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The following events occurred in June 1943:

June 28, 1943: Germany successfully tests the new V-2 ballistic missile
June 8, 1943: Explosion of ammunition on Japanese battleship Mutsu kills 1,121 crew
June 2, 1943: Removal of Polish Jews from the Lwow Ghetto is completed

June 1, 1943 (Tuesday)Edit

  • The American liberty ship SS John Morgan was setting out from Baltimore on its maiden voyage with a cargo of explosives, and accidentally rammed the tanker SS Montana, which was entering the harbor. Sixty-five of the 68 men on the Morgan were killed in the blast, while 18 of the 82 men on the Montana were burned to death in the subsequent blaze.[1] The U.S. Navy waited five days before releasing the news.[2]
Leslie Howard, as Ashley Wilkes in Gone With the Wind

June 2, 1943 (Wednesday)Edit

June 3, 1943 (Thursday)Edit

  • The "Zoot Suit Riots" began when 11 U.S. servicemen, on shore leave in Los Angeles, got into a fight with a group of Mexican-American youths. The next day, about 200 servicemen, mostly U.S. Navy sailors, rode in taxis to the Hispanic neighborhoods in East L.A. and began attacking non-white residents; by June 7, thousands of civilians were involved in the fighting. The U.S. Navy and U.S. Army barred military personnel from venturing into downtown L.A., ending the riots.[8]
  • The French Committee of National Liberation (Comité Français de Libération Nationale, CFLN) was formed with headquarters in Algiers and Generals Charles de Gaulle and Henri Giraud as co-presidents.
  • The Battle of West Hubei in China ended in a tactical draw.
  • Inventor Robert Hurley filed a patent application for the pocket protector, designed for carrying ink pens in shirt pockets. Hurley would be awarded U.S. Patent No. 2,417,786 on March 18, 1947 for his "Pocket Shield or Protector".[9]

June 4, 1943 (Friday)Edit

President Castillo
General Rawson, President for one weekend

June 5, 1943 (Saturday)Edit

  • Pierre Laval, the puppet chief of government for Nazi occupied France, told his countrymen in a radio broadcast that an additional 200,000 Frenchmen needed to be sent to Germany to assist in war production.[14]
  • A state funeral was held in Japan for Isoroku Yamamoto.[15]
  • A squad of chemical warfare soldiers, making sure the wind was away from spectators, exploded small vials of mustard, chloro-picrine, lewisite and phosgene gases in a simulated air raid in New York City, to test the ability of civil defense workers to recognize the different chemical agents.[16]
  • The German submarine U-217 was depth charged and sunk in the Atlantic Ocean by an American Grumman TBF Avenger from the escort carrier USS Bogue.
  • Josef Mengele was promoted to Chief Medical Examination Officer at Auschwitz in Poland.

June 6, 1943 (Sunday)Edit

June 7, 1943 (Monday)Edit

June 8, 1943 (Tuesday)Edit

June 9, 1943 (Wednesday)Edit

  • The first automatic payroll tax in the United States was implemented by the passage of the Current Tax Payment Act of 1943, which was signed into law the next day.[23] Under the new procedure, employers deducted the taxes from the employees' checks, then paid the equivalent amount to the federal government at the end of the month, replacing the system of employees paying taxes on their salaries at the end of each tax year.[24]
  • James F. Byrnes, the director of the U.S. Office of War Mobilization, told a press conference that he had no intention to be the Democratic nominee for Vice-President in 1944 if President Franklin Roosevelt pursued a fourth term.[25]
  • The Battle of Porta between the Royal Italian Army and the Greek People's Liberation Army ended in Thessaly. Italian forces burned down the villages of Porta, Vatsinia, Chania (Trikala), and Ropotania.
  • Three days before his 19th birthday, future United States President George H. W. Bush became the youngest aviator in the U.S. Navy.[26]

June 10, 1943 (Thursday)Edit

  • The Pointblank directive was issued by the Combined Chiefs of Staff of the Allied powers, to implement Operation Pointblank, the code name for the constant Combined Bomber Offensive. The highest priority target to be destroyed was Germany's aircraft industry, followed by producers of ball bearings, petroleum, grinding wheels and abrasives. The U.S. Eighth Air Force bombed Germany during daylight and the UK's Royal Air Force Bomber Command conducted heavier bombing at night.[27]
President Pedro Ramirez
  • Germany and Italy gave diplomatic recognition to the new government of Argentina, the only nation in the Western Hemisphere that still maintained relations with the Axis powers. That night, however, the new regime of General Pedro Ramírez decreed that the German, Italian and Japanese would no longer have permission to transmit up to 100 words in code to their capitals, a privilege that had been extended back in December. The U.S. and the U.K. gave recognition to the Ramírez government the next day.[28]
  • The Berlin Gemeinde, the last Jewish hospital in the German capital, was closed, and its 200 employees and 300 patients were sent to Theresienstadt on June 16.[29]

June 11, 1943 (Friday)Edit

  • The Italian island of Pantelleria was surrendered to the Allies unconditionally at 11:40 am local time, after 19 days of aerial bombardment, providing a base from which the invasion of Sicily could be staged.[30] "This marked the first time in history a complete surrender resulted solely from air attack without ground action", one historian would note later.[31]
  • Britain's Royal Air Force bombed Düsseldorf and Münster in its heaviest attack up to that time, while the U.S. 8th Air Force made a daylight raid on Wilhelmshaven and Cuxhaven.[32] The U.S. raid involved 225 airplanes, and an unprecedented 85 of them were shot down or crashed.[33] The 462 tons of bombs dropped was a new high for U.S. bombing.
  • American coal miners went out on strike for the second time in two months, as UMWA President John L. Lewis called for the walkout against the federal government, which was overseeing the mines. President Roosevelt temporarily halted the strike by suggesting that he would ask Congress to pass a law to have striking miners drafted. Another strike would be called in October.[34]
  • The German submarine U-417 was sunk in the North Atlantic by a B-17 of No. 206 Squadron RAF.
  • The Japanese submarine I-24 was sunk off Shemya, Alaska by the U.S. Navy subchaser Larchmont.
  • The Australian corvette HMAS Wallaroo sank off Fremantle after a collision with the American Liberty ship Henry Gilbert Costin.
  • The Technicolor musical film Coney Island starring Betty Grable, George Montgomery and Cesar Romero was released.

June 12, 1943 (Saturday)Edit

  • Düsseldorf suffered its heaviest air raid of the war when 693 bombers dropped 2,000 tons of bombs in the space of 45 minutes.[35]
  • The American submarine USS R-12 was on practice maneuvers when it sank without warning, plunging to the bottom of the sea near Key West, Florida, with the loss of 42 of the 47 people on board. The R-12 would not be relocated until almost 68 years later, on May 25, 2011.[36]
  • The German submarine U-118 was depth charged and sunk in the Atlantic by an American Grumman TBM Avenger.
  • "Taking a Chance on Love" by Benny Goodman and His Orchestra hit #1 on the Billboard singles chart.
  • Born: Friedrich Kittler, German literary scholar; in Rochlitz (died 2011)

June 13, 1943 (Sunday)Edit

  • Subhas Chandra Bose, the Indian nationalist who had recently been in Nazi Germany seeking aid for independence from the United Kingdom, arrived in Japan on an Axis submarine.[37]
  • The Zoot Suit Riots ended in Los Angeles after ten days. Although there was property damage, nobody was killed or severely injured.[38]
  • The Japanese submarine I-9 was sunk off Kiska by the destroyer USS Frazier.
  • Born: Malcolm McDowell, British actor; in Horsforth
  • Died: Brigadier General Nathan Bedford Forrest III of the U.S. Army Air Forces, 38, when the bomber he was riding in as an observer was shot down over Kiel during a raid. Forrest was the great-grandson of Confederate Army General Nathan Bedford Forrest.[39]

June 14, 1943 (Monday)Edit

  • In the case of West Virginia State Board of Education v. Barnette, Flag Day in the United States, the U.S. Supreme Court ruled 6 to 3 that schoolchildren could not be required to pledge allegiance to or salute the American flag, if it violated their religious beliefs. The suit had been brought by Walter Barnette and other members of the Jehovah's Witnesses, and led to the Court overruling its 1940 decision in Minersville School District v. Gobitis.[40]
  • An American scientist, given the code name "Quantum" by the Soviet KGB, met with officials at the Soviet Embassy in Washington, DC, and turned over classified scientific information about separating the isotope Uranium-235 from uranium, part of the American atomic bomb project. The American FBI and NSA intercepted news of the meeting from a cable sent on June 21 from the KGB's New York office, but were never able to learn the identity of "Quantum".[41] More than sixty years later, "Quantum" was discovered from declassified files from the former Soviet Union to have been Boris Podolsky.[42]
  • Earl Browder, the General Secretary of the Communist Party USA, began a correspondence with U.S. President Roosevelt, when Browder sent a cable to the President asking for White House intervention to protect leftist Victorio Codovilla from being deported from Argentina to Spain. Roosevelt responded on June 23, pledging to ask the U.S. Ambassador at Buenos Aires to monitor the proceedings, and on June 26 sent Browder a second letter to advise that Cordovilla would not be deported. The last reply was on July 12, when Browder thanked the President.[43]
  • The German submarines U-334 and U-564 were lost to enemy action in the Atlantic Ocean.
  • Born: Jim Sensenbrenner, U.S. Representative for Wisconsin from 1979 to 2021; in Chicago

June 15, 1943 (Tuesday)Edit

June 16, 1943 (Wednesday)Edit

Oona and Charlie in 1944

June 17, 1943 (Thursday)Edit

  • The British troopship SS Yoma was torpedoed and sunk northwest of Derna, Libya by German submarine U-81; 484 of the 1,961 aboard were killed.[48]
  • Ayoub Tabet, the President of Lebanon, precipitated a crisis in the Middle Eastern nation that was populated by Muslims and Christians. Tabet changed the makeup of the 63 seat Chamber of Deputies, which had 34 Christians and 29 Muslims. The new arrangement was for a 54-seat body, with 32 seats for Christians and 22 for Muslims. The decision set out rioting throughout Lebanon, and Tabet would be deposed a month later.[49]
  • The Japanese submarine I-178 went missing somewhere off the east coast of Australia. The wreckage would still be missing more than 75 years later.
  • Singer Perry Como signed a record contract with RCA and began a string of hit songs with the RCA label, recording well into the 1980s.[50]
  • Joe Cronin of the Boston Red Sox became the first player in major league baseball history to swat pinch-hit home runs in both games of a doubleheader.[51]
  • Born:

June 18, 1943 (Friday)Edit

Tuskegee Airmen plane insignia

June 19, 1943 (Saturday)Edit

  • Germany's Führer, Adolf Hitler, summoned SS Chief Heinrich Himmler to the Führer's mountain retreat at Obersalzberg. According to a memorandum of the secret meeting, which Himmler entitled Banditenkampf und Sicherheitslage (The fight against bandits and the security situation), Hitler ordered that the Jewish resistance in Eastern Europe (by "bandits") should be eradicated over the next four months by the mass evacuation of Jews.[53]
  • The Italian submarine Barbarigo was sunk in the Mediterranean Sea by U.S. aircraft.

June 20, 1943 (Sunday)Edit

June 21, 1943 (Monday)Edit

  • Jean Moulin, an official of the Armée secrète and a leader of the French Resistance against the Nazis, was captured in Caluire-et-Cuire by the Gestapo, along with nine of his associates.[62] Captain Klaus Barbie, who oversaw Gestapo operations in nearby Lyon, had been tipped off to Moulin's location.[63] Moulin was tortured for more than two weeks before dying on July 8.
  • In Stack v. Boyle, the U.S. Supreme Court ruled, 5–3, that the American citizenship of an alien could not be revoked simply because he had joined the Communist Party. William Schneiderman, a Russian native, had become a citizen in 1927, and then had proceedings brought against him twelve years later for his activities as secretary for the California branch of the U.S. Communist Party. Schneiderman's case was argued by Wendell Willkie, who had been the Republican candidate for President in 1940.[64]
  • The U.S. House of Representatives voted 345–0 to approve the appropriation of $71,510,438,873 for the U.S. Army, the biggest supply bill in history.[65]
  • The Harvard Corporation rejected a recommendation, by the faculty of the Harvard Medical School, to admit women to the college's M.D. program. The Corporation would allow the admission of women in 1944.[66]

June 22, 1943 (Tuesday)Edit

  • After the U.S. Army Air Forces lost 85 aircraft in the June 11 daylight raid on Wilhelmshaven and Cuxhaven, the second heaviest bombing by the U.S. of Germany took place, with only one-fifth of the losses. The 8th Air Force dropped 422 tons of bombs, and lost 16 planes.[33]

June 23, 1943 (Wednesday)Edit

SOE agent Borrel
  • Andrée Borrel, Francis Suttill, Gilbert Norman and several other agents in the Prosper network of British Special Operations Executive, were arrested by the Gestapo after being betrayed by an informer. Borrel was one of seven women in the British spy network. On July 6, 1944, the group would be rendered unconscious with an injection of phenol, then burned alive.[67]
  • Born:

June 24, 1943 (Thursday)Edit

  • In order to investigate the medical effects of an emergency bailout at high altitude, Colonel W. Randolph Lovelace, a physician in the U.S. Army, jumped out of a B-17 bomber at an altitude of 40,200 feet. Part of his self-experimentation was to show that bottled oxygen should be provided to bomber crews. Colonel Lovelace was rendered temporarily unconscious from the 32 G shock from opening his chute during his faster descent in the thin atmosphere, and suffered severe frostbite when the deceleration ripped off his left glove, but landed safely after 24 minutes. As a result of Lovelace's experience, flight crews learned to delay opening their chutes until they reached a lower altitude. Lovelace would be awarded the Distinguished Flying Cross for his bravery.[68]
Baldur von Schirach

June 25, 1943 (Friday)Edit

  • The eradication of Jews in the Soviet Ukrainian city of Stanislav (now Ivano-Frankivsk) was completed, with less than 100 surviving out of several thousand.[70]
  • The Smith–Connally Act, allowing the federal government to seize and operate industries threatened by or under strikes that would interfere with war production, was passed over President Roosevelt's veto.
  • Born: Carly Simon, musician, in New York City

June 26, 1943 (Saturday)Edit

  • More than 200 German Navy crewmen, from six different U-boats based in Nazi-occupied Norway, mutinied. The men refused to obey orders to go out to sea, where Allied ships had been destroying the submarines at a greatly increased rate since May. The mutineers were arrested and lodged in the Akershus Prison in Oslo.[71]
  • The U.S. Congress voted overwhelmingly to override President Roosevelt's veto of the Conally-Smith-Harness anti-strike bill. Roosevelt's veto message was read to the Senate, citing the likelihood that the bill was "more likely to foment labor troubles than to settle them". Five minutes later, the Senate voted 56–25 to pass the bill, and the House followed later in the day with a 244–108 override.[72]
Commissioner-General Schmidt (on right)

June 27, 1943 (Sunday)Edit

June 28, 1943 (Monday)Edit

June 29, 1943 (Tuesday)Edit

  • In advance of the Allied invasion of Sicily, General Dwight D. Eisenhower, the Allied Supreme Commander, sent a cablegram from North Africa requesting "on early convoy ... shipment three million bottled Coca-Cola (filled) and complete equipment for bottling, washing, capping same quantity twice monthly", with the Coca-Cola Company sending "technical observers" to assist in the operation.[79]
  • The U.S. Senate passed the first, and thus far, only national child-care program, voting $20,000,000 to provide for federal care of children whose mothers were employed for the duration of World War II.[80]
  • U.S. Vice-President Henry A. Wallace made "an ill-considered speech" that attacked U.S. Secretary of Commerce Jesse H. Jones. The speech, which some historians cite as a factor in President Roosevelt's decision to select another running mate for the 1944 election, may have cost Wallace a chance to become President of the United States on Roosevelt's death in 1945.[81]
  • Pope Pius XII issued the encyclical Mystici corporis Christi ("Of the Mystical Body of Christ").[82]
  • Born:

June 30, 1943 (Wednesday)Edit


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