Julida is an order of millipedes. Members are mostly small and cylindrical, typically ranging from 10–120 millimetres (0.39–4.72 in) in length.[1] Eyes may be present or absent, and in mature males of many species, the first pair of legs is modified into hook-like structures.[2] Additionally, both pairs of legs on the 7th body segment of males are modified into gonopods.[3]

Tachypodoiulus niger 1.jpg
Tachypodoiulus niger (Julidae)
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Class: Diplopoda
Order: Julida
Brandt, 1833
  • Blaniuloidea
  • Juloidea
  • Nemasomatoidea
  • Paeromopodoidea
  • Parajuloidea

Zygocheta Cook, 1895
Symphyognatha Verhoeff, 1910

Unidentified Parajulidae.


Julida contains predominantly temperate species ranging from North America to Panama, Europe, Asia north of the Himalayas, Asir region, Saudi Arabia, and Southeast Asia.[4]


The order Julida contains approximately 750 species, divided into the following superfamilies and families:[5]

Blaniuloidea C. L. Koch, 1847
Juloidea Leach, 1814
Nemasomatoidea Bollman, 1893
Paeromopodoidea Cook, 1895
Parajuloidea Bollman, 1893


  1. ^ "Diagnostic features of Millipede Orders" (PDF). Milli-PEET Identification Tables. The Field Museum, Chicago. Retrieved 25 October 2013.
  2. ^ J. Gordon Blower (1985). Millipedes: Keys and Notes for the Identification of the Species. Synopses of the British Fauna. Linnean Society of London. ISBN 978-90-04-07698-3.
  3. ^ Shelley, Rowland M. (1999). "Centipedes and Millipedes with Emphasis on North American Fauna". The Kansas School Naturalist. 45 (3): 1–16. Archived from the original on 2016-11-12. Retrieved 2014-03-18.
  4. ^ "Geographic distribution of Millipede Families" (PDF). Milli-PEET Identification Tables. The Field Museum, Chicago. Retrieved 25 October 2013.
  5. ^ William Shear. "Class Diplopoda de Blainville in Gervais, 1844" (PDF). In Z.-Q. Zhang (ed.). Animal biodiversity: an outline of higher-level classification and survey of taxonomic richness. Zootaxa. 159–164. p. 3148.

Ilic, B. (2019). Multifaceted activity of millipede secretions:. [online] Web of Science. Available at: http://apps.webofknowledge.com/full_record.do?product=WOS&search_mode=GeneralSearch&qid=1&SID=6AJXsNVdjIGRrwQybhF&page=1&doc=4 [Accessed 18 Oct. 2019].

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