Junta (governing body)
Junta (// or //) is a Spanish, Portuguese and Italian (giunta) term for a civil deliberative or administrative council. In English, it predominantly refers to the government of an authoritarian state run by high ranking officers of a military. Military juntas can refer to either a government in which a coalition of military officers rules in conjunction or to a military dictatorship in which a leader's government and administration is staffed primarily by military officers. Juntas, like military dictatorships, are often the result of military coups. "Junta" literally means "union" and often refers to the army, navy and air force commanders taking over the power of the president, prime minister, king or other non-military leader.
Often, military juntas will transfer to nominally democratic governments in which former military leaders are elected. Whether this is due to popular support for the actions of the military, political intimidation, or electoral fraud is often difficult to discover. This calls in to question whether or not a military junta ends with the commencement of democratic elections. This has become increasingly common in modern years, as exemplified by the governments of Egypt and Fiji.
An earlier, different use of the term in English was the Whig Junto, a political faction in early 18th Century Britain.
- Junta (Habsburg)
- Specific to Spain:
- Name of some of the institutions of government of the autonomous communities of Spain (Regional Government of Andalusia and Junta of Castile and León) or the parliament of the Principality of Asturias (General Junta of the Principality of Asturias)
- Junta (Peninsular War), 1808–1810
- Junta acting as jury in Valladolid debate, 1550s
- Chile in the 1810s:
- Other organisations:
- Junta de Investigación de Accidentes de Aviación Civil, the Argentinian civil aviation accident investigation agency
- Revolutionary Government Junta, the Salvadoran three-de facto-dictatorship agency
- Junta Investigadora de Accidentes de Aviación Civil, the former Venezuelan civil aviation accident investigation agency
- Junta de Aviación Civil, the Dominican Republic civil aviation authority
- Junta de Administración Portuaria y de Desarrollo Económico de la Vertiente Atlántica de Costa Rica, the Costa Rican Board of Port Administration and Economic Development of the Atlantic Coast
- Junta (trade unionism), a group of leading British trade unionists in the 1860s