Juliaca (Spanish: Juliaca, Quechua: Hullaqa, Aymara: Hullaqa) is the capital of San Roman Province in the Puno Region of southeastern Peru. It is the region's largest city with a population of 276,110 inhabitants (2017). On the Altiplano, Juliaca is 3,825 metres (12,549 ft) above sea level, is located on the Collao Plateau and is northwest of Lake Titicaca (45 km). It is the largest trade center in the Puno region.
Ciudad de Los Vientos (The Windy City)
|Incorporated||October 3, 1908|
|• Mayor||David Sucacahua |
|• Total||533.47 km2 (205.97 sq mi)|
|Elevation||3,825 m (12,549 ft)|
| • Estimate |
|• Density||520/km2 (1,300/sq mi)|
|Time zone||UTC-5 (PET)|
|• Summer (DST)||UTC-5 (PET)|
The city hosts Juliaca's Carnival each year between February and March. During this very popular event participants, dressed in colorful costumes, gather on the streets to dance in the style of the Collao Plateau. Saint Sebastian's feast is celebrated on January 20 of every year.
Juliaca's citizens rely on cars, trains, and bicycles. It is a major transit point in the region and has strong ties with Peru's southern cities, including Arequipa, Puno, Tacna, Cuzco, Ilo, and with La Rinconada and Bolivia.
Like Chicago, Illinois, it is nicknamed "The Windy City", because of the city's location on the windy Collao Plateau. It is also called the "Sock City" or "Knitting City" because Juliaca was a major center of sock, sweater, and handicraft production. Now the production of clothes, wool and fabrics are industrial processes.
It is also home to Inca Manco Capac Airport, the region's main airport.
The historian Ramon Rios argues that Juliaca comes from the Quechua words Xullaskca kaipi (it had drizzled) in allusion that when the Inca troops arrived at this part of the Altiplano chasing the collas, they noticed that in the Huaynarroque hill it had drizzled.
However, Justo Ruelas affirms that Juliaca comes from the Quechua word Shulla Qaqa (roquedal dew), due to the fact that in the vicinity of the Huaynarroque and Santa Cruz hills, small quartz particles can be seen, which resembles the morning dew that falls on rocks.
The Uros settled in the river towns, taking advantage of the benefits of the totora and the fish of Lake Titicaca, settled in the surrounding lakes: Chacas, Qoriwata, Cochapampa, and the Juliaca River, today Coata River.
The Indians who are called Uros...live on the banks where they fish, with which they support themselves...they are strong Indians and of good disposition and there are many who are in the lakes without making sementeras or clothes, eating from roots that they call totora.— Garcí Diez, Crónicas en América, 
The constitution of these settlers were registered as Uros de Coata and Uros de Desaguadero, from where the Uros of Coata would be better communicated and related to Juliaca, by the river that linked them, also these riverine settlers developed a sailing technique, on rafts made of totora, fastened with yarned ropes based on the ichus, which would serve as support for fishing, and at times, of transport from Lake Titicaca to the smaller lakes that were between the territories of Juliaca.
As a testimony of the ancient presence of the Uros, in the balsero partiality, and later in the rafts of Juliaca, there have been some names of places: Totoral, Torococha...— René Calsín Anco, Bodas de diamante de la provincia de San Román, 
Between the years 1000 to 500 BC, Juliaca flourished under the influence of Qaluyo (ancient settlement), in the place of Qomer Moqo (Taparachi). Archaeologists discovered a small village dating back to this time, whose settlers were fed with potatoes, quinoa, kañiwa, carachi, guinea pig, among others. They were the first builders of waruwarus and developed a special textile industry.
In the years 200 BC to 200 AD, the domain of the Pukara culture expanded in this region of the highlands. Between the third and fourth centuries, the Huaynarroque tribe flourished. Subsequently, the hegemony of Tiahuanaco, Colla and Inka arises consecutively. The kollas and Inka were ruthless rivals and only under the military command of Pachacútec and his son Mayta Capac were able to subdue the brave Sapana, Chuchicápac and Huaynarroque tribes after bloody wars of conquest.
Juliaca is a large trade center for goods and services, and is considered the financial capital of the Puno region. Trade is its principal economic activity, comprising 26.5% of the Labor force. In 2008, Juliaca had 15,439 commercial establishments, which amounts to 41% of trade done in the Puno region. It is the commercial hub for the La Rinconada high-altitude city of informal gold mining.
The city of Juliaca has become a center of capital investment. As a result, poverty has been reduced, and increased per capita income has come to some of its residents.
Juliaca has a subtropical highland climate (Köppen Cwb) bordering on an alpine tundra climate with cool to cold temperatures most of the year. The average annual precipitation is 610 mm. Winters are dry with very cold nights and mornings, and warm afternoons.
|Climate data for Juliaca, Peru (1961–1990, extremes 1961–present)|
|Record high °C (°F)||30.4
|Average high °C (°F)||16.7
|Average low °C (°F)||3.6
|Record low °C (°F)||−4.8
|Average precipitation mm (inches)||133.3
|Source #1: NOAA|
|Source #2: Meteo Climat (record highs and lows)|
- Perú: Población estimada al 30 de junio y tasa de crecimiento de las ciudades capitales, por departamento, 2011 y 2015. Perú: Estimaciones y proyecciones de población total por sexo de las principales ciudades, 2012-2015 (Report). Instituto Nacional de Estadística e Informática. March 2012. Retrieved 4 June 2015.
- Peruvian Census Archived 20 December 2010 at the Wayback Machine
- Diez, Garcí (1567). Crónicas en América. Barcelona: Ediciones Real. OCLC 7423266.
- Calsín Anco, René (2001). Bodas de diamante de la provincia de San Román. Juliaca: Municipalidad Provincial de San Román. OCLC 53810615.
- Peruvian government figures
- William Finnegan, "Tears of the Sun: The Gold Rush at the Top of the World." The New Yorker, April 20, 2015: 55-65
- "Juliaca Climate Normals 1961–1990". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 4 July 2017.
- "Station Juliaca" (in French). Météo Climat. Retrieved 4 July 2017.
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