June Mathis

June Mathis (born June Beulah Hughes,[1] January 30, 1887 – July 26, 1927) was an American screenwriter. Mathis was the first female executive for Metro/MGM and at only 35, she was the highest paid executive in Hollywood.[2] In 1926 she was voted the third most influential woman in Hollywood, behind Mary Pickford and Norma Talmadge.[3] Mathis is best remembered for discovering Rudolph Valentino and writing such films as The Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse (1921), and Blood and Sand (1922).

June Mathis
June Mathis Who's Who on the Screen.jpg
June Mathis, c.1920
Born
June Beulah Hughes

(1887-01-30)January 30, 1887
DiedJuly 26, 1927(1927-07-26) (aged 40)
Resting placeHollywood Forever Cemetery
Years active1916–1927
Known forDiscovering Rudolph Valentino
Spouse(s)
Sylvano Balboni
(m. 1924)

Early lifeEdit

 
Photograph published 1923

June Mathis was born June Beulah Hughes in Leadville, Colorado, the only child of Virginia Ruth and Dr. Philip Hughes. Her parents divorced when she was seven and her mother remarried to William D. Mathis, a widower with three children whose name she would eventually adopt as a stage name.

She had been a sickly child and believed she healed herself through her sheer force of will. She believed everything was mental and everyone had certain vibrations, stating, "If you are vibrating in the right place, you will inevitably come in contact with the others who can help you. It's like tuning in on your radio. If you get the right wave-length, you have your station."[4]

Mathis was educated in Salt Lake City and San Francisco.[1] It was while in San Francisco she gained her first stage experience, dancing and doing imitations in vaudeville. At the age of 12 she joined a traveling company and at 17 became an ingenue, performing with Ezra Kendall in The Vinegar Buyer.[5]

Later she appeared in several Broadway shows and toured for four seasons with the female impersonator Julian Eltinge in the widely popular show The Fascinating Widow. Supporting her now twice-widowed mother, she would continue to perform in theatre for the next 13 years.[6]

CareerEdit

ScreenwritingEdit

Mathis was determined to become a screenwriter and, accompanied with her mother, she moved to New York City, where she studied writing and went to the movies in the evenings.[6] She entered a screenwriting competition; but despite not winning, her entry was so impressive it did bring job offers.

Her first script, House of Tears, would be directed by Edwin Carewe in 1915 and led to a contract in 1918 with Metro studios, later to be merged into MGM. As one of the first screenwriters to include details such as stage directions and physical settings in her work, Mathis saw scenarios as a way to make movies into more of an art form. Much of the standard screenwriting styles can be attributed to her. Mathis later credited her success to a strong concentration on plot and theme: "No story that did not possess a theme has ever really lived.... Occasionally one may make money and perhaps be popular for a time. But in the end it dies."[6]

By 1919 Mathis and her mother had moved to Hollywood. After only a year of screenwriting, she had advanced to the head of Metro's scenario department.[7] She was one of the first heads of any film department and the only female executive at Metro.[8]

During her early years, she had a close association with silent star Alla Nazimova. Their films together can be said to be marked by over-sentimentality; what little praise these films received was due to Nazimova's acting rather the conventional romantic stories.[6]

The Four Horsemen of the ApocalypseEdit

In 1921, Richard Rowland, the head of Metro, paid $20,000 and 10% of the gross earning for Vicente Blasco Ibáñez's novel The Four Horseman of the Apocalypse.[9] The epic bestseller had been considered unadaptable by every major studio but Rowland handed the book to Mathis for adaptation and was so impressed with her screenplay that he asked her input on director and star. Mathis had seen Rudolph Valentino in a bit part in Eyes of Youth, and she exerted her influence to cast Valentino. Studio heads resisted hiring an unknown actor for a lead role.[10] Despite her many other accomplishments, this "discovery" would grow to be her best-known act. For the same movie she also insisted the studio hire Rex Ingram as director.[7]

The Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse was one of the first films with an anti-war theme. Mathis also injected some early depictions of alternative lifestyles; it featured a scene with German officers coming down the stairs in drag. Of the scene, Mathis later told the Los Angeles Times: "I had the German officers coming down the stairs with women's clothing on. To hundreds of people that meant no more than a masquerade party. To those who have lived and read, and who understand life, that scene stood out as one of the most terrific things in the picture."[3]

ValentinoEdit

 
Screenwriter June Mathis on the set of Blood and Sand with star and lifelong friend Rudolph Valentino

The Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse was a success, grossing $4,500,000 domestically, thus becoming one of the most commercially successful silent films ever made and launching Valentino into stardom.[6] Even before it was released, Valentino was receiving offers from other studios. Taking Mathis' advice, he remained with Metro to get another solid role or two under his belt.

Mathis and Valentino remained friends after Four Horsemen. The older plain-looking Mathis doted on the talented, beautiful young man. Accounts state that Valentino regarded Mathis in a motherly way, calling her "Little Mother". Nita Naldi, who worked with them on Blood and Sand, said: "She mothered Rudy, and my dear she worshiped him and he worshiped her."[11] "She discovered me, anything I have accomplished I owe to her, to her judgment, to her advice and to her unfailing patience and confidence in me", said Valentino on Mathis in a 1923 interview with Louella Parsons.[12]

Mathis looked after Valentino's welfare during his time at Metro, making sure he gained the best parts and was taken care of. When Valentino showed up on the set for The Conquering Power, another Mathis script with Rex Ingram at the helm, his new-found stardom went to his head, along with resentment at working for the same wage of $350 a week. [13] The friction between him and Ingram, and his need for more money to support mounting debts, led Valentino to sign with Famous Players-Lasky (later known as Paramount Pictures) for $1,000 a week.

Mathis was also one of the people who helped bail Valentino out of jail when he was arrested for bigamy, having married Natacha Rambova without finalizing his divorce to Jean Acker. Though the two were inseparable, their relationship became strained during Valentino's marriage to Rambova. When Mathis submitted a script for The Hooded Falcon, one of Valentino's pet projects, the couple deemed it unacceptable and asked to have it rewritten. Mathis took it as a great insult and broke off all contact with Valentino.[14]

ExecutiveEdit

Mathis' position with Metro was called by the Los Angeles Times, "The Most Responsible Job ever Held by A Woman".[15] She was arguably one of the most powerful women in Hollywood, even said to be almost as powerful as Mary Pickford. Mathis had influence over casting, choice of director and many other aspects of production.[7] Her strength lay in careful preparation of the shooting script along with the director, cutting out waste in production while at the same time sharpening narrative continuity.[16]

After she had spent seven years at Metro, Famous Players-Lasky was able to lure her away with the promise that she could continue to write for her protégé Valentino. When Valentino moved to Goldwyn Pictures, she did as well, this time gaining sovereign control.

GreedEdit

Mathis continued to survive in Hollywood despite being involved in two of the greatest financial fiascoes of the 1920s. When Erich von Stroheim presented Goldwyn Pictures with his masterpiece Greed (1924), following Frank Norris's novel McTeague very closely, it was 42 reels and 10 hours long. Stroheim himself realized the original version was far too long, so he reduced it to 24 reels (6 hours), hoping the film could be screened with intermissions in two successive evenings. But Goldwyn executives demanded further cuts. Stroheim allowed his close friend Rex Ingram to reduce it to 18 reels (4½ hours).[16]

However, in the middle of production, Goldwyn had merged with Metro and Louis B. Mayer Pictures to form Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer. MGM took Greed out of Stroheim's hands and gave it to Mathis, with orders to cut it even more, which she assigned to a routine cutter, Joseph W. Farnham. The film was then reduced to 13 reels (2½ hours) long. In the process, many key characters were cut out, resulting in large continuity gaps.[17]

There is speculation on whether Mathis took part in the actual cutting. However, for contractual reasons, her name was listed in the credits as a writer, and it was she who would be blamed for what Stroheim and his fans would call "tampering with his genius".[7] In fact, Mathis had worked with Stroheim before and had been fond of his themes, and thus it is thought unlikely she would butcher his film unnecessarily.[3]

Ben-HurEdit

For the original production of Ben Hur (1925), Mathis fought the studio over the casting and production for many months. It was her idea to film the $1 million script in Italy; the film would eventually come in just under $4 million. When she arrived the original director Charles Brabin, in his words, refused to let her "interfere". The production troubles were numerous, and due to political troubles engulfing Italy at the time, resulted in disputes and delayed permissions. When the sea battle was filmed near Livorno, Italy, many extras had apparently lied about being able to swim. The first attempt to film the chariot race was on a set in Rome, but there were problems with shadows and the racetrack surface. One of the chariots' wheels came apart and the stuntman driving it was thrown in the air and killed.

MGM inherited the production when it took over control of Goldwyn studios; with the film over budget and getting out of control, the studio halted production and relocated the shoot from Italy to California, under the supervision of Irving Thalberg. Before they had even returned from Italy, MGM would fire Mathis, Brabin, and stars George Walsh and Gertrude Olmstead; MGM replaced them with director Fred Niblo, screenwriters Bess Meredyth and Carey Wilson, and stars Ramon Novarro and May McAvoy.[7]

After her return, First National hired her as editorial director. She also scripted several successful Colleen Moore pictures including Sally, The Desert Flower, and Irene. Mathis remained at First National for two years, but left over limitations and signed with United Artists; with her husband she made one picture for them, The Masked Woman. The Magic Flame (1927) would be her last picture, and one of her best, due in part to Ronald Colman's performance and Henry King's direction.[6]

Personal lifeEdit

A short woman with untamed brown hair and a love of Parisian fashion, she was also one of the first "writer-directors"[10] and laid the groundwork for the later development of screenwriters becoming producers.[18] A spiritualist with mystical bents, her scripts featured many heroes with a Christ-like demeanor. A believer in reincarnation, she always wore an opal ring when she wrote, convinced it brought her ideas.[19]

Mathis had been romantically linked to George Walsh and Rex Ingram; however, she returned from Italy engaged to an Italian cinematographer named Silvano Balboni. The couple married on December 20, 1924, at the Mission of St. Cecilia, in Riverside, California.

DeathEdit

After Valentino's marriage to Rambova ended in 1925, the two reconciled at the premiere of Son of the Sheik when Valentino spotted Mathis with friends.[2] When Valentino unexpectedly died in August 1926, Mathis offered up what she thought would be a temporary solution; she lent him her spot in the family crypt she had purchased in Hollywood Memorial Cemetery (now called the Hollywood Forever Cemetery). However, when Mathis herself died the following year, the arrangement became permanent.[20]

On July 26, 1927, during the third act of the Broadway show The Squall at the 48th Street Theatre while accompanied by her 84-year-old grandmother Emily Hawkes, Mathis suffered a fatal heart attack. Her last words were reportedly, "Mother, I'm dying!" [21][22][23]

Her ashes were returned to California: instead of "evicting" Valentino, Mathis' husband, Sylvano Balboni, moved Valentino to the crypt beside hers, sold the remaining crypt to Valentino's family and returned to Italy. Mathis and Valentino repose side by side to this day.

FilmographyEdit

Film credits of June Mathis
Year Title Credit Studio/Distributor Ref(s)
1916 The Dawn of Love Scenario Rolfe Photoplays [24]
1916 God's Half Acre Scenario Rolfe Photoplays [25]
1916 Her Great Price Scenario Rolfe Photoplays [26]
1916 The Sunbeam Scenario Rolfe Photoplays [27]
1916 The Upstart Scenario Rolfe Photoplays [28]
1916 The Purple Lady Scenario Rolfe Photoplays [29]
1917 The Call of Her People Scenario Columbia Pictures [30]
1917 Threads of Fate Scenario Columbia Pictures [31]
1917 A Wife by Proxy Scenario Columbia Pictures [32]
1917 Draft 258 Scenario MGM [33]
1917 Somewhere in America Scenario Rolfe Photoplays [34]
1917 His Father's Son Scenario Rolfe Photoplays [35]
1917 The Jury of Fate Adaptation MGM [36]
1917 The Barricade (1917 film) Scenario Rolfe Photoplays [37]
1917 The Power of Decision Scenario Rolfe Photoplays [38]
1917 Red, White and Blue Blood Scenario MGM [39]
1917 A Magdalene of the Hills Scenario Rolfe Photoplays [40]
1917 The Millionaire's Double Story Rolfe Photoplays [41]
1917 Miss Robinson Crusoe Story Rolfe Photoplays [42]
1917 The Voice of Conscience Scenario MGM [43]
1917 The Trail of the Shadow Scenario Rolfe Photoplays [44]
1917 The Beautiful Lie Scenario Rolfe Photoplays [45]
1917 Lady Barnacle Scenario MGM [46]
1917 Blue Jeans Adaptation MGM [47]
1917 Aladdin's Other Lamp Scenario Rolfe Photoplays [48]
1918 Toys of Fate Scenario Screen Classics Inc. [49]
1918 The House of Gold Scenario MGM [50]
1918 His Bonded Wife Scenario MGM [51]
1918 The Legion of Death Screenplay and story MGM [52]
1918 The Silent Woman Scenario MGM [53]
1918 Social Quicksands Scenario MGM [54]
1918 A Successful Adventure Story MGM [55]
1918 Sylvia on a Spree Scenario MGM [56]
1918 To Hell with the Kaiser! Scenario Screen Classics, Inc. [57]
1918 The Winding Trail Story MGM [58]
1918 The Winning of Beatrice Scenario MGM [59]
1918 The Brass Check Scenario MGM [60]
1918 The Claim Scenario MGM [61]
1918 Daybreak Adaptation MGM [62]
1918 Eye for Eye Adaptation Nazimova Productions, Inc. [63]
1918 The Eyes of Mystery Adaptation MGM [64]
1918 Five Thousand an Hour Scenario MGM [65]
1918 The House of Myrth Scenario MGM [66]
1918 Gay and Festive Claverhouse Adaptation MGM [67]
1918 Kildare of Storm Scenario MGM [68]
1918 A Man's World Scenario MGM [69]
1918 Secret Strings Scenario MGM [70]
1918 Social Hypocrites Scenario MGM [71]
1918 The Trail to Yesterday Scenario MGM [72]
1918 With Neatness and Dispatch Scenario MGM [73]
1919 Almost Married Scenario MGM [74]
1919 Johnny-on-the-Spot Scenario MGM [75]
1919 The Great Victory Scenario Screen Classics Inc. [76]
1919 The Parisian Tigress Story MGM [77]
1919 Some Bride Scenario MGM [78]
1919 The Amateur Adventuress Scenario MGM [79]
1919 The Brat Scenario Nazimova Productions, Inc. [80]
1919 Blind Man's Eyes Scenario MGM [81]
1919 The Divorcee Scenario MGM [82]
1919 The Island of Intrigue Scenario MGM [83]
1919 Out of the Fog Scenario MGM [84]
1919 Fair and Warmer Scenario Screen Classics Inc. [85]
1919 Lombardi, Ltd. Scenario Screen Classics Inc. [86]
1919 The Man Who Stayed at Home Scenario Screen Classics Inc. [87]
1919 The Microbe Scenario MGM [88]
1919 The Red Lantern Scenario Nazimova Productions, Inc. [89]
1919 Satan Junior Adaptation MGM [90]
1919 The Way of the Strong Scenario MGM [91]
1920 Hearts Are Trumps Scenario MGM [92]
1920 Old Lady 31 Scenario Screen Classics Inc. [93]
1920 The Right of Way Scenario Screen Classics Inc. [94]
1920 The Price of Redemption Scenario MGM [95]
1920 Polly With a Past Scenario MGM [96]
1920 The Walk-Offs Scenario Screen Classics Inc. [97]
1920 The Willow Tree Scenario Screen Classics Inc. [98]
1920 Parlor, Bedroom and Bath Scenario MGM [99]
1920 The Saphead Scenario MGM [100]
1921 Camille Scenario Nazimova Productions, Inc. [101]
1921 The Conquering Power Adaptation MGM [102]
1921 The Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse Screenwriter MGM [103]
1921 The Hole in the Wall Adaptation MGM [104]
1921 The Idle Rich Adaptation MGM [105]
1921 The Man Who Scenario MGM [106]
1921 A Trip to Paradise Scenario MGM [107]
1922 Blood and Sand Screenwriter Famous Players-Lasky [108]
1922 The Golden Gift Story MGM [109]
1922 Hate Adaptation MGM [110]
1922 Kisses Scenario MGM [111]
1922 Turn to the Right Scenario MGM [112]
1922 The Young Rajah Scenario MGM [113]
1923 The Day of Faith Adaptation Goldwyn Pictures [114]
1923 In the Palace of the King Adaptation Goldwyn Pictures [115]
1923 The Spanish Dancer Adaptation Paramount Pictures [116]
1923 Three Wise Fools Screenwriter Goldwyn Pictures [117]
1924 Name the Man Editorial direction Goldwyn Pictures [118]
1924 Three Weeks Editorial direction Goldwyn Pictures [119]
1924 Wild Oranges Editorial direction Goldwyn Pictures [120]
1925 Greed Adaptation and dialogue MGM
Note: Premiered December 4, 1924, but not released until January 26, 1925
[121]
1925 Ben-Hur Adaptation MGM [122]
1925 Classified Scenario Corinne Griffith Productions [123]
1925 The Desert Flower Scenario First National Pictures [124]
1925 The Marriage Whirl Editorial direction Corinne Griffith Productions [125]
1925 Sally Scenario First National Pictures [126]
1925 We Moderns Writer First National Pictures [127]
1925 What Fools Men Editorial direction First National Pictures [128]
1926 Irene Editorial direction, continuity First National Pictures [129]
1926 The Far Cry Editorial direction First National Pictures [130]
1926 The Girl from Montmartre Editorial direction First National Pictures [131]
1926 The Greater Glory Scenario First National Pictures [132]
1926 Her Second Chance Editorial director First National Pictures [133]
1926 An Affair of the Follies Scenario Al Rockett Productions [134]
1927 The Magic Flame Continuity Goldwyn Pictures [135]
1927 The Masked Woman Scenario First National Pictures [136]

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b Bachman, Gregg; Slater, Thomas J. (2002). American Silent Film: Discovering Marginalized Voices. SIU Press. p. 203. ISBN 0-8093-2402-4.
  2. ^ a b Soares, Andre (April 1, 2007). "June Mathis: Q&A with Author Allan Ellenberger". altfg.com. Retrieved July 27, 2009.
  3. ^ a b c Journal of Humanities. 2007.
  4. ^ Wortis Leider, Emily (2004). Dark Lover: The Life and Death of Rudolph Valentino. Macmillan. p. 115. ISBN 0-571-21114-3.
  5. ^ Hanaford, Harry Prescott; Hines, Dixie (1914). Who's Who in Music and Drama: An Encyclopedia of Biography of Notable Men and Women In Music and the Drama. H.P. Hanaford. p. 218.
  6. ^ a b c d e f Slater. 1984 p.246-250
  7. ^ a b c d e Ward Mahar, Karen (2006). Women Filmmakers in Early Hollywood. JHU Press. pp. 200. ISBN 0-8018-8436-5.
  8. ^ Leider. 2003. p.237
  9. ^ Barton 2014, p. 73.
  10. ^ a b Leider. 2003. p.4
  11. ^ Leider. 2003. p. 114
  12. ^ "TCM: The Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse (1921)". Retrieved November 11, 2010.
  13. ^ Barton 2014, p. 75.
  14. ^ Leider. 2003. p. 323
  15. ^ Lipke, Kathleen (June 3, 1923). "the Most Responsible Job Ever Held by a Woman". Los Angeles Times: 13.
  16. ^ a b Unterburger, Amy L.; Foster, Gwendolyn Audrey (1999). The St. James Women Filmmakers Encyclopedia: Women on the Other Side of the Camera. Visible Ink Press. pp. 270. ISBN 1-57859-092-2.
  17. ^ Koszarski, Richard (1983). The Man You loved to Hate: Erich von Stroheim and Hollywood. Oxford University Press. pp. 144–145. ISBN 0-19-503239-X.
  18. ^ Acker, Ally (1991). Reel Women: Pioneers of the Cinema 1896 to the Present. Batsford. p. 164. ISBN 0-7134-6960-9.
  19. ^ Nelmes & Elbo, pp. 822–823.
  20. ^ "June Mathis | Hollywood Forever %". Hollywood Forever. Retrieved April 27, 2020.
  21. ^ https://books.google.co.uk/books?id=VjkgAgAAQBAJ&pg=PA357&lpg=PA357&dq=june+mathis+death+emily+hawks&source=bl&ots=-oytL3epeg&sig=ACfU3U1gupnrpqctn85_yND0Wamxn8LtJA&hl=en&sa=X&ved=2ahUKEwim4rCI_5LqAhUUh1wKHduNA4cQ6AEwAHoECAYQAQ#v=onepage&q=june mathis death emily hawks&f=false Mathis's mother Virginia Hughes-Mathis had died in 1922.
  22. ^ "June Mathis Dies While at Theatre". The New York Times. July 27, 1927. Retrieved November 23, 2015.
  23. ^ "June Mathis Heart Victim". The New York Times. July 28, 1927. Retrieved November 23, 2015.
  24. ^ "The Dawn of Love". catalog.afi.com. Retrieved April 27, 2020.
  25. ^ "God's Half Acre". catalog.afi.com. Retrieved April 27, 2020.
  26. ^ "Her Great Price". catalog.afi.com. Retrieved April 27, 2020.
  27. ^ "The Sunbeam". catalog.afi.com. Retrieved April 27, 2020.
  28. ^ "The Upstart". catalog.afi.com. Retrieved April 27, 2020.
  29. ^ "The Purple Lady". catalog.afi.com. Retrieved April 27, 2020.
  30. ^ "The Call of Her People". catalog.afi.com. Retrieved April 27, 2020.
  31. ^ "Threads of Fate". catalog.afi.com. Retrieved April 27, 2020.
  32. ^ "A Wife by Proxy". catalog.afi.com. Retrieved April 27, 2020.
  33. ^ "Draft 258". catalog.afi.com. Retrieved April 27, 2020.
  34. ^ "Somewhere in America". catalog.afi.com. Retrieved April 27, 2020.
  35. ^ "His Father's Son". catalog.afi.com. Retrieved April 27, 2020.
  36. ^ "The Jury of Fate". catalog.afi.com. Retrieved April 27, 2020.
  37. ^ "The Barricade". catalog.afi.com. Retrieved April 27, 2020.
  38. ^ "The Power of Decision". catalog.afi.com. Retrieved April 27, 2020.
  39. ^ "Red, White and Blue Blood". catalog.afi.com. Retrieved April 27, 2020.
  40. ^ "A Magdalene of the Hills". catalog.afi.com. Retrieved April 27, 2020.
  41. ^ "The Millionaire's Double". catalog.afi.com. Retrieved April 27, 2020.
  42. ^ "Miss Robinson Crusoe". Retrieved April 27, 2020.
  43. ^ "The Voice of Conscience". catalog.afi.com. Retrieved April 27, 2020.
  44. ^ "The Trail of the Shadow". catalog.afi.com. Retrieved April 27, 2020.
  45. ^ "The Beautiful Lie". catalog.afi.com. Retrieved April 27, 2020.
  46. ^ "Lady Barnacle". catalog.afi.com. Retrieved April 27, 2020.
  47. ^ "Blue Jeans". catalog.afi.com. Retrieved April 27, 2020.
  48. ^ "Aladdin's Other Lamp". catalog.afi.com. Retrieved April 27, 2020.
  49. ^ "Toys of Fate". catalog.afi.com. Retrieved April 27, 2020.
  50. ^ "The House of Gold". catalog.afi.com. Retrieved April 27, 2020.
  51. ^ "His Bonded Wife". catalog.afi.com. Retrieved April 27, 2020.
  52. ^ "The Legion of Death". catalog.afi.com. Retrieved April 27, 2020.
  53. ^ "The Silent Woman". catalog.afi.com. Retrieved April 27, 2020.
  54. ^ "Social Quicksands". catalog.afi.com. Retrieved April 27, 2020.
  55. ^ "A Successful Adventure". catalog.afi.com. Retrieved April 27, 2020.
  56. ^ "Sylvia on a Spree". catalog.afi.com. Retrieved April 27, 2020.
  57. ^ "To Hell with the Kaiser". catalog.afi.com. Retrieved April 27, 2020.
  58. ^ "The Winding Trail". catalog.afi.com. Retrieved April 27, 2020.
  59. ^ "The Winning of Beatrice". catalog.afi.com. Retrieved April 27, 2020.
  60. ^ "The Brass Check". catalog.afi.com. Retrieved April 27, 2020.
  61. ^ "The Claim". catalog.afi.com. Retrieved April 27, 2020.
  62. ^ "Daybreak". catalog.afi.com. Retrieved April 27, 2020.
  63. ^ "Eye for Eye". catalog.afi.com. Retrieved April 27, 2020.
  64. ^ "The Eyes of Mystery". catalog.afi.com. Retrieved April 27, 2020.
  65. ^ "Five Thousand an Hour". catalog.afi.com. Retrieved April 27, 2020.
  66. ^ "The House of Myrth". catalog.afi.com. Retrieved April 27, 2020.
  67. ^ "Gay and Festive Claverhouse". catalog.afi.com. Retrieved April 27, 2020.
  68. ^ "Kildare of Storm". catalog.afi.com. Retrieved April 27, 2020.
  69. ^ "A Man's World". catalog.afi.com. Retrieved April 27, 2020.
  70. ^ "Secret Strings". catalog.afi.com. Retrieved April 27, 2020.
  71. ^ "Social Hypocrites". catalog.afi.com. Retrieved April 27, 2020.
  72. ^ "The Trail to Yesterday". catalog.afi.com. Retrieved April 27, 2020.
  73. ^ "With Neatness and Dispatch". catalog.afi.com. Retrieved April 27, 2020.
  74. ^ "Almost Married". catalog.afi.com. Retrieved April 27, 2020.
  75. ^ "Johnny-on-the-Spot". catalog.afi.com. Retrieved April 27, 2020.
  76. ^ "The Great Victory". catalog.afi.com. Retrieved April 27, 2020.
  77. ^ "The Parisian Tigress". catalog.afi.com. Retrieved April 27, 2020.
  78. ^ "Some Bride". catalog.afi.com. Retrieved April 27, 2020.
  79. ^ "The Amateur Adventuress". catalog.afi.com. Retrieved April 27, 2020.
  80. ^ "The Brat". catalog.afi.com. Retrieved April 27, 2020.
  81. ^ "Blind Man's Eyes". catalog.afi.com. Retrieved April 27, 2020.
  82. ^ "The Divorcee". catalog.afi.com. Retrieved April 27, 2020.
  83. ^ "The Island of Intrigue". catalog.afi.com. Retrieved April 27, 2020.
  84. ^ "Out of the Fog". catalog.afi.com. Retrieved April 27, 2020.
  85. ^ "Fair and Warmer". catalog.afi.com. Retrieved April 27, 2020.
  86. ^ "Lombardi, Ltd". catalog.afi.com. Retrieved April 27, 2020.
  87. ^ "The Man Who Stayed at Home". catalog.afi.com. Retrieved April 27, 2020.
  88. ^ "The Microbe". catalog.afi.com. Retrieved April 27, 2020.
  89. ^ "The Red Lantern". catalog.afi.com. Retrieved April 27, 2020.
  90. ^ "Satan Junior". catalog.afi.com. Retrieved April 27, 2020.
  91. ^ "The Way of the Strong". catalog.afi.com. Retrieved April 27, 2020.
  92. ^ "Hearts Are Trumps". catalog.afi.com. Retrieved April 27, 2020.
  93. ^ "Old Lady 31". catalog.afi.com. Retrieved April 27, 2020.
  94. ^ "The Right of Way". catalog.afi.com. Retrieved April 27, 2020.
  95. ^ "The Price of Redemption". catalog.afi.com. Retrieved April 27, 2020.
  96. ^ "Polly With a Past". catalog.afi.com. Retrieved April 27, 2020.
  97. ^ "The Walk-Offs". catalog.afi.com. Retrieved April 27, 2020.
  98. ^ "The Willow Tree". catalog.afi.com. Retrieved April 27, 2020.
  99. ^ "Parlor, Bedroom and Bath". catalog.afi.com. Retrieved April 27, 2020.
  100. ^ "The Saphead". catalog.afi.com. Retrieved April 27, 2020.
  101. ^ "Camille". catalog.afi.com. Retrieved April 27, 2020.
  102. ^ "The Conquering Power". catalog.afi.com. Retrieved April 27, 2020.
  103. ^ "The Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse". catalog.afi.com. Retrieved April 27, 2020.
  104. ^ "The Hole in the Wall". catalog.afi.com. Retrieved April 27, 2020.
  105. ^ "The Idle Rich". catalog.afi.com. Retrieved April 27, 2020.
  106. ^ "The Man Who". catalog.afi.com. Retrieved April 27, 2020.
  107. ^ "A Trip to Paradise". catalog.afi.com. Retrieved April 27, 2020.
  108. ^ "Blood and Sand". catalog.afi.com. Retrieved April 27, 2020.
  109. ^ "The Golden Gift". catalog.afi.com. Retrieved April 27, 2020.
  110. ^ "Hate". catalog.afi.com. Retrieved April 27, 2020.
  111. ^ "Kisses". catalog.afi.com. Retrieved April 27, 2020.
  112. ^ "Turn to the Right". catalog.afi.com. Retrieved April 27, 2020.
  113. ^ "The Young Rajah". catalog.afi.com. Retrieved April 27, 2020.
  114. ^ "The Day of Faith". catalog.afi.com. Retrieved April 27, 2020.
  115. ^ "In the Palace of the King". catalog.afi.com. Retrieved April 27, 2020.
  116. ^ "The Spanish Dancer". catalog.afi.com. Retrieved April 27, 2020.
  117. ^ "Three Wise Fools". catalog.afi.com. Retrieved April 27, 2020.
  118. ^ "Name the Man". catalog.afi.com. Retrieved April 27, 2020.
  119. ^ "Three Weeks". catalog.afi.com. Retrieved April 27, 2020.
  120. ^ "Wild Oranges". catalog.afi.com. Retrieved April 27, 2020.
  121. ^ "Greed". catalog.afi.com. Retrieved April 27, 2020.
  122. ^ "Ben Hur". catalog.afi.com. Retrieved April 27, 2020.
  123. ^ "Classified". catalog.afi.com. Retrieved April 27, 2020.
  124. ^ "The Desert Flower". Retrieved April 27, 2020.
  125. ^ "The Marriage Whirl". catalog.afi.com. Retrieved April 27, 2020.
  126. ^ "Sally". catalog.afi.com. Retrieved April 27, 2020.
  127. ^ "We Moderns". catalog.afi.com. Retrieved April 27, 2020.
  128. ^ "What Fools Men". catalog.afi.com. Retrieved April 27, 2020.
  129. ^ "Irene". catalog.afi.com. Retrieved April 27, 2020.
  130. ^ "The Far Cry". catalog.afi.com. Retrieved April 27, 2020.
  131. ^ "The Girl from Montmartre". catalog.afi.com. Retrieved April 27, 2020.
  132. ^ "The Greater Glory". catalog.afi.com. Retrieved April 27, 2020.
  133. ^ "Her Second Chance". catalog.afi.com. Retrieved April 27, 2020.
  134. ^ "An Affair of the Follies". catalog.afi.com. Retrieved April 27, 2020.
  135. ^ "The Magic Flame". catalog.afi.com. Retrieved April 27, 2020.
  136. ^ "The Masked Woman". catalog.afi.com. Retrieved April 27, 2020.

BibliographyEdit

External linksEdit