K. Kumar at 80

K. Kumar (1894-1973) was an orator, reformer and writer of the Indian pre-independence era. He was one of the earliest socio-political leaders to have brought Gandhi's message and the spirit of the national movement to the erstwhile Travancore State.[1][2][3][4][5][6][7] A gifted translator, he traveled with Gandhi during his Kerala tours, interpreting his English speeches in Malayalam. He was also an Advisor to the Nehru government. Kumarji was the President of the Travancore Congress Committee and was also in charge of Gandhiji's Travancore tour more than once. He served on the AICC (All India Congress Committee) and on the working committee of the AICC (CWC or Congress Working Committee), TC-PCC/ KPCC ( Kerala Pradesh Congress Committee ) heading its Constructive Work Committee during crucial years of the freedom movement.(Also known as: Travancore Kumar, Elanthur Kumarji; Kumarji, Elanthur Gandhi and Kuzhikala Kumar)[8][9][10][11][12][13]

Early lifeEdit

"Kumaran" or "Kumar" for short, is K. Kumar's given name (full name: K. Kumaran Nair). ‘K’ stands for ‘Krishnan Nair’, his maternal uncle. Matrilineality was a tradition of Kerala and it was customary to attach the name of the maternal uncle to a child's first name as 'patronymic'. K Kumar was the eldest son of a traditional Nair family in the Elanthur village of Pathanamthitta district (old Quilon/ Kollam District), Kerala, (the Kaduvinal-Thazhayamannil Tharavad). His father, Shri K. Padmanabhan Nair, was a powerful social figure who also was a Revenue Officer of great standing under the Princely State of Travancore. A close friend of the High-court-judge-turned veteran freedom-activist Changanassery Parameswaran Pillai (1877–1940),[14] and teacher-turned advocates and judges Sankaravelil Parameswaran Pillai and Vaikom Narayana Pillai, he shared a balanced outlook on the socio-political realities surrounding the British-driven Princely State. His mother was Kunju Pennamma. Friends and colleagues close to ‘Kumaru’ called him ‘Kumar’, ‘Kumarji’ or later on ‘Bapu’. He was also a contemporary of Mannathu Padmanabha Pillai and helped him in making Nair Service Society a reality without being even remotely sectarian. Mannathu Padmanabhan also helped him back by participating in Kumar's political campaigns. Many early references to K. Kumar may appear simply as "Kumar" or "Kumarji" and rarely though as 'Kumaran' or 'K. Kumaran Nair'.[15][16]

It is said that young Kumar used to come home with children of Harijan workers, give them a bath outside the house and feed them in the family kitchen. This was against all norms and social traditions! Those were days when caste and rank based discrimination was still at its zenith and the practice of 'Theendal'[17](untouchability)[18] was upheld openly as a social virtue. Kumar's egalitarian outlook while still a boy, had a transforming influence on his tradition-bound mother. She soon took upon herself the job of feeding the children brought home by her son. However, she insisted that her son himself had a bath in the pond in front and changed into a fresh pair of clothes before entering home..... It seems that the family's scholarly tradition also had an influence on the noble lady to change her outlook on the down-trodden.

Kumar had his early education at Paravoor English School and Mannar Nair Society High School in Quilon District in Kerala. He, then, moved on to Madurai American College[2] for intermediate education and later, to Madras Presidency College for higher studies. He was a bright student and was among the earliest in the State to have received University Education. Patriotism and Gandhi's call for non-co-operation [3][4] took the better of him during the days and he began plunging himself into Gandhian work for 'social reconstruction' which affected his further studies. It was primarily North India that he chose for his early engagement.[19][20]

Beginnings of Sociopolitical InvolvementEdit

K. Kumar became a member of the Indian National Congress in 1912.[21] INC had only limited members in those days. Inspired by Gandhiji, he later left higher studies[22] at Presidency College and served the Congress from Trivandrum as one of its very few full-time workers of Kerala.[23][24][25] He lived in Trivandrum in those days.[26][27] V. Achutha Menon, was another veteran who also was into full-time Congress work. (Like Kumarji, Achutha Menon also has been forgotten by people and historians). Kumarji's 'speeches made waves among both the intelligentsia and the laymen of the State'[28][25][29][30][31] Dr. G. Ramachandran[5][6], former Chairman of [7]Khadi Commission and Founder Vice-Chancellor of Gandhigram Rural University says: "In this area of agitation for political freedom, there hardly was another voice more eloquent and moving than that of Kumarji. I looked upon him as an elder brother in politics and constructive work." Former Minister K.A. Damodara Menon [8][9] speaks of his trans-formative, early days when he used to go to the "Trivandrum Beach" to listen to the speeches of K.Kumar and Paliath Kunjunni Achan.[32][33] "There hardly was a political meeting in Trivandrum" in those days "without Kumarji being the star speaker".[34][35]

During the twenties, Kumarji revived the ‘Swadeshabhimani[36][37][11]) (the news-paper founded by Vakkom Moulavi and run/ edited until 1910 by the deported Swadeshabhimani Ramakrishna Pillai), as part of his effort to invigorate the political scene and set the tone for the national movement in Kerala. He also became the Publisher and Editor-in-Chief of the paper after Ramakrishna Pillai.[38] This was a daring move which nearly froze the government. However, the government wisely chose not to react or retaliate immediately. K. Narayana Kurukkal (author of the novels "Parappuram" and "Udayabhanu") and Barrister A.K. Pillai helped Kumar in his efforts. Kurukkal was a colleague and friend of Swadeshabhimani Ramakrishna Pillai. Besides Narayana Kurukkal, R. Narayana Panikker, renowned political critic Raman Menon, Swadeshabhimani Ramakrishna Pillai's wife B. Kalyani Amma [10] and other prominent writers, contributed articles to the paper on a regular basis. Kumar also used to write editorials and articles. K. Narayana Kurukkal and Barrister A.K. Pillai °(See Note 2) assisted Kumar[39] to edit the paper which was headquartered at the present DPI Office (Office of the Director of Public Instruction, Government of Kerala) in Thycaud, Trivandrum. Writer and Rabindranath Tagore's disciple K.C. Pillai, who was a student at that time °(See Note 1), used to go the newspaper-office to help Kumarji with back-end office-duties. The paper was run on the lines of "Modern Review" published from Calcutta by Ramananda Chatterjee and used to carry weighty articles besides regular editorials written by Kumar himself. K.C Pillai°(See Note 1) and Evoor S. Gopalan Nair opine that "Swadeshabhimani" remained a publication of the highest standards so long as it was under the leadership of Kumar.[40][41] It appears that the editorship of ‘Swadeshabhimani’ got passed on to A.K. Pillai[42] by 1932. K.Kumar had an important role in at least two other influential nationalist papers of the era – the ‘Swarat’ run by A.K. Pillai°(See Note 2) himself and the ‘Mahatma’ run by the Amsi brothers.[43][44] Swadeshabhimani Ramkrishna Pillai's work had a serious impact on Kumarji. He thus chose Cannanore as one of his chief venues for breaking the Salt Law[45][46] and became instrumental in erecting the statue of Swadeshabhimani Ramakrishna Pillai in the capital city of Trivandrum and organising an annual commemoration of the deportation for a long time to come[47][11]

Into the thick of Freedom StruggleEdit

During the thick of the freedom struggle, Kumarji was the President of the Travancore Congress Committee and was also in charge of Gandhiji's Travacore tour more than once. He served on the AICC and on the working committee of the TC-PCC/ KPCC heading its Constructive Work Committee during crucial years of the freedom movement.[48][49][11][13][50] Besides Mahatma Gandhi, Kumarji had close ties with Rajaji, Pandit Nehru, C.R.Das and other prominent leaders. Late Shri Kurur Neelakanthan Nampoothiripadu (Ex MLA and veteran Gandhian) observes: "Kumarji was one of the most strenuous of our freedom fighters who took active part in practically all agitation for Indian freedom"[51][52][53][11].[54][41] Most notable of these were the leadership of the Salt Satyagraha (in Kozhikode, Tellicherry and Cannanore [55][56][57][58][59][60][61][62][63]), the Civil Disobedience or foreign cloth boycott and picketing at Alleppey[21] and other areas[64][65][66] and the prominent role he played in the Temple Entry Movement and eradication of 'untouchability'[67][68][69],[70] the Vaikom Satyagraha,[71][72][11][13][73][74][62]the Nagpur Flag Satyagrha" [12] and other significant social unity moves.[75][76] These earned him at least 21 months of imprisonment[77] with 9 months rigorous imprisonment.[78][79][80][81] -.[82] The year-long agitation at Alleppey and Trivandrum brought about mass conversions to the Gandhian ideology and Khadi. His leadership of the Swadeshi Movement and Foreign Cloth Boycott at Alleppey also inspired many prominent, educated women to come to the forefront and offer mighty support of the national movement. The role of the wife of the last Diwan of Travancore and Kumarji's classmate P. G. N. Unnithan and the daughter of P.G Govida Pillai, Government Pleader,[83] wife of Swadeshabhimani T.K. Madhavan and M. Karthyayani Amma deserve special mention.[84][85][86]

Khadi, Harijan Welfare, Sarvodaya & Communal HarmonyEdit

By late thirties, Kumarji turned all his attention to Harijan Welfare, Sarvodaya, Education and Khadi[87][88]He toured the state delivering lectures and establishing scores of schools (said to be 96 to 110) including Harijan and Sarvodaya Schools. A few of these survived into the sixties and early seventies. In course of time, he passed on the management of most of these institutions to the Head teacher or an educated member of the depressed class. He started a school for Harijans named "Kumbazha Pravarthi Pallikudam" which later became a life-giving tributary to the present Government VHSS Elanthoor.[89] Besides, he continued to undertake promotion of Khadi as a life-mission. Gandhian Dr. G. Ramachandran, the former Chairman of the Khadi Commission is emphatic when he says: "His (Kumarji's) double passion consisted of Khadi and prohibition... In fact Kumarji was Khadi and Khadi was Kumarji... To him must belong more than anyone else in Travancore, the irresistible appeal of Khadi that came into the lives of thousands of our people"....[90] G. Ramachandran got drawn to Kumarji through his public speeches and sought to live and work with him in Trivandrum to undertake Khadi work. He reminisces that along with Kumarji, he went hacking Khadar from house to house in Trivandrum in the early twenties.

Fading Into OblivionEdit

Though measures taken in the late twenties did not prove useful enough to unite all communities as he had dreamed,[91] K. Kumar renewed his efforts for communal harmony. With K. Kelappan, K. Kumar had already become the first to remove the suffix to his name that suggested caste status.[92] In course of time, Kumar became "a potent anti-communal force trusted by every community".[93][94] However, political bigotry and manipulative tactics (during elections in Travancore after independence) dealt a ruthless blow to the secular sentiments of Travancore, painstakingly built up over the years and rendered Kumarji a victim of his ideological steadfastness. He contested the historic election against T.M. Varghese [95]as an independent candidate wedded to ideology and lost by a narrow margin in an election that played the communal card powered with big money. However, it is said that Pattom Thanu Pillai did his best, supported by T.M Varghese, to induct him[96] into the Pattom Thanu Pillai Ministry as Home Minister. Kumarji refused the offer on ideological grounds. Independent India failed to recognize him and utilize his exceptional qualities, but he continued to guide and mold a good number of public men and political leaders. Besides, he became active in local development work on a massive scale. He was also able to exert a transforming influence on the people through movements like "Community Feasts", "Thoppippala Agitataion", the Akhila Thiruvithamkoor Parayar Mahasabha and Kuravar Maha Sabha[13][97] that he took initiative in founding.


1. K.C. Pillai: Disciple of Rabindranath Tagore, writer and translator (transliterator) of Tagore's works into Malayalam. He was also owner of The Trivandrum Hotel (founded in 1934) in Statue (Trivandrum) which hosted several significant political and social gatherings during the freedom movement. Several of KC Pillai's books were published by DC Books. They may also be available at: [98]

2. A.K Pillai: Barrister AK Pillai, left his higher studies at Oxford University around 1920 and joined the Indian National Movement. Besides involving in social and political work on a massive scale, he helped K. Kumar to sub-edit the revived "Swadeshabhimani" and himself started the "Swarat" (Swarad) newspaper with the support of K. Kumar to promote the spirit of the national movement. (Ref: Articles of G. Ramachandran and K.C. Pillai in Kumarji Smaraka Grantham; Other sources including :[99]

3. The empathy for the underprivileged must have driven K. Kumar to dedicate much of his time for Harijan service, Harijan Education, development of Harijan organizations and the establishment of a unique Harijan Rehabilitation Colony in Elanthoor. The colony's life was built around programs for social refinement and economic self-sustainability. It had proximity to a very special school which he founded to educate kids during the day and the laboring classes after sun-down. This unique concept in schooling had a running water system energized by rural technology. It also ran centres of production for goods of regular consumption like match-boxes, soap and candle. These products could bring in supplementary income to the needy learners. It added a thoughtful dimension to the need for "vocationalising" education***. A special parliamentary delegation is understood to have visited Elanthoor to study these developmental experiments. The delegation published a paper or a report titled "Look at Elanthoor", praising and recommending the work as highly worth replication. The remains of the said school are still visible in Elanthoor close to the Harijan Colony. This most noted colony of the past began deteriorating into an absolutely unenviable state even towards the last days of Kumarji. (***Secondary Note: In the late sixties and early seventies, this school-building housed a part of the century-old Government High School nearby. After the government school shifted, seemingly in the early seventies, local people started usurping the remaining land and the property)

4. During the visit of the Prince of Wales (1921), mass protests and "hartals" were organised in all major towns of Travancore. Thiruvananthapuram, Kollam, Alappuzha [100] and other towns witnessed unprecedented popular agitation. Two Muslim activists and three Congress leaders - K. Kumar, A K Pillai and Thoppil Padmanabha Pillai - were taken into custody by the government in this case. K.Kumar was awarded one year of imprisonment. Ref:[101]

References / General References / CitationsEdit

  1. ^ Freedom Fighters of Kerala - Government of Kerala - 1974
  2. ^ A Social History of India By S. N. Sadasivan - Page 535
  3. ^ K.C.Pillai, Avoor S. Gopalan Nair and others - 1974 - K. Kumarji Smaraka Grandham
  4. ^ Mannam Shathabdi Smaraka Grandham - NSS- 1964
  5. ^ Dr G. Ramachandran - "Memories of Kumarji" - 1974 - Elanthoor
  6. ^ Kumar K, Sarva Vijnana Kosham (Malayalam), Government of Kerala
  7. ^ K.A. Damodara Menon : Thirinju Nokkumbol (Malayalam) - NBT 1981 - Page 23
  8. ^ Trade Union Movement in Kerala ‘ K. Ramachandran Nair, Kerala Institute of Labour and Employment (in association with Manak Publishers) 2006- Page 12
  9. ^ G. Ramachandran - "Memories of Kumarji" and other references quoted
  10. ^ The History of Freedom Movement in Kerala (1885 - 1938) – Government of Kerala (Government Press - 1972) - P.K.K Menon – : Page 197
  11. ^ a b c d e Kumar.K: Sarva Vijnana Kosam (Encyclopaedia in Malayalam) - Government of Kerala
  12. ^ Keraleeya Gramangaliloode (Malayalam) - Kattakkada Divakaran - SPCS 1967
  13. ^ a b c Mahacharita Samgraha Sagaram (A Compressed Encyclopaedia of the Renowned (in Malayalam)– Pallippattu Kunjukrishnan - SPCS and NBS - Pages 220 and 221
  14. ^ Changanassery Parameswaran Pillai and the Socio-political Evolution of Modern Travancore - K.R. Ushakumari - 2009 - Trivandrum
  15. ^ The Collected Works of Mahatma Gandhi Volume 34, page 416 – letter from Gandhi to Rajaji
  16. ^ Dr. G. Ramachandran ("Memories of Kumarji" - 1974)
  17. ^ Theendal : the belief that seeing or interacting with a member of a "low caste" could pollute a caste Hindu – untouchability or caste discrimination in its extreme form once practiced in Kerala
  18. ^ [1]
  19. ^ Sarva Vijnana Kosam (Malayalam Ecyclopaedia - article titled 'Kumar K - Kerala Government publication
  20. ^ Article by K. Raman Nair in Kumarji Smaraka Grandham
  21. ^ a b List of Freedom Fighters, The Regional Records Survey Committee, Government of Kerala
  22. ^ K.C Pillai - K.Kumarji Smaraka Grandham - 1974
  23. ^ Sarva Vijnana Kosam (Malayalam Encyclopedia), Government of Kerala
  24. ^ Thirinju Nokkumbol - Autobiography of K. A. Damodara Menon, former Minister of Kerala
  25. ^ a b K. Kumar and the Indian National Movement : Puthenkavu Mathen Tarakan 1974
  26. ^ G. Ramachandran - Memories of Kumarji
  27. ^ Sarva Vijnana Kosam, Encyclopedia in Malayalam, Government of Kerala
  28. ^ Evoor S. Gopalan Nair 1974
  29. ^ Kumarji, the Immortal: Veloor Krishnan Kuty (1974) - Kumarji Smaraka Grantham
  30. ^ K.C. Pillai - K. Kumarji Smaraka Grandham - 1974
  31. ^ G. Ramachandran
  32. ^ K.A Damodara Menon - Thirinju Nokkumbol (First Edition- 1981; Page 23 etc.)
  33. ^ History of Indian Literature: 1911-1956, Struggle for Freedom : triumph and ... Sisir Kumar Das - Page 305 etc
  34. ^ Memories of Kumarji- G. Ramachandran
  35. ^ Evoor S. Gopalan Nair, Editor, 'Service' Weelky Newspaper
  36. ^ K.C Pillai on K. Kumar - 1974
  37. ^ The History of Freedom Movement in Travancore, C. Narayana Pillai, Page 401
  38. ^ K.C. Pillai°(See Note 1) and others - 1974- K. Kumarji Smaraka Grandham (Elanthoor)
  39. ^ K.C Pillai on K. Kumar
  40. ^ K.C Pillai's article in K. Kumarji Smaraka Grandham published from Elanthoor in 1974
  41. ^ a b K. Kumar, the Epitome of Service and Sacrifice : Evoor S. Gopalan nair - Article 1974
  42. ^ Cogressum Keralavum - AK Pillai
  43. ^ Dr G. Ramachandran -1974
  44. ^ KC Pillai - 1974
  45. ^ The History of Freedom Movement in Kerala (1885 - 1938) ORIGINAl from THE UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN – Government of Kerala (Government Press 1972) -P.K.K Menon – Page 197
  46. ^ Athmakatha (Malayalam)- Moyyarathu Sankaran - Page 164
  47. ^ Kumarji Smaraka Grandham - K.C Pillai and others - Elanthoor (1974)
  48. ^ K. Karunakaran Nair - Freedom fighters of Kerala - 1975 (Pref original Michigan Edition)
  49. ^ No Elephants for the Maharaja: Social and Political Change in the Princely State of Travancore (1921 – 47): Author: Louise Ouwerkerk, Editor: Dick Kooiman, Manohar Publishers 1994 – Original: University of Michigan
  50. ^ Nair Service Society Suvarna Grantham - 1964
  51. ^ Notes / Letters of Kurur Namboodiripad found at Sree Gandhi Mandir - 1972 (?)
  52. ^ Keralathile Congress Prasthanam (Malayalam)- Perunna KN Nair, Prathibha Publications- First /Revised Edition: 1967 / 85; Pages 24, 25, 28, 60, 209, 210 etc
  53. ^ Census of India 2011-Kerala - District Handbook- Page 11 - http://www.censusindia.gov.in/2011census/dchb/3212_PART_B_PATHANAMTHITTA.pdf
  54. ^ K. Kumar and the Indian national Movement : Mahakavi Puthenkavu Mathen Tharakan (article :1974)
  55. ^ Keralathile Congress Prasthanam (Malayalam)- Perunna KN Nair, Prathibha Publications- First/ Revised Edition: 1967 /85; Pages : 60 etc
  56. ^ Atmakatha (Autobiography), Moyyarathu Sankaran, Page 168
  57. ^ Swathantryathinte Akasham (Malayalam) (Horizons of Freedom), pages 68 and 69
  58. ^ The Indian States and the Civil Disobedience Movement - P. Sudhir- Proceedings of the Indian History Congress
  59. ^ Jawaharlal Nehru to K. Kumar File No G -29 etc. referred to in The Indian States and the Civil Disobedience Movement by P; Sudhir
  60. ^ The History of Freedom Movement in Kerala (1885 - 1938) – Government of Kerala (Government Press - 1972) - P.K.K Menon – (Original from the University of Michigan): Page 197
  61. ^ No Elephants for the Maharaja: Social and Political Change in the Princely State of Travancore (1921 – 47): Author: Louise Ouwerkerk, Editor: Dick Kooiman, Manohar Publishers 1994 – Original: University of Michigan:Page 117
  62. ^ a b List of Freedom Fighters, Regional Records Survey Committee, Government of Kerala
  63. ^ Research Guru (UGC Approved Journal): Volume-12, Issue-2, September-2018 (ISSN 2349-266X)- Page: 1141 - Salt Satyagraha in Malabar - Vimal Kumar CL
  64. ^ Women's Movements in Kerala – Challenges and Prospects – Majula Devi's thesis work – page 140
  65. ^ Keralathile Congress Prasthanam (Malayalam) - Perunna KN Nair
  66. ^ Copies of the records maintained at the office of the Supdt. Of Jails of Cannanore, Vellore and Bellary (showing RI from 27-5-1930 to 26-2-1931) etc.
  67. ^ Gandhi's talk at Elanthoor on 20th January 1937
  68. ^ Epic of Travancore - Mahadev Desai - Navjeevan Publishers - Page 37
  69. ^ Temple Entry Proclamation
  70. ^ Last Days of Monarchy in Kerala – MJ Koshy – Kerala Historical Society- 1973 - Page 119
  71. ^ Who is Who of Freedom Fighters in Kerala, Karunakaran Nair -1975 - Page 271, 272 etc
  72. ^ Page 1214 entry number 9, Appendix VI vide answer of Chief Secretary to an interpellation (number 373 raised in the Travancore Legislative Council) on 12 June 1924 by member Sri V. Kunjukrishna Pillai of Chirayinkil
  73. ^ Selected Documents on Vaikom Satyagraha, S. Raimon, Kerala State Archives Department, Government of Kerala 2006
  74. ^ The History of the Trade Union Movement in Kerala, K. Ramachandran Nair, Kerala Institute of Labour and Employment -2006
  75. ^ The Epic of Travancore - Mahadeva Desai, Navjeevan Karyalaya, Ahmedabad (1937) - Original from the University of Michigan – page 37 of First Indian Edition
  76. ^ G. Ramachandran's article
  77. ^ Note: Arrived at from only pre-verified sources: His actual imprisonment may be many years more
  78. ^ Page 1214 entry number 9, Appendix VI vide answer of Chief Secretary to an interpellation (number 373 raised in the Travancore Legislative Council) on 12th June 1924 by member Sri V. Kunjukrishna Pillai of Chirayinkil
  79. ^ Copies of the records maintained at the office of the Supdt. Of Jails of Cannanore, Vellore and Bellary (showing RI from 27-5-1930 to 26-2-1931)"Archived copy". Archived from the original on 29 July 2009. Retrieved 27 August 2009.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  80. ^ EMERGENCE OF THE TRAVANCORE STATE CONGRESS AND EARLY ACTIVITIES OF THE PARTY -M. Sumathy "From Petitions to Protest - A Study of the Political Movements in Travancore 1938-1947" Thesis - Department of History, University of Calicut, 2004
  81. ^ Article by K. Kumar published in Young India -19 June 1924 titled "Charkha in Trivandrum Jail"
  82. ^ "Bandhanathil Ninnu" by K.P. Kesava Menon
  83. ^ see : P.G.N Unnithan, Wikipedia Article P. G. N. Unnithan
  84. ^ Women's Movements in Kerala – Challenges and Prospects – Majula Devi's thesis work – (http://shodhganga.inflibnet.ac.in/bitstream/10603/7172/10/10_chapter%203.pdf)
  85. ^ K. Kumar and the Indian National Movement - Puthenkavu Mathan Tharakan - 1974
  86. ^ The Epitome of Service and Sacrifice - Evoor S. Goplan Nair - 1974
  87. ^ Vishwa Vijnana Kosham (Malayalam Encyclopedia), Government of Kerala - 1972- Volume II- Page 646
  88. ^ Thiruvithamkoor Swatantrya Samara Charitram - C. Narayana Pillai- Second Edition September 2004; Page : 401
  89. ^ http://schoolwiki.in/%E0%B4%97%E0%B4%B5.%E0%B4%B5%E0%B4%BF.%E0%B4%8E%E0%B4%9A%E0%B5%8D%E0%B4%9A%E0%B5%8D.%E0%B4%8E%E0%B4%B8%E0%B5%8D.%E0%B4%8E%E0%B4%B8%E0%B5%8D_%E0%B4%87%E0%B4%B2%E0%B4%A8%E0%B5%8D%E0%B4%A4%E0%B5%82%E0%B4%B0%E0%B5%8D%E2%80%8D
  90. ^ G. Ramachandran - See the article linked
  91. ^ A Social History of India : S.N. Sadasivan -2000- page 535
  92. ^ Evoor S Gopalan Nair (?) - 1974 - K. Kumarji Smaraka Grantham
  93. ^ Dr G. Ramachandran : Memories of Kumarji (Page 19)
  94. ^ The Epic of Travancore, Mahadeva Desai, Navjeevan Karyalaya, Ahmedabad (1937) - Original from the University of Michigan – page 37 of First Indian Edition
  95. ^ Politicisation of Caste Relations in a Princely State, A Shaji, Zorba Books
  96. ^ K. Raman Nair : Kumarji Smaraka Grantham
  97. ^ Major Dalit Movements in Pre Independence Era - Pages 138and 139 (pdf copy at : http://shodhganga.inflibnet.ac.in/bitstream/10603/15828/12/12_chapter%204.pdf)
  98. ^ http://www.sbcollege.org/library/authcat.php?idauth=K%20C%20Pillai
  99. ^ http://www.kamat.com/database/biographies/a_k_pillai.
  100. ^ Keralathile Congress Prasthanam (Malayalam) - Perunna KN Nair - Page 210
  101. ^ K. Kumar and the National Movement - Puthenkavu Mathan Tharakan