Julia Ioffe (English: /ˈjɒfi/; Russian: Юлия Иоффе, romanizedYuliya Ioffe; born 18 October 1982)[1][2] is a Russian-born American journalist. Her articles have appeared in The Washington Post, The New York Times, The New Yorker, Foreign Policy, Forbes, Bloomberg Businessweek, The New Republic, Politico, and The Atlantic. Ioffe has appeared on television programs on MSNBC, CBS, PBS, and other news channels as a Russia expert.[3][4][5][6][7] She is the Washington correspondent for the website Puck.[8][9]

Julia Ioffe
Born (1982-10-18) October 18, 1982 (age 41)
EducationPrinceton University (BA)

Early life and education


Ioffe was born in Moscow, to a Russian Jewish family. On April 28, 1990, when she was 7 years old, she and her family immigrated to New York City in the United States.[10][11][12] They settled in Columbia, Maryland, where she grew up.[13][14][15] Ioffe attended Beth Tfiloh Dahan Community School from which she graduated[16] in 2001.

After originally planning to be a doctor, Ioffe graduated with a degree in Soviet history from Princeton University in 2005.[13][17] Her thesis, "Selling Utopia: Soviet Propaganda and the Spanish Civil War", was supervised by Jan T. Gross.[18][19]

While at Princeton, Ioffe was vice-president of the Princeton Israel Public Affairs Committee. In a college newspaper column published in 2003, she was quoted as supporting Israel's "methods of defense against terrorism", including the construction of the Israeli West Bank Wall. According to Ioffe, the wall was "necessary for Israel to protect its citizens against suicide bombers".[20]



Ioffe worked for the Columbia Journalism School's Knight Case Studies Initiative.[21]

In March 2018, Ecco, an imprint of HarperCollins, announced a book deal with Ioffe. The book, Russia Girl, was slated for publication in 2020;[22] as of April 2022 it was due in 2023.[23][needs update]

Ioffe is the Washington correspondent for the website Puck.[8][9]

The New Yorker and Foreign Policy


In 2009, Ioffe won a Fulbright Scholarship to work in Russia.[13][24] Ioffe spent three years in Moscow, from 2009 to 2012, working as a correspondent for The New Yorker and Foreign Policy.[25][13]

Ioffe was a finalist for the Livingston Award for her 2011 profile of Alexei Navalny, then a lawyer and anti-corruption activist.[26]

Ioffe covered protests and the political manoeuvring surrounding Vladimir Putin's return to the presidency, in her column “Kremlinology 2012,” which was published in Foreign Policy.[27]

In February 2012, The New Yorker published her profile of Mikhail Prokhorov, then the third-richest man in Russia who contested the 2012 presidential elections. “Are Putin and Prokhorov running for President against or with each other?” Ioffe asked in the profile.[28]

During the most violent protest, which took place on May 6, 2012, the day before Putin's inauguration, Ioffe took a photo of a small boy on a bicycle with training wheels, facing a row of Russian riot police.[29]

The New Republic


In 2012, Ioffe returned to the U.S. and became a senior editor for The New Republic in Washington, D.C.[30][31] At The New Republic, Ioffe wrote about American politics, including about a brewing civil war within the Republican Party.[32] Her 2013 profile of Kentucky Republican Senator Rand Paul[33] was a finalist for the Livingston Award.[34] She also covered the protests in Ferguson, Missouri in 2014.[35]

In 2013, Ioffe wrote about contracting whooping cough, although she had been vaccinated against the disease in childhood. She blamed the anti-vaxxer community for her illness.[36]

Ioffe continued writing about Russia, including about the 2013 anti-gay laws[37] and the Kremlin's ban on American adoptions of Russian children.[38] In 2013, Ioffe visited Moscow to document what happened to the opposition after the 2012 crackdown. Among others, she interviewed Alexey Navalny, future presidential candidate Ksenia Sobchak, and members of Pussy Riot. Her article, “The Loneliness of Vladimir Putin,” appeared in The New Republic in February 2014.[39]

While covering the 2014 Sochi Olympics for The New Republic,[40][41][42] Ioffe traveled to Ukraine, where pro-Western protestors had toppled the Moscow-friendly president.[43][44][45] She predicted that Russia would invade Eastern Ukraine after its annexation of Crimea.[46] She also traveled to Eastern Ukraine to cover the war in Donbas.[47][48][49]

In December 2014, Ioffe was one of the many staff members at The New Republic to resign in protest against owner Chris Hughes's planned changes at the magazine.[13][50][51] Her emails and comments were cited by Ryan Lizza in an article for The New Yorker about the changes at The New Republic.[52][53]

The New York Times Magazine


In January 2015, Ioffe joined The New York Times Magazine as a contributor.[54]



In May 2016, Ioffe became a contributing writer at Politico.[55]

In December 2016, Politico fired Ioffe within hours after she posted to Twitter speculating about Trump behaving inappropriately with his daughter Ivanka.[56][57] Ioffe tweeted the following about President-Elect Donald J. Trump and his daughter Ivanka: "Either Trump is fucking his daughter or he's shirking nepotism laws. Which is worse?"[58] The tweet had included a link to a CNN news article claiming the president elect was planning to assign the East Wing of the White House, traditionally the First Lady's domain, to his eldest daughter Ivanka. The news article was later determined to be false, with CNN publishing a retraction. After deleting the tweet from her page, Ioffe tweeted several apologies.[56]

The Atlantic, which had recently hired Ioffe for a position to start a few weeks later, issued a statement addressing Ioffe's comments, saying, "We're confident that when she joins The Atlantic next month she will adhere to our standards".[56]

The Atlantic


On 6 December 2016, The Atlantic announced that it was hiring Ioffe to cover national security, foreign policy, and politics, with editor-in-chief Jeffrey Goldberg describing her as "an indefatigable reporter, a gifted analyst, and an elegant writer". Ioffe joined The Atlantic in early 2017.[59]

She wrote about The Atlantic obtaining a 10-month correspondence between Donald Trump Jr. and WikiLeaks, which played a pivotal role in the presidential campaign and was suspected by the US intelligence community of being "chosen by the Russian government to disseminate the information it had hacked". Ioffe wrote that "though Trump Jr. mostly ignored the frequent messages from WikiLeaks, he at times appears to have acted on its requests… and shared that information with Donald Trump’s senior campaign officials".[60]

Ioffe gained access to the entire e-mail correspondence between Trump's campaign chief Paul Manafort and Oleg Deripaska, a Russian oligarch with strong ties to the Kremlin. According to the piece: "Manafort attempted to leverage his leadership role in the Trump campaign to curry favor with a Russian oligarch close to Vladimir Putin".[61]

Other coverage of Donald and Melania Trump


In April 2016, Ioffe published a profile of Melania Trump for GQ magazine that revealed Melania Trump had a half-brother with whom the family was not in contact.[62] Slate magazine characterized the profile as "generally positive" of Trump.[63] Melania Trump, however, wrote in a Facebook post: "There are numerous inaccuracies in this article ... My parents are private citizens and should not be subject to Ms. Ioffe's unfair scrutiny."[64] Ioffe responded to CBS News saying: "I think she's understandably upset that some dirty laundry came out, but I did my job."[65] Ioffe's profile was praised by Slate and Erik Wemple,[63][64] while Fox News writer Howard Kurtz said it had a "condescending tone".[66] Maxim magazine said that it "smacked of politically-motivated contempt for Donald Trump masked as a 'probing' look at his glamorous wife".[67] Following the article's publication, Ioffe received numerous anti-Semitic and threatening messages.[64][68] In an interview, Melania Trump said that Ioffe "provoked" the anti-Semitic abuse she later received with her article.[69][70]

On October 29, 2018, Ioffe appeared on CNN's The Lead with Jake Tapper, where she took part in a discussion about President Trump's rhetoric in the wake of the Pittsburgh synagogue shooting. She opined that, "this president has radicalized so many more people than ISIS ever did", pointing to a 60% rise in antisemitic attacks during 2017. The comment received pushback from fellow panelists David Urban and Mona Charen. Ioffe later apologized for the comment during the broadcast and on Twitter calling her comments "hyperbole".[71][72][73] In a Fox News interview with Laura Ingraham, Trump called Ioffe "some kind of a sick woman".[72][74]

Coverage of Russia


Ioffe appears on national and cable channels as a Russia expert. Since 2013, she has been a guest of Morning Joe, All In with Chris Hayes, Hardball, The Rachel Maddow Show and The 11th Hour with Brian Williams on MSBNC, The Lead with Jake Tapper on CNN, Real Time with Bill Maher on HBO, The Daily Show, The Colbert Report, and The Opposition on Comedy Central.[3][75][76]

Argument with Lawrence O'Donnell


On August 7, 2013, Ioffe was involved in an argument with Lawrence O'Donnell over Putin's control of Russian media. Ioffe alleged that, instead of letting her answer his questions, O'Donnell "interrupted and harangued and mansplained" to her.[77]

The next day, Ioffe responded with a post on The New Republic's website, "Dear Lawrence O'Donnell, Don't Mansplain to Me About Russia", in which she stated that she had spent several years reporting from Russia, was a native speaker, and had been invited and introduced as an expert on Russia. "What bothers me is that, look: your producers take the time to find experts to come on the show, answer your questions, and, hopefully, clarify the issue at hand".[78][79]

The post started a wide discussion about several aspects of the interaction between television and online media. Joe Coscarelli of New York magazine wrote that "[Ioffe's] simple, bullet-pointed list of arguments would never be allowed on cable television because they reveal an ability to think outside a black or white, good or bad, America or Russia dichotomy".[80] Philip Bump of The Atlantic assumed that it's "impossible to win a TV Argument in an Internet World", that "the power distinction between host and guest became flexible… [because] they interact both on-air and off" and "nearly any writing online could similarly rise to national attention" like Ioffe's.[79]

Arkansas Democrat-Gazette incident


In November 2019, Ioffe accused a writer on the Arkansas Democrat-Gazette on Twitter of being a Russian troll after noticing one of its stories about Hunter Biden used a symbol that she mistakenly identified as a Russian-style quotation mark. After her mistake was pointed out to her, Ioffe deleted her tweets and tweeted an apology.[81]

2022 Frontline PBS interview and program


On 3 March she was interviewed by Mike Wiser; on 15 March 2022 this interview appeared in a Frontline episode titled "Putin's Road to War". She discussed Russia's invasion of Ukraine and said that Putin had miscalculated the Russian people's support for, and opposition to, the invasion.[82][non-primary source needed]


  • Ioffe, Julia (2010). "The Moscow bombings don't matter". In Stein, Richard Joseph (ed.). Russia. New York: H. W. Wilson.
  • Ioffe, Julia (2024). Motherland: A Feminist History of Modern Russia, from Revolution to Autocracy. New York: HarperCollins Publishers.


  1. ^ "Мерил Стрип на церемонии International Press Freedom Award восхитилась Фельгенгауэр, Иоффе и Гессен". NEWSru (in Russian). November 16, 2017. Retrieved March 26, 2022.
  2. ^ Bade, Rachael; Palmeri, Tara; Daniels, Eugene; Lizza, Ryan (October 18, 2021). "Politico Playbook: It's crunch time again on Capitol Hill". Politico. Retrieved March 26, 2022.
  3. ^ a b Julia Ioffe (September 2, 2018). Examining the Intricacies of Russian Politics (Video). The Daily Show with Trevor Noah. Retrieved April 11, 2022.
  4. ^ Julia Ioffe (September 14, 2013). Why did Putin pen that New York Times op-ed? (Video). CNN. Retrieved April 11, 2022.
  5. ^ Julia Ioffe (June 26, 2013). Experts weigh in on Russia and Snowden (Video). CNN. Retrieved April 11, 2022.
  6. ^ Julia Ioffe (June 21, 2018). New Details On Donald Trump Jr.'s Meeting With Russians At Trump Tower (Video). MSNBC. Retrieved April 11, 2022.
  7. ^ Ioffe, Julia. "What Putin's Phrase 'De-Nazify' Means To The Home Audience In Russia". The Late Show with Stephen Colbert (Video). CBS. Retrieved February 25, 2022.
  8. ^ a b "Julia Ioffe". Puck. Retrieved September 20, 2022.
  9. ^ a b "Why I Joined Puck". Puck. September 12, 2021. Retrieved September 20, 2022.
  10. ^ Ioffe, Julia (November 27, 2014). "I'm an Immigrant in America Thanks to Executive Action—Just Like Many of Your Ancestors Were". The New Republic.
  11. ^ "About us - Russia!". archive.ph. August 18, 2013. Archived from the original on August 18, 2013. Retrieved March 26, 2022.
  12. ^ Ковалёв, Алексей (May 22, 2012). "Юлия Иоффе: "Идеализм может быть разрушителен"" [Julia Ioffe: "Idealism can be destructive"]. inoSMI (in Russian). Retrieved March 26, 2022.
  13. ^ a b c d e "5 Facts About Julia Ioffe, Who Posted Obscene Tweet About Ivanka Trump". The Forward. December 15, 2016.
  14. ^ Ioffe, Julia (November 27, 2014). "I'm an Immigrant in America Thanks to Executive Action—Just Like Many of Your Ancestors Were". The New Republic.
  15. ^ "Ten DC Reporters You Should Know". FamousDC. May 30, 2013.
  16. ^ Berman, Jesse (March 2, 2022). "Julia Ioffe, BT Dahan Community School alum, offers assessment of Ukraine invasion on 'Late Show'". Baltimore Jewish Times.
  17. ^ Greg Myre. "Putinology: the art of analyzing the man in the Kremlin," NPR.
  18. ^ Ioffe, Julia (2005). Gross, Jan T. (ed.). Selling Utopia: Soviet Propaganda and the Spanish Civil War (Thesis). Princeton University.
  19. ^ "About us - Russia!". August 18, 2013. Archived from the original on August 18, 2013. Retrieved August 20, 2018.
  20. ^ "Town-gown gathers to protest Israel security wall". The Princetonian.
  21. ^ Ioffe, Julia. "The Journalism School Knight Case Studies Inintiative: "Settle or fight? Far Eastern Economic Review and Singapore Epilogue"" (PDF).
  22. ^ "'The Circus' returns — Journalists rip Axios — Stormy's suit — The right vs. big tech — Ioffe writing Russia book". POLITICO Media. March 7, 2018. Retrieved January 21, 2019.
  23. ^ Russia girl: memoirs of a Russian soul. HarperCollins Publishers. September 26, 2024. ISBN 9780008469665. Retrieved April 17, 2022.
  24. ^ "New Russia Blogs to Watch". Siberian Light. August 18, 2010. Retrieved April 29, 2016.
  25. ^ "Julia Ioffe – Foreign Policy". Foreign Policy. Retrieved November 5, 2022.
  26. ^ "Julia Ioffe". Aspen Ideas Festival. Retrieved May 13, 2023.
  27. ^ Ioffe, Julia. "Kremlinology 2012 – Foreign Policy". Retrieved February 25, 2022.
  28. ^ Ioffe, Julia (February 20, 2012). "The Master And Mikhail". The New Yorker. ISSN 0028-792X. Retrieved January 21, 2019.
  29. ^ Ioffe, Julia (May 10, 2012). "The Boy on the Bicycle". The New Yorker. ISSN 0028-792X. Retrieved January 21, 2019.
  30. ^ "Julia Ioffe". New Republic. Retrieved April 29, 2016.
  31. ^ Byers, Dylan (June 18, 2012). "TNR hires Julia Ioffe, Tablet's Marc Tracy". POLITICO. Retrieved April 29, 2016.
  32. ^ Ioffe, Julia (November 24, 2013). "A 31-Year-Old Is Tearing Apart the Heritage Foundation". The New Republic. ISSN 0028-6583. Retrieved January 21, 2019.
  33. ^ Ioffe, Julia (June 17, 2013). "President Rand Paul". The New Republic. ISSN 0028-6583. Retrieved January 21, 2019.
  34. ^ "Livingston Awards finalists move to final round of judging". University of Michigan News. May 1, 2014. Retrieved January 21, 2019.
  35. ^ Ioffe, Julia (August 15, 2014). "White St. Louis Has Some Awful Things to Say About Ferguson". The New Republic. ISSN 0028-6583. Retrieved January 21, 2019.
  36. ^ Ioffe, Julia (November 11, 2013). "I've Got Whooping Cough. Thanks a Lot, Jenny McCarthy". The New Republic. ISSN 0028-6583. Retrieved January 21, 2013.
  37. ^ Ioffe, Julia (August 14, 2013). "Eight Horrific and Uplifting Stories About Being Gay in the New Russia". The New Republic. ISSN 0028-6583. Retrieved January 21, 2019.
  38. ^ Avdeev, Max; Ioffe, Julia (July 7, 2013). "The Americans". The New Republic. ISSN 0028-6583. Retrieved January 21, 2019.
  39. ^ Ioffe, Julia (February 2, 2014). "The Loneliness of Vladimir Putin". The New Republic. ISSN 0028-6583. Retrieved January 21, 2019.
  40. ^ Ioffe, Julia (February 20, 2014). "Watch the Music Video That Pussy Riot Filmed While Cossacks Beat Them". The New Republic. ISSN 0028-6583. Retrieved January 21, 2019.
  41. ^ Ioffe, Julia (February 11, 2014). "Petty Corruption Has Killed the Great Russian Athletic Machine". The New Republic. ISSN 0028-6583. Retrieved January 21, 2019.
  42. ^ Ioffe, Julia (February 8, 2014). "The Only People Harassing the Gays of Sochi are the Foreign Journalists". The New Republic. ISSN 0028-6583. Retrieved January 21, 2019.
  43. ^ Ioffe, Julia (March 6, 2014). "Eastern Ukraine Is Still Fighting Its Past". The New Republic. ISSN 0028-6583. Retrieved January 21, 2019.
  44. ^ Ioffe, Julia (February 22, 2014). "Ukraine's Revolution Has Reached Its Climax. These Factors Will Determine What Happens Next". The New Republic. ISSN 0028-6583. Retrieved January 21, 2019.
  45. ^ Ioffe, Julia (February 23, 2014). "Yulia Tymoshenko Returns to Politics, and Ukraine's Liberals Aren't Too Pleased". The New Republic. ISSN 0028-6583. Retrieved January 21, 2019.
  46. ^ Ioffe, Julia (March 1, 2014). "Putin's War in Crimea Could Soon Spread to Eastern Ukraine". The New Republic. ISSN 0028-6583. Retrieved January 21, 2019.
  47. ^ Ioffe, Julia (June 17, 2014). "My Mind-Melting Week on the Battlefields of Ukraine". The New Republic. ISSN 0028-6583. Retrieved January 21, 2019.
  48. ^ Ioffe, Julia (May 21, 2014). "Inside the 11-Story Building That's Calling Itself the People's Republic of Donetsk". The New Republic. ISSN 0028-6583. Retrieved January 21, 2019.
  49. ^ Ioffe, Julia (May 23, 2014). "Pro-Putin Grannies Chased Away the Ukrainian Army. Then They Turned on Me". The New Republic. ISSN 0028-6583. Retrieved January 21, 2019.
  50. ^ Calderone, Michael (December 5, 2014). "New Republic Exodus: Dozens Of Editors Resign Over Management Changes". The Huffington Post.
  51. ^ Byers, Dylan (December 5, 2014). "New Republic staffers resign en masse". Politico.
  52. ^ Lizza, Ryan (December 12, 2014). "Inside the Collapse of The New Republic". The New Yorker. Retrieved May 3, 2022.
  53. ^ Brinker, Luke (December 13, 2014). "5 takeaways from the behind-the-scenes drama at The New Republic". Salon. Retrieved February 27, 2022.
  54. ^ Byers, Dylan (January 27, 2015). "Media moves: Ioffe, Fuller, Bruenig". Politico.
  55. ^ "Politico Magazine Adds Julia Ioffe as Contributing Writer". www.adweek.com. May 4, 2016. Retrieved May 19, 2016.
  56. ^ a b c "Journalist Apologizes for Tasteless Tweet About Donald and Ivanka Trump". www.mediaite.com. December 15, 2016. Retrieved December 15, 2016.
  57. ^ "Julia Ioffe Finished at Politico over Obscene Trump Tweet". nymag.com. December 14, 2016. Retrieved December 15, 2016.
  58. ^ "Politico Axes Julia Ioffe Over Tweet About Ivanka Trump". Snopes. December 15, 2016. Retrieved August 8, 2020.
  59. ^ "The Atlantic Hires Julia Ioffe to Cover Politics and Foreign Policy". www.theatlantic.com. December 6, 2016. Retrieved December 16, 2016.
  60. ^ Ioffe, Julia (November 13, 2017). "The Secret Correspondence Between Donald Trump Jr. and WikiLeaks". The Atlantic. Retrieved January 21, 2019.
  61. ^ Foer, Franklin; Ioffe, Julia (October 2, 2017). "Did Manafort Use Trump to Curry Favor With a Putin Ally?". The Atlantic. Retrieved January 21, 2019.
  62. ^ Ioffe, Julia (April 27, 2016). "Melania Trump Speaks! Her Rise, Her Family Secrets, and Her True Political Views: "Nobody Will Ever Know"". GQ. Retrieved February 27, 2022.
  63. ^ a b Anderson, L. V. (April 29, 2016). "Reporter Who Profiled Melania Trump in a Generally Positive Light Is Inundated With Anti-Semitic Threats". Slate. ISSN 1091-2339. Retrieved January 13, 2017.
  64. ^ a b c Wemple, Erik (April 29, 2016). "Why we can no longer laugh about the Trumps' media obsession". The Washington Post. ISSN 0190-8286. Retrieved January 13, 2017.
  65. ^ Flores, Reena (April 28, 2016). "Melania Trump trashes GQ after magazine's deep dive of family past". CBS News. Retrieved December 21, 2016.
  66. ^ Kurtz, Howard (April 29, 2016). "Why GQ's condescending Melania Trump profile goes too far". Fox News Channel. Retrieved December 21, 2016.
  67. ^ "Why GQ's Profile of Melania Trump Was Really Just a Hit Job". Maxim. April 29, 2016. Retrieved February 13, 2017.
  68. ^ Gambino, Lauren (April 28, 2016). "Journalist who profiled Melania Trump hit with barrage of antisemitic abuse". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved January 13, 2017.
  69. ^ "Melania Trump: Julia Ioffe 'Provoked' anti-Semitic Death Threats". Haaretz. May 18, 2017. Retrieved January 13, 2017.
  70. ^ Kaufman, Scott Eric (April 29, 2016). "The anti-Semitic invective this journalist drew for her Melania Trump profile will make you ill". Salon. Retrieved February 27, 2022.
  71. ^ Morton, Victor (October 29, 2018). "CNN commentator Julia Ioffe: Trump 'has radicalized so many more people than ISIS ever did'". The Washington Times. Retrieved October 29, 2018.
  72. ^ a b Baynes, Chris. "Trump calls CNN panelist 'sick woman' during TV interview". The Independent. Londondate=October 31, 2018. Retrieved October 31, 2018.{{cite news}}: CS1 maint: location (link)
  73. ^ @juliaioffe (October 27, 2018). "And a word to my fellow American Jews: This president makes this possible. Here. Where you live. I hope the embassy…" (Tweet) – via Twitter.
  74. ^ "Trump Slams GQ Writer Who Says He 'Radicalized' More People Than ISIS: 'Sick Woman'". The Wrap. October 30, 2018. Retrieved October 31, 2018.
  75. ^ Julia Ioffe (July 22, 2014). Julia Ioffe - The Colbert Report (Video). Comedy Central. Archived from the original on October 11, 2015. Retrieved April 11, 2022.
  76. ^ Julia Ioffe (March 25, 2022). Julia Ioffe, John Heilemann Sen, Jon Tester (Video). HBO. Retrieved April 11, 2022.
  77. ^ Shapiro, Rebecca (August 8, 2013). "New Republic's Julia Ioffe Calls Out Lawrence O'Donnell For 'Mansplaining Russia' To Her (VIDEO)". Huffington Post. Retrieved January 21, 2019.
  78. ^ Ioffe, Julia (August 8, 2013). "Dear Lawrence O'Donnell, Don't Mansplain to Me About Russia". The New Republic. ISSN 0028-6583. Retrieved January 21, 2019.
  79. ^ a b Bump, Philip (August 8, 2013). "You Can't Win a TV Argument in an Internet World". The Atlantic. Retrieved January 21, 2019.
  80. ^ "'Angry Grandpa' Lawrence O'Donnell Yelled at Julia Ioffe for Attempting Nuance on Cable News". Intelligencer. August 8, 2013. Retrieved January 21, 2019.
  81. ^ Clancy, Sean (November 24, 2019). "PAPER TRAILS: Not a Russian troll, Arkansan tells GQ writer". Arkansas Online. Retrieved April 12, 2021.
  82. ^ Julia Ioffe (March 10, 2022). Putin's Road to War: Julia Ioffe (interview): Frontline (Video). PBS. Retrieved April 11, 2022.