Junonia lemonias

Junonia lemonias, the lemon pansy,[1][2] is a common nymphalid butterfly found in Cambodia and South Asia.[1][2] It is found in gardens, fallow land, and open wooded areas.

Lemon pansy
Junonia lemonias - Lemon Pansy 25.jpg
Wet-season form, upperside
Junonia lemonias - Lemon Pansy 18.jpg
Wet-season form, underside
Scientific classification edit
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Class: Insecta
Order: Lepidoptera
Family: Nymphalidae
Genus: Junonia
Species:
J. lemonias
Binomial name
Junonia lemonias
Subspecies
  • J. l. lemonias
  • J. l. vaisya (Fruhstorfer, 1912)
Synonyms
  • Papilio lemonias Linnaeus, 1758
  • Papilio aonis Linnaeus, 1758
  • Precis lemonias Fruhstorfer, 1912

DescriptionEdit

It is brown with numerous eyespots as well as black and lemon-yellow spots and lines on the upperside of the wings. The underside is a dull brown, with a number of wavy lines and spots in varying shades of brown and black. There is also an eyespot on the lower side of the forewing. The wet- and dry-season forms differ considerably in coloration and even shape. In the wet-season form the markings are distinct and vivid and the wing shape is a little more rounded. In the dry-season form the markings are obscure and pale especially on the underside and the wing margin is more angular and jagged. This helps it camouflage in the dried leaf litter.[3]

The lemon pansy is a very active butterfly and can be seen basking with its wings open facing the sun. It sits very low to the ground and can be approached easily. It feeds with its wings half open. It is a fairly strong flier and flies close to the ground with rapid wingbeats and often returns to settle back in the same spots.[3][4]

Life cycleEdit

EggsEdit

Eggs are laid singly on the underside of leaves. The egg is green and barrel shaped with longitudinal ridges.

CaterpillarEdit

The caterpillar is cylindrical, uniformly thick and covered with rows of spines which are branched at the tip. It is dull black with a faint blue sheen and has dorsal stripe of a darker color. There is a distinct orange ring behind the head. The caterpillar stays on the underside of the leaf and if disturbed, rolls up and drops to the ground.[3]

PupaEdit

Pupation takes place in dense foliage close to the ground. The pupa is compact, with small conical processes on its rough surface. The pupa is well camouflaged with varying shades of brown with fine streaks and lines.[3]

Food plantsEdit

Caterpillars feed on plants from the families Acanthaceae, Amaranthaceae, Malvaceae, Rubiaceae, Tiliaceae and Verbenaceae. Recorded species include Alternanthera sessilis, Barleria cristata, Barleria prionitis, Blechum pyramidatum, Cannabis sativa, Corchorus capsularis, Dyschoriste repens, Eranthemum pulchellum, Hemigraphis schomburgkii, Hygrophila auriculata, Hygrophila costata, Hygrophila lancea, Lepidagathis formosensis, Lepidagathis incurva, Nelsonia canescens, Ophiorrhiza japonica, Phyla nodiflora, Ruellia tuberosa, Sida rhombifolia, and Strobilanthes formosanus.[5]

See alsoEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ a b Varshney, R.K.; Smetacek, Peter (2015). A Synoptic Catalogue of the Butterflies of India. New Delhi: Butterfly Research Centre, Bhimtal & Indinov Publishing, New Delhi. p. 219. doi:10.13140/RG.2.1.3966.2164. ISBN 978-81-929826-4-9.
  2. ^ a b Savela, Markku. "Junonia lemonias (Linnaeus, 1758)". Lepidoptera and Some Other Life Forms. Retrieved July 2, 2018.
  3. ^ a b c d   One or more of the preceding sentences incorporates text from a work now in the public domain: Bingham, Charles Thomas (1905). Fauna of British India. Butterflies Vol. 1. pp. 357–358.
  4. ^   One or more of the preceding sentences incorporates text from a work now in the public domain: Moore, Frederic (1899–1900). Lepidoptera Indica. Vol. IV. London: Lovell Reeve and Co. pp. 75–77.
  5. ^ HOSTS - a Database of the World's Lepidopteran Hostplants (http://www.nhm.ac.uk/research-curation/projects/hostplants/) accessed on September 13, 2007.

ReferencesEdit

External linksEdit