Jugaaḍ (or "Jugaaṛ") is a colloquial word in Indo-Aryan languages, which refers to a non-conventional, frugal innovation, often termed a "hack".[1] It could also refer to an innovative fix or a simple work-around, a solution that bends the rules, or a resource that can be used in such a way. It is also often used to signify creativity: to make existing things work, or to create new things with meager resources. The closest equivalent to it in any other language is a word of French origin, Bricolage.

A temporary jugaad improvised repair for a broken support

Jugaad is increasingly accepted as a management technique[2][3] and is recognized all over the world as a form of frugal engineering.[4] Companies in Southeast Asia are adopting jugaad as a practice to reduce research and development costs.[5] Jugaad also applies to any kind of creative and out-of-the-box thinking or life hacks that maximize resources for a company and its stakeholders.

According to author and professor Jaideep Prabhu, jugaad is an "important way out of the current economic crisis in developed economies and also holds important lessons for emerging economies".[6]

Etymology and variants Edit

Jugaad water heater used in villages of Haryana and Punjab in India and Pakistan.

It is pronounced as jugaad or jugaadh in Hindi, while in Punjabi and Urdu it is pronounced as jugaar, with a hard "R" sound that can be misunderstood by non-native speakers as jugaad.

One potential origin is yog(a) meaning "joining" or "union", a cognate of yoke. There are similar idioms in the Southern Indian languages (for example, thattikootu (to 'put together') or oppeeru ('fixing' or 'getting') in Malayalam; or mazhattu ('to distract') or உத்தரம் in Tamil. In Telugu it is called ఉపాయము).

Another view is that the word originates from the Sanskrit word yukti which means "a solution (to a problem)". This view is the most likely one. The Yoga origins have no bridging words or ideas. Yukati lead to the word 'Jugat' meaning 'solution' and 'jugti' meaning 'one who can find solutions' in Punjabi. In Punjabi we can create a nonsense word to make a pair that goes together. If 'pani- pooni peo'..'drink water wooter' literally. So we say 'have you found a jugat jugad' for this problem?

Jugaad roughly corresponds to do-it-yourself (DIY) in the US, hacking or a bodge in the UK, urawaza (裏技) in Japanese, tapullo in parts of Italy, tǔ fǎ (土法) in China, Trick 17 in Germany, gambiarra in Brazil, système D. in France, jua kali in Kenya, or Number 8 wire in New Zealand; in addition, equivalent words within South Africa are 'n boer maak 'n plan in Afrikaans, izenzele in Zulu, iketsetse in Sotho, and itirele in Tswana.[7]

Jugaad technology: a motorcycle pulling another one by a rope

Low-cost vehicle Edit

Jugaad can also refer to a homemade or locally made vehicle in India, Pakistan and Bangladesh. They are made by local mechanics using wooden planks, metal sheets and parts taken from different machines and vehicles.

One type of jugaad is a quadricycle, a vehicle made of wooden planks and old SUV parts, variously known as kuddukka and peter rehra in North India. However, jugaad could be used as a term for any low cost vehicle which typically costs around Rs. 50,000 (about US$800).[8] Jugaads are powered by diesel engines originally intended to power agricultural irrigation pumps. They are known for poor brakes, and cannot go faster than about 60 km/h (37 mph). The vehicle often carries more than 20 people at a time in remote locations and poor road conditions.

Though no statistical data is available, it is reported that there are a number of instances of failing brakes, requiring a passenger to jump off and manually apply a wooden block as a brake. As part of research for his 2013 book, Innovation and a Global Knowledge Economy in India, Thomas Birtchnell, a lecturer of Sustainable Communities at University of Wollongong, Australia, found that of 2,139 cases of road traffic casualties in 72 hours at J N Medical College hospital in Aligarh, 13.88% of pedestrian casualties were due to jugaad. It was stated by Minister of State for Road Transport and Highways Pon Radhakrishnan that jugaads do not conform to the specifications of a Motor Vehicle under the Motor Vehicles Act, 1988.[9] These vehicles hence do not have any vehicle registration plate and they are not registered with the Regional Transport Office (RTO). Hence, no road tax is paid on them, neither there exists any official count of such vehicles.

Jugaads are not officially recognized as road-worthy, and despite a few proposals to regulate them, vote-bank politics have trumped safety concerns. The improvised vehicles have now become rather popular as a means to transport all manner of burdens, from lumber to steel rods to school children.[10] For safety reasons the Government of India has officially banned jugaad vehicles.[11]

Another type of jugaad called bike-rehra or motorcycle-rehri, a motorcycle, moped or scooter modified into motorized trikes are used in the Punjab province of India and its neighboring states.[12][13]

Another type of jugaad called phat-phatri rickshaw or phatphatiya rickshaw, WWII-era Harley Davidson motorcycles modified into motorized trikes which were earlier used in New Delhi.[14]

A variant of the jugaad vehicle in Tamil Nadu in South India is the meen body vandi. This roughly translates to "fish bed vehicle" because they originated among local fishermen who needed a quick and cheap transport system to transport fish. It is a motorized tri-wheeler (derived from the non-motorized variant)[15][16] with a heavy-duty suspension and a motorcycle engine—typically recycled from Czech Yezdi or Enfield Bullet vehicles. Its origins are typical of other jugaadu innovations—dead fish are typically considered unhygienic, and vehicles that carry them cannot be typically used to carry anything else. Similar vehicles can be found throughout much of Southeast Asia.[17]

Another variant of the jugaad called chakkda rickshaw, a motorcycle modified into a tri-wheeler with truck wheels in the rear is used in Gujarat.[18]

The variant of jugaad in Pakistan is a motorcycle made into a motorized trike called chand-gari meaning "moon vehicle" or chingchee after the Chinese company Jinan Qingqi Co. LTD who first introduced these to the market.[19]

Today, a jugaad is one of the most cost-effective transportation solutions for rural Indians, Pakistanis and Bangladeshis.

See also Edit

Improvised ceiling mount for a laptop computer

Similar terms:

  • Bodge, an English term of similar meaning
  • Chindōgu, a Japanese term for deliberately "un-useful" inventions, created as a hobby and entertainment.
  • Urawaza, a Japanese term for life hacking
  • Redneck technology, an American term of similar meaning for innovations or improvisation using locally available materials
  • Gung-ho, a technique of guerilla industry employed at the Chinese Industrial Cooperatives in WWII
  • Kludge, an American-English term of similar meaning
  • Number 8 wire, a New Zealand term of similar meaning
  • System D, a French term for a manner of responding to challenges with quick thinking and improvisation
  • Gambiarra in Brazilian Portuguese, or desenrascar in European Portuguese, is an improvised solution using available materials or techniques.

Notes Edit

  1. ^ "जुगाड़" [creative improvisation]. aamboli.com.
  2. ^ "Jugaad: A New Growth Formula for Corporate America". Harvard Business Review Blog Network. 25 January 2010.
  3. ^ Bricolage in R&D Settings - IEEE Transactions on Engineering Management, doi:10.1109/TEM.2020.2997796, hdl:11343/241260, S2CID 225681071
  4. ^ "India's Next Global Export: Innovation". Bloomberg Businessweek. 2 December 2009.
  5. ^ "A snip at the price". The Economist. 28 May 2009.
  6. ^ "Cambridge expert says Indian 'jugaad' is lesson to world". 8 November 2013.
  7. ^ Angus Donald Campbell "Lay Designers: Grassroots Innovation for Appropriate Change", Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 2017
  8. ^ "Rural India's jugaad for cheap travel - Livemint". www.livemint.com. 25 March 2008. Retrieved 9 April 2016.
  9. ^ "One hack of a vehicle". The Indian Express. 25 October 2015. Retrieved 9 April 2016.
  10. ^ "Bal Mandir Public School Transportation".
  11. ^ "Govt issues order to seize jugaads". The Times of India. Archived from the original on 30 March 2013. Retrieved 12 July 2013.
  12. ^ "जुगाड़ू रेहड़ों का विधायक तलवाड़ और पार्षद मनीषा ने किया उद्घाटन".
  13. ^ "Punjab CM Bhagwant Mann 'unhappy' with transport dept decision to ban use of 'motorcycle rehri'".
  14. ^ "Phat-Phat: A reincarnation of Harley Davidson".
  15. ^ "Indian Tripurteurs A7".
  16. ^ Narayanan, Vivek (18 August 2017). "The hazards of native ingenuity". The Hindu.
  17. ^ "Motor Tricycle-Motor Tricycle Manufacturers, Suppliers and Exporters on alibaba.com".
  18. ^ "The Chakda: India's True Jugaad Vehicle - be on the Road | Live your Travel Dream!".
  19. ^ "Motorcycle rickshaws to be replaced with electric bikes".

Further reading Edit