Alphonse Jacques de Dixmude
Alphonse, 1st Baron Jacques de Dixmude
|Birth name||Jules Marie Alphonse Jacques|
|Born||24 February 1858|
|Died||24 November 1928 (aged 70)|
Congo Free State
|Commands held||12th Regiment of the Line|
|Battles/wars||Battle of the Yser|
Congo Free StateEdit
Jacques was known for contributing to the brutality of the Congo Free State rule. After hearing that native Congolese forced laborers were severing vines instead of tapping them as ordered, he wrote to one of his subordinates: "Decidedly these people of [Inongo] are a bad lot. They have just been and cut some rubber vines...We must fight them until their absolute submission has been obtained, or their complete extermination...Inform the natives that if they cut another single vine, I will exterminate them to the last man."
Congo Arab warEdit
From 1886–1892, the Society of Missionaries of Africa had founded catholic missions at the north and south ends of Lake Tanganyika. Léopold Louis Joubert, a French soldier and armed auxiliary, was dispatched by Archbishop Charles Lavigerie's Society of Missionaries of Africa to protect the missionaries. The missionaries abandoned three of the new stations due to attacks by Tippu Tip and Rumaliza. By 1891 the Zanzibari slavers had control of the entire western shore of the lake, apart from the region defended by Joubert around Mpala and St Louis de Mrumbi. The anti-slavery expedition under Captain Alphonse Jacques—financed by the Belgian Anti-Slavery Society—came to the relief of Joubert on 30 Oktober 1892. When the Jacques expedition arrived Joubert's garrison was down to about two hundred men, poorly armed with "a most miscellaneous assortment of chassepots, Remingtons and muzzle-loaders, without suitable cartridges". He also had hardly any medicine left. Captain Jacques asked Joubert to remain on the defensive while his expedition moved north.On the 3rd of Januari 1892, Captain Alphonse Jacques' anti-slavery expedition founded the fortress of Albertville on the shores of Lake Tanganyika, and tried to put an end to the slave trade in the region. Rumaliza's troops surrounded Albertville on 5 April and besieged the outpost for 9 months. Eventually Rumaliza's forces had to retreat because of the arrival of the Long-Duvivier-Demol Anti-Slavery expedition, a relief column sent from Brussels at captain Alphonse Jacques's aide. Captain Jacques was soon sent back to Belgium and was promoted to colonel.
World War IEdit
Title, honours and armsEdit
"General Jacques" is commemorated by several streets, statues, and monuments around Belgium, including the "Boulevard Général Jacques" in Brussels as well as others in Nivelles, Chaudfontaine and Verviers and numerous statues. A bas-relief of Baron Jacques is included as part of the Liberty Memorial in Kansas City.
- Kingdom of Belgium:
- Congo Free State: Grand Cross of the Order of the Lion
- Russian Empire: Knight Grand Cross of the Order of Saint Anne
- France: Grand Officer of the Legion of Honour
- United Kingdom: Knight Grand Cross of the Order of St Michael and St George
- Kingdom of Serbia: Knight Grand cross of the Order of the Star of Karađorđe with swords
- Kingdom of Italy: Commander of the Order of Saints Maurice and Lazarus
- Distinguished Service Medal
- Croix de Guerre 1914–1918
- Silver Medal of Military Valor
- Hochschild, Adam (1998). King Leopold's Ghost: A Story of Greed, Terror, and Heroism in Colonial Africa. New York: First Mariner Books. pp. 228–229. ISBN 978-0-618-00190-3.
- "Il y a 80 ans, le 27 Mai 1927, Mourait le Captiaine Joubert" (in French). Lavigerie. Retrieved 2013-04-09.
- Shorter, Aylward (2003). "Joubert, Leopold Louis". Dictionary of African Christian Biography. Retrieved 2013-04-10.
- Ergo 2005, p. 43. sfn error: no target: CITEREFErgo2005 (help)
- Moloney, Joseph Augustus (30 July 2007). With Captain Stairs to Katanga: Slavery and Subjugation in the Congo 1891–1892. Jeppestown Press.p.56. ISBN 978-0-9553936-5-5.
- Swann, Alfred J. (6 December 2012). Fighting the Slave Hunters in Central Africa: A Record of Twenty-Six Years of Travel and Adventure Round the Great Lakes. Routledge.p.34. ISBN 978-1-136-25681-3.
- Cheza, Maurice (2005). "L'accompagnement arme- des missionaires dans l'Afrique des Grand Lacs: Les cas de Joubert et Vrithoff". Les conditions matérielles de la mission: contraintes, dépassements et imaginaires, XVIIe-XXe siècles : Actes du colloque conjoint du CREDIC, de l'AFOM et du Centre Vincent Lebbe : Belley (Ain) du 31 août au 3 septembre 2004 (in French). KARTHALA Editions. p. 96. ISBN 978-2-84586-682-9.
- Swann, p. 34. sfn error: no target: CITEREFSwann (help)
- "Op de Balkan stijgt de temperatuur". www.ars-moriendi.be.
- "Armoiries". www.jacquesdedixmude.net. Retrieved 22 March 2020.
Media related to Jules Marie Alphonse Jacques de Dixmude at Wikimedia Commons
- Ingels, A. "Jacques de Dixmude, Baron" (in French). congoposte.be. Retrieved 13 December 2012.
- Archive Jules Jacques de Dixmude, Royal Museum for Central Africa
- Newspaper clippings about Alphonse Jacques de Dixmude in the 20th Century Press Archives of the ZBW