanay, yb, ymeb-bd Cordyline varieties
adom, awayŋ, bangol, gaygay, guglak, kas-pat, kawel, msagay, msu, pkay, pnm, ssalkay, walb, wanay, wlak, yamganmtob Alpinia sp. or spp.
adug, cecey, ceycey Pseudeos fuscata dusky lory
aglg, camaŋ, cebey, cemen, dot, spel, wayam, wls, ygam marita (pandanus) kinds
aglog Leucosyke sp.
agnoŋ Syzygium pachycladum
agnoŋ; jbl = jbul, jbul kas-at-ket, jbul kas ñluk, jbul kub tŋi = jbul kub-tŋi-ket, jbul lkañ, jbul tun, jeŋn, jjelŋ = jjlŋ Syzygium spp.
agol Podocarpus archboldii
ajn, kalap ajn Balanophora sp.
ajok, gb Australimusa variety
akañ Coix lacryma-jobi Job's tears
akl Nastus spp., Racemobambus sp., Schizostachyum sp.
aklaŋ, añ, atwak, gabi, kñm, madaw, magey, maygot, sbi, takp, yaked, yng-tud cuscus kinds
aklaŋ, gabi spotted cuscus
aklaŋ; aklaŋ awl-kas-ket, aklaŋ pk, gabi, takp Phalanger maculatus
akm-gi Halfordia kendack
akow, ktu Areca catechu betel-nut
alad, cmgan, kiwak, klwak, saymon lorikeet kinds
alad, klwak, kob, sg, tabal Papuan lory
aleg Solanum americanum
aleg alomn Dicliptera papuana
aljm, aybiskes Hibiscus rosa-sinensis
alkn aydk, kamay alkn Piper triangulare
alkn jejen Piper gibbilimbum
alkn kuysek Piper subbullatum
alkn yb = alkn ybl Piper sp.
alks Melomys frigicola ?; Melomys rufescens white-bellied rat
alks Melomys rufescens grassland Melomys rat
aln Phascolosorex dorsalis dasyurid, marsupial rat
aln, as aln Antechinus melanurus marsupial rat
alnay, ytem = ytm Pandanus adinobotrys
alŋ, alŋ lkañ Eulalia trispicata grass, Eulalia trispicata
alŋaw, salm Medinilla sp.
alŋaw, spagep, (PL) mukut, (PL) sagitap, spagep Pandanus brosimos generic
alŋaw-nm Melidectes belfordi schraderensis Belford's melidectes
alp fruit-bat generic
alp, madan, jan madan Dobsonia moluccensis greater bare-backed fruit bat
als Kibara sp., Steganthera hirsuta
al-wj, gulwj, kabapk huntsman spider or trapdoor spider
amos aydk, molom, palm, saŋañ wild cucurbit
amos, buk Lagenaria siceraria
añb, kl = kli, kodpab, kolay, malŋ, malŋ pk Rungia klossii cultivated kinds
aneŋ, kob, yagab marita (pandanus) generic
anŋes Triumfetta nigricans
aŋmip, klŋan green tree python
aŋmt Milvus migrans black kite
apay, bljan, cabak, dlep, gaslŋ, gengen, glgl, gojmay, jak, jlgu, mdaj, mkut, pagi, mokub, peñl, sbkep, sklek, sml, tbep, wsp Pandanus brosimos kinds
as Abeomelomys sevia tree fern rat
askum, kabay askom, gokal dollarbird
as-magi, jjmd Rhododendron macgregoriae
asŋap Ischaemum polystachyum
asŋap lkañ Ischaemum sp.
asŋap, gaj, gubodm, guñ, kabapk, kapn, kaynam, kodkem, kol, kusal = kusay, mokol, molad, molay, plp, sben, tkol, ttpak Saccharum edule kinds
ass, gog, gog Saurauia sp. or spp.
atwak; añ, beŋ-tud Phalanger sericeus silky cuscus, beech cuscus
awleg lek Garnotia stricta
aymows, kajben, (Asai) yegaŋ Petaurus breviceps sugar glider
ayŋ numud Solanum oliverianum
ayŋ, wdawd Dimorphanthera spp.
ayplow Polygonum nepalense
aypoki ksen-nep owp Conyza parva
aypoki, sbomj Conyza bonariensis
aypot, kuom agamid lizard, dragon lizard
aywol Thysanolaena maxima
bajj Erythrura trichroa parrotfinch
bal Macaranga rufibarbis
bal bean generic
bal, bljan, bljan kas-pat, peyj, sapol, sapol mseŋ-ket, sapol semeñ-tin, suosu, weñgaw Macaranga spp.
balbag Desmodium repandum
balpon Arthrophyllum macranthum
bangay Cucurbita spp.
bata Persea americana
batt Senna septemtrionalis
bawd Manihot esculenta cassava
baynap Ananas sativus
bblaw Merops ornatus bee-eater
bbomol, bbomol aydk Palmeria sp.
bc, dŋ grass finch
bdabd Phyllanthus flariflorus
bdoŋ, ksks Princess Stephanie's bird-of-paradise mature male
bed, kmn-gd Gleichenia sp.
beg Perrottetia alpestris
bep, (PL) pesel Rungia klossii generic
biay, gmeñ red-capped streaked lory
binmuŋ Ascarina subsessilis
bitbit, gtigti Crotalaria lanata rattle-pod
blc Dactylopsila palpator mountain striped possum
bleb Gallicolumba beccarii Beccari's ground dove
blegñ Geniostoma sp.
bley, bleynm Aepypodius arfakianus wattled brushturkey
bljan kas-pat Macaranga induta
bodi Embelia cotinoides
bodi, muglpen Maesa spp.
bokbak Commelina cyanea
bopl Imperata cylindrica, etc. kunai grass
bot, ddblŋ Dennstaedtia scandens
btud Phaseolus vulgaris
buk galab Melicope sp., Prunus sp. or spp.
buk mataw, gabaw, mataw, ñoŋud kas-ps Cryptocarya spp.
calab bwow, gojayab = gojeyab phasmids kinds
cangom, gabaw, ñepek, pagn ñepek, ps-tkn, waŋ-magi, wokd Cyrtandra sp. or spp.
ccp goshawk generic
ccp kamay-ket Accipiter melanochlamys black-mantled goshawk
ccp mseŋ-ket Accipiter fasciatus Australian goshawk
ccpen, tden Desmodium sequax
cedmay little king bird-of-paradise
celed, kamay celed Nothofagus grandis
celed, kamay, kamay kas-ñluk, kamay kaskam, kamay ydlum Nothofagus sp. or spp. southern beech
cgem Dolichos lablab, Lablab purpureus pea bean
cgoy Nicotiana tabacum
cgoy aydk Cynoglossum sp.
cgoy numd forget-me-not
cm black palm
cmnm Urena lobata
cocwoñ mole cricket
codok Psychotria hollandiae
codok kas ñluk Drimys sp.
codok, codok kas-ps, m-ypl Psychotria sp. or spp.
cp-asŋap, kaynam Ischaemum barbatum
cp-nabgu Hydnophytum sp. or spp.
cp-nabgu Peltops montanus mountain peltops flycatcher
cp-sgi Ricinus communis
cp-tamu, tamu Paspalum conjugatum, Paspalum sp.
cptmel bojm, pubnm European honeybee
cuklm Galium subtrifidum
dagol Scincella stanleyana
dak, patow domestic duck
daŋb Rapanea spp., Tasmannia piperita
daŋb aydk Ardisia sp.
daŋb, gojb, gtkep, mes Timonius sp. or spp.
db Dacrydium novoguineense
dinm, dinum Leucanthus peduncularis
dinum acb Hydrocotyle sp.
dkbn Sterculia monticola
dmŋawt kosbol Circus spilonotus spotted marsh harrier
dŋ; bic Lonchura spectabilis mannikin, grass finch
dob woodswallow
dobeg, wlek–ñŋeb Coniogramme macrophylla
dog Neonauclea obversifolia
dsn Diplazium latilobum
dsn, gañgal, sspi, yuley Elatostema sp. or spp.
duk Harpyopsis novaeguineae harpy eagle
gabaw Litsea spp.
gabjen Sloania nymanii
gablog Smilax sp.
gac Megalurus timoriensis rufous-capped grass warbler
gac, kolay, sgaw, sgaw tmd, slb Rungia klossii uncultivated kinds
gad, tukum Wendlandia paniculata
gadmab, godmab, gadmab b-tepsek, gamñ Ptilinopus ornatus ornate fruit dove, fruit pigeon
gadon Nastus elatus
gagn Ficus dammaropsis
gaks, kolem, pd kolem Dioscorea bulbifera yam generic
galkañ yb Maoutia sp.
galkneŋ sicklebill bird-of-paradise female and immature male
gam Saccharum officinarum sugarcane
gamgam Osmoxylon boerlagi
gaml, gaml kl Saccharum spontaneum
gañgal, jjeyp kuysek, sspi Pilea sp.
gaslŋ Neopsittacus musschenbroekii yellow-billed mountain lory
gaygay, gugolŋ, msagay, ymgenm-tob Riedelia sp.
gayk Erythrina orientalis coral tree
gd Sticherus brassii
gd, lps Glochidion sp. or spp.
gepgep Nyctimystes foricula
get, get kab, get yb, goñbl Aglaia spp.
get, goñbl Dysoxylum spp.
ggamaŋ Solanum dammerianum
ggan Piptocalyx sp.
ggayaŋ torrent-lark or magpie-lark
gglñ Isachne sp., Lachnogrostis sp.
gis, kamay-gis Neopsittacus pullicauda orange-billed mountain lory
gkt, kon, mays Zea mays corn, maize generic
gldb, golbd mñ Tecomanthe volubilis
glegl, ? skey brown hawk
glegl; dob Falco berigora brown hawk
glmd, kapal, yawed, ydam Pesquet's parrot
glob, gokob, molop black-headed butcherbird
gluj, kabapk huntsman spider
gmeñ, biay Psitteuteles goldiei red-capped streaked lory
goblad, goblad yob, kuyopi Microsorum musifolium
god, god-gayaŋ, ? kaj-numd Accipiter meyerianus Meyer's goshawk
god, kaj-wsd peregrine falcon
godd, wtay godd yellow crest feathers of sulphur-crested cockatoo
godmay-ket Charmosyna wilhelminae pygmy streaked lory
godmg, ñabap Parahydromys asper waterside rat
gogadŋ parasitic worms, roundworm
gogaŋ = gugaŋ Lepidoptera generic
gogiben Piper celtidiforme
gojagen Curcuma longa
gojmet, salkay Etlingera sp.
golbd mñ Pandorea pandorana
golŋ Daphniphyllum papuanum
golyad Melidectes torquatus cinnamon-breasted wattle bird
goñbl Rorippa schlechteri
goñbl, goñbl gtan Brassica napus
goñŋn Breynia collaris
goñŋn, goñŋn mseŋ-ket Colubrina sp.
goyaŋ Geitonoplesium cymosum
goym, jamay, juk Araucaria sp.
gtkep, as gtkep Pogonomys sylvestris, Paramelomys rubex lesser prehensile-tailed rat
gtkep, kamay gtkep, mes, mes tud Pittosporum spp.
gtkep, mes gtkep Timonius belensis
gubodm Ficus eustephana
gugolŋ Riedelia geluensis
gugubay Cypholophus sp., Solanum sp.
gulbalk, m aydk, sanp Colocasia esculenta taro, wild
gulgul, galkneŋ Epimachus fastosus black sicklebill
gulgul, kalaj greater sicklebill male
gul-ws field cricket
gumdoŋ = gmdoŋ Ficus gracillima, Ficus pantoniana, Ficus subulata
gumgum Probosciger aterrimus palm cockatoo
gumon Fagraea amabilis
gumon pidol Corynocarpus cribbianus
guŋ, nogob Pipturus sp. or spp.
gupñ Homalanthus nervosus
gupñ kasp Homalanthus novoguineensis
gupñ, gupñ gapnay, gupñ kasp, kamay gupñ Homalanthus spp.
gupñ-magi-ket mottled whistler
gusal = gusay Dodonaea viscosa
jaj Diplazium asperum
jamad = jmad Gardenia lamingtonii
jbjel lesser sicklebill
jbjel, galkneŋ Epimachus meyeri Meyer's sicklebill
jbnog Hemigraphis sp.
jbnog, jbog Phyllanthus sp.
jbog, kdkd Charmosyna pulchella little red lory
jeŋn Streblus spp., Streblus glaber, Streblus urophyllus
jeptpt, jeptpt-nap Eugerygone rubra fidgeting flycatcher
jes Commersonia bartromania
jjabi Adenostemma viscosum
jjak, kmn jsp, kmn Glomera sp.
jjb Dendrobium sp.
jjelŋ Decaspermum bracteatum, Myrtaceae sp. or spp.
jjgayaŋ, kotleg Grallina bruijni torrent lark, magpie lark
jjoj, sataw death adder
jlgol, jjgol Schoenus sp., Scirpus sp., Scleria sp.
jlgu Semecarpus sp.
jlgu, jlgol Carex sp. or spp.
jm, kalap jm Dacrydium novo-guineense New Guinea rimu
jm, kalap jm, mon jm Gymnostoma papuanum
jmad green tree python
jnal, pkay, wsnaŋ Alphitonia spp.
jobol, jogob, wonm Eurya tigang
jogal Angiopteris erecta
jogal, kamay jogal Marattia werneri
jolbeg fantail generic
jolbeg Rhipidura atra black fantail
jolbeg mosb Rhipidura atra black fantail adult male
jolbeg, (K) jolbeg pk, (G) jolbeg pok Rhipidura brachyrhyncha rufous fantail
joli Tanysiptera galatea racquet-tailed kingfisher
joŋ crickets generic, including most Orthoptera
jop Artabotrys vriesianus, Elaeagnus triflora
jsp Arthraxon ciliaris, Eragrostis brownii, Garnotia sp.
jsp, kmn, kmn jsp Mediocalcar spp.
kabacp Dendrolagus sp. tree kangaroo
kabapk bird-catching spider
kabay bl, kabay albad, kabay cgaŋ superb bird-of-paradise adult male
kabay bl, kabay cgaŋ, kabay kl Lophorina superba superb bird-of-paradise
kabay mosb, kabay gs, kabay kawslwog, kabay mosaj, kabay sbtkep Cnemophilus loriae Loria's bird-of-paradise
kabay pk, kabay pk mluksu six-plumed bird-of-paradise female and immature males
kabay wog-dep Parotia lawesii
kabi Lithocarpus sp. or spp.
kabkal, maklek Uromys caudimaculatus lowland giant tree rat
kablamneŋ, kmn-bl, kmn-wm king parrot
kabpet, kuyŋ kabpet; ŋetŋet Coturnix chinensis king quail
kackac Artamus maximus woodswallow, tree swallow
kadŋ kl shield spider
kadŋ, kadŋ kl, kl, sugulbeñ, wad-kl orb-weaver spiders
kaganm Corvus tristis bare-faced crow
kagap, pagap Phaseolus lunatus lima bean
kaj yglu Ophiuros exaltatus
kaj-kut Ficus adenosperma, Ficus erythrosperma
kaj-meg, (K) kosod-yakt, (G) kosad yakt Cisticola exilis tailorbird
kaj-pab, pab Broussonetia papyrifera paper mulberry
kaj-ypl-si-dak, koptt, yptt Ducula zoeae Zoe's imperial pigeon
kalap db, skp Dacrycarpus imbricatus
kalap, mabs Casuarina oligodon
kalay Bidens pilosa
kalom Bixa orellana
kamay Nothofagus pullei
kamay gupñ Homalanthus arfakiensis
kamay mumjel Archbold's nightjar
kamay ydlum Nothofagus pseudoresinosa
kamay-nolb beech orchid
kamok Pneumatopteris papuana
kañm Musa sp. or spp.
kañm, klwak Papuan lory mature female
kaŋ nonm, kaŋ nop, spsp longicorn beetle
kapi Phragmites karka
kapi bleb spotless crake
kapi kñopl snipe bird
kapis Rorippa nasturtium-aquaticum, Spinacia oleracea
kapn snm Celosia argentea
kasan, kaskam Arachis hypogaea
kaskam Melicope triphylla, Melicope vitiflora, Melicope xanthoxyloides
kaskam aydk Melicope denhamii, Melicope durifolia, Melicope trachicarpa
kaskam aydk, kaskam kuysek Melicope aneura
kaskam mataw Melicope pachypoda
kaskas greater woodswallow
katgn Rattus niobe small mountain rat
katmap Brassica oleracea
kawen Ipomoea alba
kawkaw Solanum tuberosum
kawl; alu, waym Artocarpus communis
kawseb, kawsi, kawsl Impatiens hawkeri
kawsl-wog, kawsilog Melampitta lugubris black false pitta, lesser melampitta
kaydok Rhodomyrtus lanatus
kayn-sabi, sabi aydk, sabi lkañ, sabi tud, ttpak Setaria palmifolia kinds
kayn-yng Selaginella sp. or spp.
kayŋay, ? skp Schefflera boridiana, Schefflera megalantha
kaywl; kalaj Aceros plicatus hornbill
kb Pycnopygius cinereus grey honeyeater
kb kluneŋ, kej, kojway Meliphaga subfrenata black-throated honeyeater
kbaŋm, namluk, pok-lakep Freycinetia sp. or spp.
kb-bokbok Jaspinum sp.
kben, kubap kben, mnan kben Acorus calamus
kben, mnan kben Dianella sp.
kbogl Glochidion novoguineense
kb-slk Meliphaga spp.
kceki sblam, (PL) awkem Cordyline ledermanni
kceki si, si kck Laportea decumana
kdiplŋ Ficus endochaete
kel Calyptrocalyx sp.
kgomn Blumea arnakidophora
ki, wan Ptiloprora guisei brown-backed streaked honeyeater
kinm Dimeria ciliata
ki-numd, gupñ-magi-ket Pachycephala leucostigma mottled whistler
kitañ Crassocephalum crepidioides, Erechtites valerianifolia
kiwos Nyctimystes disruptus
kjkj Benincasa hispida
kkask bd Rubus rosifolius
kkask, tgos Rubus spp.
klen Phaseolus sp., Planchonella spp., Planchonella macropoda
klen, klen-bd runner bean
kleykley, ytem-kleykley Monarcha axillaris black monarch
klop Cardamine sp.
kls Lobulia stanleyana
klwak-db = kulwak-db Pothos sp.
kmn gad Sticherus pseudoscandens
kmnnumud, sñeñ skoy black-hooded cuckooshrike
kms, kumŋañ Caryota sp., Gronophyllum sp. or spp. fishtail palm
Stephania montana
kñes Eleocharis attenuata
kñopl Scolopax saturata East Indian woodcock
kob Papuan lory mature
kob, saymon Papuan lory
kob-bg-ket black kite
koben Goura victoria Victoria crowned pigeon
kobkaknaŋ web of tetragnathid spider
kobti Casuarius bennetti
kobti agal Pteris tripartita
kobti gulgin Casuarius unappendiculatus
kocb Uncaria bernaysii
koct, koct amam, koct b-tepsek, koct btep badsek Ptilinopus rivoli bellus white-breasted fruit dove
kodal, mglak millipede
kodlap Elaeocarpus womersleyi
kodojp Elaeocarpus firmus, Elaeocarpus leucanthus
kogm Drymaria cordata
kojam, palm Trichosanthes pulleana
kolaleg water flycatcher
kolem aydk, pd sgoy Dioscorea spp. yam wild kinds
kolem, kolem aydk, kolem aydk, pd magi Dioscorea bulbifera
kolm Haliastur indus brahminy kite or red-backed kite
kolp Colocasia esculenta tuber of Colocasia esculenta
komay, ymges Dubouzetia novoguineensis
komñ Sphenomorphus sp.
kon-kalay Gynura procumbens
koñmay Emilia prenanthoides, Lactuca spp., Spathoglottis sp.
koñmayd Rhipidura leucophrys willie wagtail
koŋak Rallicula forbesi Forbe's chestnut rail
koŋak crakes and rails generic
koŋds Pachycephala schlegelii, Pachycephala soror
koŋds = kods Pachycephala generic
koŋds = kods Schlegel's whistler
koŋds = kods whistler generic
koŋds lkañ whistler adult male
koŋds mseŋket whistler adult female
koŋds todimadi, koŋds kamay-ket Pachycephala modesta brown-backed whistler
koŋds todimadi, koŋds mseŋ-ket Pachycephala rufiventris dorsalis white-bellied whistler
kopyak = kupyak, (PL) wŋbek-cad-nb Rattus exulans, Rattus niobe, Rattus ruber house rat
kopyak gulbodu Rattus ruber garden rat
kosay Ficus pungens
koslem Syzygium malaccense
kosp mountain mouse-warbler
kotleg torrent-lark
kotpek, kotpek kas-ps Prunus grisea
kotpek, mseŋ kotpek Prunus turneriana
kotpek, mseŋ kotpek, mslm Polyosma sp. or spp.
koymaŋ, kpay, kpay koymaŋ Cocos nucifera
ksks, bdoŋ Astrapia stephaniae
kuam Garcinia archboldiana
kubap, jejaw Ficus microdictya
kubul Polytoca macrophylla
kugolk Ilex sp.
kulep, kulep acb Aegotheles albertisi
kulmuŋ Trema cannabina
kulŋañ Schuurmansia henningsii
kumi, snay Pandanus julianettii
kuñp Trachymene arfakiensis
kuñp, kuñp kañp, kuñp sepeb, kuñp ygam, sepeb, wokd Oenanthe javanica kinds
kuñp-yt-ps, (K) smlsmlnap, (G) ssmulnap; ssmalam black-breasted flatbill flycatcher
kuŋb Amblyornis macgregoriae MacGregor's bowerbird
kuŋub Cnemophilus macgregorii sickle-crested bird-of-paradise
kuŋub = (K) kuŋb gardener bowerbird
kuŋub lkañsek gardener bowerbird mature male
kuŋub neb gardener bowerbird female and immature male
kuom agamid lizard
kuptol kuysek Arrhenechthites novoguineensis
kutwal = kotwal Pademelon
kutwal = kotwal Thylogale brunii bush wallaby, scrub wallaby
kuwŋ Synoicus ypsilophorus swamp quail
kuwt cuckoo-dove
kuwt sapol-kod, kuwt yb Macropygia nigrirostris black-billed cuckoo-dove
kuwt tun Macropygia amboinensis Amboyna cuckoo-dove
kuyn Cyathea magna
kuyn Cyathea generic
kuyŋ Synoicus ypsilophorus swamp quail, brown quail
kuyŋ quail generic
kuyŋ kabpet button quail
kuyopi = kiopi Microsorum punctatum
kuyot = kiot Mangifera sp.
kipep, kuypep kuykuy-sek Hydromys shawmayeri mountain water rat
kuypep, kipep, kuypep kuykuy-sek Crossomys moncktoni earless water rat
layon Sechium edule
lbeñ, lbeñ kas-ps Schizomeria clemensiae, Schizomeria gorumensis
lbg Lanius schach schach shrike
lokañ Pipturus argenteus
lu Timonius morobensis
m aydk Alocasia sp.
m, mi, (PL) alom, (PL) mukut Colocasia esculenta taro generic
m, mi; nem, sap Colocasia esculenta
mab-yb, monyb, ymn Sphagnum sp. or spp.
madaw; ket-ketm, kñm Phalanger gymnotis ground cuscus
magey, takp white cuscus
magl-paceb Endiandra grandifolia
maj Ipomoea batatas sweet potato
majown Sundacarpus amarus
mak Metroxylon sp. sago palm
maldapan Melanocharis versteri fan-tailed berrypecker
maldapan gs, maldapan kl fan-tailed berrypecker female
maldapan mosb fan-tailed berrypecker adult male
maldapan todimadi black berrypecker
malg, ayom, aywom Gymnophaps albertisii mountain pigeon
mamag Solanum aviculare
mamŋ Sphenomorphus darlingtoni
mamŋ tud Polygonum chinense
mamŋ, mamŋ lkañ, pelŋ, tipeñ Begonia sp. or spp.
mañmod Prasinohaema flavipes
mayap tiger parrot
mayap Psittacella brehmii Brehm's tiger parrot
mayap Psittacella madaraszi ? Madarasz's tiger parrot
maygot, ? yng-tud Phalanger carmelitae black mountain cuscus
maykop Dicksonia hieronymi
mem, mem aydk, mem sgi Plectranthus spp.
mem, mem tud Salvia sp. or spp.
memneŋ Melipotes fumigatus common melipotes
memneŋ Scaevola oppositifolia
meŋñ Flindersia pimenteliana
mes Pittosporum ramiflorum
mgoñm Maclura cochinchinensis
mimot chafer beetle
mkal, kubap Aglaonema sp. or spp.
mluk-ps field cricket
mmali Piper sp. or spp., Piper macropiper
mmañp Collocalia esculenta glossy swiftlet
mmañp, sskl Collocalia hirundinacea
mñ kkask Rubus moluccanus
mnan magi Cypraea sp.
mnŋej Nertera granadensis
mŋay Ficus nodosa, Ficus variegata
molok bokad Spiraeopsis brassii
molok kab Acsmithia parvifolia, Pullea glabra
molok kas at-ket, molok smgep Opocunonia nymanii
mosak Mallomys aroaensis
mosak gam, kmn gam Epiblastus sp.
mosak puŋ Aristolochia sp.
mosak; aloñ, kabkal, maklek Mallomys rothschildi giant bamboo rat, syn. Rothschild's woolly rat
mtmñ Peperomia sp.
mug, as mug Mammelomys lanosus bush rat
mug; moys Melomys lorentzii, Melomys platyops Lorentz's rat
mugsi, tu-kapl, tu-meg bush cricket, cave cricket
mum Podargus papuensis great Papuan frogmouth, giant frogmouth
mumjel, mumjel kñŋsek Ninox theomacha Papuan boobook owl
mumloj Myrmecodia schlechteri anthouse plant
mumuk Hyomys goliath giant cane rat
mumyaŋ spider-hunting wasp
m-ypl Mussaenda cylindrocarpa
namluk Freycinetia bismarckensis, Freycinetia schraderensis, Freycinetia tafarensis, Freycinetia vulgaris
namluk sgaw-tud Freycinetia rectangularis
ñay Salvadorina waigiuensis mountain duck, wild duck
nbon, mñ-nbon Pipturus pullei
ñgñolom Sphenomorphus leptofasciatus
ñgog-pagog Motacilla cinerea grey wagtail
ñg-otok flatworm
nm Morelia amethistina giant python
ñmeg Diplazium decompositum
ñmlm Equisetum debile horsetail plant
ññalu Claoxylon spp.
ñŋay Pueraria lobata
nol Melidectes rufocrissalis Reichenow's melidectes
ñom pk, sin pk Natrix mairii ?
noman, tumd Phyllocladus hypophyllus
ñoŋud kuysek, ñoŋud kojow Cinnamomum archboldianum
ñopd Pteridophora alberti
ñopd kolman King of Saxony bird-of-paradise mature male
ñopd neb King of Saxony bird-of-paradise female and immature male
ñopd, kolman King of Saxony bird-of-paradise
nugsum = ñgsum Microglossa pyrifolia
ŋetŋet king quail
ŋoŋi lizard, probably a gecko
pakam Peroryctes raffrayana hunting bandicoot
pd magi Dioscorea bulbifera tuber of Dioscorea bulbifera, aerial
pelŋ Symbegonia spp.
pelŋ, tipeñ Begonia kanienis
peñbin, pen-ñbin, majabin, najabin Phylloscopus trivirgatus leaf warbler
piaw, tman, tmen Calamus sp. lawyer cane, rattan
pimakol Lobulia elegans
pipiben Lycopodium cernuum
pkaŋ, yabay pkaŋ lesser bird-of-paradise female or immature male
plag Clytoceyx rex shovel-billed kingfisher
plŋ Peneothello cyanus slaty thicket flycatcher
plŋ, wet robin flycatcher
plolom Halcyon megarhyncha mountain yellow-billed kingfisher
plolom Halcyon sancta sacred kingfisher
pluan, pulwan Melodinus australis
pñepk Toxorhamphus poliopterus slaty-chinned longbill
pnes Microeca papuana microeca flycatcher
pobol Typha orientalis
polmaŋ Holochlamys beccarii
popo paypay Carica papaya pawpaw
pow Aegotheles insignia
pow owlet-nightjars and Archbold's nightjar generic
pubnm, sbyaŋ, lum suwn tiger beetle
pugtek Elmerrillia papuana, Magnolia palmifolia
sabi Setaria sp., Setaria palmifolia generic
sag Cucumis sativus cucumber generic
sag aydk Neoachmandra filipes, Urceodiscus belensis
sag jamay, sag tud cucumber kinds
sagal Alstonia macrophylla
sagal Tyto tenebricosa sooty owl
saglom Davallia sp.
salm core of mountain pandanus fruit
sanp Alocasia nicolsonii taro, wild
sapol Macaranga strigosa
sapol semeñ-tin Macaranga intonsa
sawey Castanopsis acuminatissima
sawñ Cyclosorus sp. or spp.
sbal; m kiap, kokmay, kudu Xanthosoma sagittifolium taro, kongkong taro
sbaw Cacomantis variolosus grey-breasted cuckoo
sbaw numud, ? sdweymadwey Chalcites ruficollis mountain bronze cuckoo
sbaw, sbaw mseŋ-ket, kamay sbaw Cacomantis pyrrhophanus fan-tailed cuckoo
sbaw, sbaw numd cuckoo
sbdalem Wikstroemia androsaemifolia
sbi, ? sgoy Dioscorea esculenta
sbi, yaked Phalanger sp.
sblam Cordyline fruticosa palm lily
sblam, (PL) awkem Cordyline generic
sbn, ? aleg Solanum nigrum
sbos Lycopodium sp. or spp. club-moss
sd, sud, yŋleb Miscanthus floridulus swordgrass
señŋ Sericornis nouhuysi large mountain wren-warbler
señŋ blwen ploughshare tit male
señŋ mluk-su ploughshare tit female and immature males
señŋ tmd-bad-sek, señŋ mluk-su Eulacestoma nigropectus ploughshare tit
señŋ tmud-badsek ploughshare tit adult male
sep Myzomela adolphinae
sep myzomela and mistletoebirds generic
sep bis, sep bj red-collared myzomela female and immature male
sep kalom red-collared myzomela adult male
sep kalom, sep bis, sep bj Myzomela rosenbergii red-collared myzomela
sep maj-ks-ket, sep mumloj-kab-ket mistletoebirds
sep mumlojkab-ket, sep maj-magi-ket Dicaeum geelvinkianum anthouse bird, mistletoebird
sep-mumlojkabket midget flowerpecker
sg Papuan lory, melanistic form of
sgaw bush wallaby
sgdalem Zanthoxylum conspersipunctatum
sgoglek Octamyrtus behrmanii
si ydmuŋ, mon ydmuŋ Dendrocnide morobensis
si, si kck, si gidmit = si godpit, si godpl, si lkañ Laportea
sidn Prasinohaema prehensicauda
siŋ Apistocalamus sp., Natrix montana ?
sj; awj, mduwn Abelmoschus manihot
sjaŋ Rattus verecundus long-snouted rat
sjwey, sjweywey Gerygone cinerea, Gerygone ruficollis gerygone tree warbler
skayag Tyto capensis grass owl
skek Sericornis perspicillatus buff-faced wren-warbler
skek, skek kalom bushwren
sklek Helicia sp. or spp.
skoyd; boñay Pseudochirulus forbesi painted ringtail possum
skp; ? kalap db Dacrycarpus imbricatus
skub, skub goblad, bojm-pkep Henicopernis longicauda long-tailed honey buzzard
sloj Malurus alboscapulatus black fairywren
smlsmlnap, kuñp-ptps Machaerirhynchus nigripectus black-breasted flatbill flycatcher
snb Zingiber officinale ginger
sñeñ Coracina montana
sñeñ cuckooshrikes generic
sñeñ saki, sñeñ skoy Coracina longicauda black-billed cuckooshrike
sñeñ swalwal, sñeñ suwalwal Coracina caeruleogrisea stout-billed cuckooshrike
sog Finschia spp.
sogan Myristica subulata
som Sphaerostephanos sp.
soy-tum Emoia caeruleocauda lizard found in lowlands
spi Albizia falcataria, Paraserianthes falcataria
splep woodworm
spsep Daphoenositta miranda pink-faced nuthatch
spsep Micropsitta bruijnii Salvadori mountain pygmy parrot
ssabol Carpodetus arboreus
sskl Collocalia whiteheadi Whitehead's swiftlet
sskl Hirundo tahitica Pacific swallow
sskl Nothocnide melastomifolia
ssnb Clematis papuasica
sspi Aceratium parvifolium, Sericola micans, Sorghum nitidum
suatg Dasyurus albopunctatus New Guinea quoll, marsupial cat
sueg Pachycephala rufinucha red-naped whistler
sueg bulweñ, sueg bulweñsek shield-bill bird-of-paradise
sugulbeñ Nephila maculata golden orb-weaver
sugun Garcinia schraderi
sukñam Papuacedrus papuana
sulwal Parasponia rigida
sumsum Cercartetus caudatus pygmy possum
suosu Macaranga rhodonema
tabal; alad, cmgan, kañm, kob, ? sg Charmosyna papou phases
tadap Garcinia lauterbachiana
takp Spilocuscus maculatus
tay greater bird-of-paradise
tbum = tubum Schefflera simbuensis, Schefflera straminea
tdagl Gunnera macrophylla
tgs lkañ Acalypha sp.
tgs, tgs aygs Acalypha hellwigii
tlum Sloanea archboldiana, Sloanea tieghemii, Sloania aberrans
ttamañ Elaeocarpus schlecterianus
ttmiñ Rhipidura atra white-eared fantail or friendly fantail
ttpak Astronia ledermannii ?
ttpel, ttpey mistletoe
tubum Schefflera hirsuta
tubumkab-ket tit berrypecker generic
tubum-kab-ket Oreocharis arfaki
tubumkabket kl tit berrypecker female
tubumkab-ket klwak tit berrypecker male
tubum-kab-ket nonm Paramythia montium mountain berrypecker
tumuk-as, as tumuk-as Lorentzimys nouhuysi jumping tree mouse, arboreal mouse
tuos = tuwos Ipomoea indica
tuos kas ñluk, kaywos Ipomoea cairica
tuos, tuos kas ñluk morning glory
tuwŋ Centropus phasianinus pheasant coucal
waknaŋ mñ Sabia pauciflora
walcegon small rat, found near homesteads
walgañ, walgañ kas–ps Symplocos cochinchinensis
wal-kobneŋ Zosterops novaeguineae mountain white-eye
walm Croton morobensis
waln Harmsiopanax ingens
wanay Chisocheton tenuis
wanay kasps Aphanamixis polystachya
wask, kamay wask Ficus iodotricha
waym Artocarpus incisa
waymn Reinwardtoena reinwardtsi great cuckoo-dove
wbl; akan monitor lizard
wcm; (K) puŋimdep, (G) puŋi-mdep; wlpog Pseudochirops corinnae golden ringtail possum or stationary ringtail possum
wdn-ñg Oreopsittacus arfaki tearful lory or plum-faced lory
weñgaw Macaranga pleioneura, Macaranga pleiostemona
wet Poecilodryas albonotata
wgi; amgln, weñem Microperoryctes longicauda long-tailed bandicoot
wlmeñ Saxicola caprata pied bush chat
wlmeñ saki Peneothello sigillatus white-winged thicket flycatcher
wlmn saw Rhamnus nepalensis
wobwob black-headed pitohui
wogdep, kabay cgaŋ six-plumed bird-of-paradise adult male
wogñalam Caprimulgus macrurus white-tailed nightjar
wogu kas ñluk Parsonsia sp.
womay Psophocarpus tetragonolobus
wopkay Melastoma cyanoides, Otanthera sp.
wopkay ñluk Osbeckia chinensis
wopkay yb Melastoma malabathrica
wopwop Piper subpeltatum
wtay Cacatua galerita sulphur-crested cockatoo
wtwt Conus litteratus circular disk of Conus litteratus shell
yabagal lesser bird-of-paradise or yellow bird-of-paradise
yabagay common scrubhen
yabal = yabay, pkaŋ Paradisaea minor
yabol, yabol guldak = guldak yabol earthworm
yagad; aneŋ, kob Pandanus conoideus
yakt-gu Sphenostemon papuanum, Sphenostemon pauciflora
yam Ficus stellaris
ybelŋ Diplycosia morobeensis, Rhododendron multinervium, Vaccinium sp.
ybelŋ tud Rhododendron vitis-idaea
ybelŋ, kamay ybelŋ Rhododendron phaeschitum
ybug, ybug pañpañ Acronychia montana
ydam, yawed, kapal ps Psittrichas fulgidus Pesquet's parrot
ydmañ Vaccinium albicans
ygesk Buddleja asiatica
yglu Arundinella setosa
ygu Dryadodaphne crassa
yluŋ Ficus trichoserasa
yman lice
ymañŋn pl-pat Hemiprocne mystacea
ymduŋ Trimenia papuana
ymduŋ; bald, kagm, kas-gs, kay, tglem-tud Pseudochirops cupreus copper ringtail possum
ymgenm = yamganm, beŋtud, gtkep Pogonomys sylvestris lesser prehensile-tailed rat, bush-tailed giant rat
ymgenm, as ymgenm Pogonomelomys mayeri little ringtail possum
ymgenm-tob Pleuranthodium sp.
ymges Elaeocarpus nubigena, Elaeocarpus polydactylus
ymges kodlap Elaeocarpus gardneri
ymges, ksaks Elaeocarpus altigenus ?
ymges, ymges kas ñluk, ymges kolac, ymges ksaks Elaeocarpus sp. or spp.
lizard generic
yñ km, yñ sidn km Scincella prehensicauda
yokal Galbulimima belgraveana
yow Olearia platophylla
yppok woodlice
yuak Philemon novaeguineae friarbird

Abbreviations:

  • (G) = the Ti mnm dialect of Kalam, as spoken by the Gobnem and Skow local groups, Upper Kaironk Valley
  • (K) = the Etp mnm dialect of Kalam, as spoken by the Kaytog (Kaironk) local group, Upper Kaironk Valley
  • (PL) = plural

SemanticsEdit

ColorsEdit

Kalam speakers distinguish more than a dozen color categories.[6]

  • tud ‘white, light coloured’
  • sum ‘grey, esp. of hair’
  • tun ‘light grey; ash’
  • mosb ‘black, dark coloured’
  • lkañ ‘red/purple; blood’
  • pk ‘orange/bright reddish-brown/bright yellowish-brown/rich yellow; ripe’
  • sml ‘rather bright red-brown/yellow brown’
  • waln ‘yellow’
  • mjkmab ‘green’
  • ksk ‘pale green, yellow-green; unripe (of fruit)’
  • lban ‘rich green, sheeny; succulent or mature (of foliage)’
  • gs ‘dull brown, green or olive’
  • mlp ‘straw coloured; withered (of foliage)’
  • muk ‘blue’
  • sŋak ‘blue-grey, as blue-grey clay’
  • kl ‘striped, spotted, mottled’

TimeEdit

Pawley and Bulmer (2011), quoted in Pawley and Hammarström (2018), lists the following temporal adverbs in Kalam.[7][6]

  • mñi ‘today’
  • toy ‘tomorrow’
  • (toy) menk ‘day after tomorrow’
  • toytk ‘yesterday’
  • menk atk ‘day before yesterday’
  • goson ‘3 days from today’
  • goson atk ‘3 days ago’
  • ason ‘4 days from today’
  • ason atk ‘4 days ago’
  • goson ason ‘5 days from today’
  • goson ason atk ‘5 days ago’

MorphologyEdit

Rhyming compoundsEdit

Kalam, like English, has different types of rhyming compounds.[7]

alternating consonants
  • gadal-badal [ŋgándálmbándál] ‘placed in a disorderly manner, criss-cross, higgledy-piggledy’
  • gley-wley [ŋgɨléywuléy] ‘rattling, clattering’
addition of consonants
  • adk-madk [ándɨkmándɨk] ‘turned over, reversed’
  • ask-mask [ásɨkmásɨk] ‘ritually restricted’
alternating vowels
  • ñugl-ñagl [ɲúŋgɨlɲáŋgɨl] ‘sound of evening chorus of insects and frogs’
  • gtiŋ-gtoŋ [ŋgɨríŋgɨróŋ] ‘loud noise, din, racket’

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Kalam at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  2. ^ Eberhard, David M.; Simons, Gary F.; Fennig, Charles D., eds. (2019). "Papua New Guinea languages". Ethnologue: Languages of the World (22nd ed.). Dallas: SIL International.
  3. ^ a b Pawley, Andrew (2012). Hammarström, Harald; van den Heuvel, Wilco (eds.). "How reconstructable is proto Trans New Guinea? Problems, progress, prospects". History, Contact and Classification of Papuan Languages. Port Moresby, Papua New Guinea: Linguistic Society of Papua New Guinea (Language & Linguistics in Melanesia Special Issue 2012: Part I): 88–164. hdl:1885/38602. ISSN 0023-1959.
  4. ^ Majnep, Ian Saem; Bulmer, Ralph (1977). Birds of my Kalam Country [Mn̄mon Yad Kalam Yakt]. illustrations by Christopher Healey. New Zealand: Aukland University Press. pp. 150, 152. ISBN 9780196479538. OCLC 251862814.
  5. ^ a b Blevins, Juliette; Pawley, Andrew. "Typological Implications of Kalam Predictable Vowels" (PDF). julietteblevins.ws.gc.cuny.edu.
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i Pawley, Andrew and Ralph Bulmer. 2011. A Dictionary of Kalam with Ethnographic Notes. Canberra. Pacific Linguistics.
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Pawley, Andrew; Hammarström, Harald (2018). "The Trans New Guinea family". In Palmer, Bill (ed.). The Languages and Linguistics of the New Guinea Area: A Comprehensive Guide. The World of Linguistics. 4. Berlin: De Gruyter Mouton. pp. 21–196. ISBN 978-3-11-028642-7.
  8. ^ Note: Data in Pawley (2012) is drawn from Pawley and Bulmer (2011).
  9. ^ a b c d Bulmer, Ralph N.H. and Michael Tyler. 1968. Karam classification of frogs. Journal of the Polynesian Society 77(4): 621–639.
  10. ^ Bulmer, RNH (1975). Kalam Classification Of Reptiles And Fishes. Journal of the Polynesian Society 84(3): 267–308.

Further readingEdit

  • Bulmer, Ralph N.H. 1967. Why is the cassowary not a bird? A problem of zoological taxonomy among the Karam of the New Guinea highlands. Man 2(1): 5–25.
  • Bulmer, Ralph N.H. 1968. Kalam colour categories. Kivung 1(3): 120–133.
  • Bulmer, Ralph N.H. 1974. Folk biology in the New Guinea highlands. Social Science Information 13(4/5): 9–28.
  • Bulmer, Ralph N.H. and J.I. Menzies. 1972–1973. Kalam classification of marsupials and rodents. Journal of the Polynesian Society 81(4): 472–499, 82(1):86–107.
  • Bulmer, Ralph N.H. and Michael Tyler. 1968. Karam classification of frogs. Journal of the Polynesian Society 77(4): 621–639.
  • Bulmer, Ralph N.H., J.I. Menzies and F. Parker. 1975. Kalam classification of reptiles and fish. Journal of the Polynesian Society 84(3): 267–308.
  • Majnep, Ian Saem and Ralph Bulmer. 1977. Birds of my Kalam Country. Auckland: Auckland and Oxford University Presses.
  • Majnep, Ian Saem and Ralph Bulmer. 2007. Animals the Ancestors Hunted: An Account of the Wild Mammals of the Kalam Area, Papua New Guinea. Adelaide: Crawford House Australia.