Josquin des Prez

Josquin des Prez (French: [ʒɔskɛ̃ depʁe]; c. 1450–1455 – 27 August 1521) was a French composer of High Renaissance music.[3] A central figure of the Franco-Flemish School, Josquin is considered among the greatest composers of the Renaissance and had a profound influence on the music of 16th-century Europe.[4] He built on the work of his predecessors Du Fay and Binchois, and his elder contemporaries Ockeghem and Busnois, to develop a complex style of expressive—and often imitativepolyphony which informs much of his work. In addition, he pioneered the development of word painting and gradually departed from the early Renaissance emphasis on melismatic lines, preferring to use shorter, repeated motifs between voices. A singer himself, Josquin's compositions are chiefly vocal, including masses, motets and a variety of secular chansons. His better-known compositions include the masses Missa Pange lingua, Missa Hercules Dux Ferrariae, Missa L'homme armé super voces musicales and Missa L'homme armé sexti toni; the motets Ave Maria ... Virgo serena, Inviolata, integra et casta es Maria and Miserere mei, Deus; as well as the chanson Adieu mes amours, the frottola-inspired El Grillo and Nymphes des bois, a lament for Ockeghem.

A 1611 woodcut of Josquin des Prez, probably copied from a now-lost oil painting possibly executed during his lifetime.[1][n 1]

Much of Josquin's biography, particularly his origins and background, is riddled with uncertainty, and has been continuously revised by modern scholarship into the 21st-century. Born in the mid-15th century somewhere in the French-speaking area of Flanders, Josquin's earliest years are essentially unknown, though he may have been an altar boy or studied with Ockeghem. By 1477 he was in the choir of René of Anjou, and following a few years of uncertain activity he went to Condé-sur-l'Escaut in 1483 to collect inheritance from his father. Throughout the 1480s Josquin wrote some of his earliest compositions and may have traveled to Paris and Rome, but by 1484 was in the service of Ascanio Sforza, with whom he would travel throughout Italy. His exact whereabouts in the late 1480s are uncertain, but he came to Milan by 1489 to serve under Pope Innocent VIII, and then Pope Alexander VI. Here he laid claim to various benefices and possibly signed his name on a wall of the Sistine Chapel's choir gallery, making that—if authentic—the only surviving work in his own hand. Josquin may have left Rome anytime between 1494 and 1500, and eventually came to Ferrera, serving in a prestigious and high-paying position under Ercole I d'Este, for whom he wrote numerous works. He returned to Condé, spending the last 17 or so years of his life there in charge of a substantial workforce. Upon his death, numerous composers wrote laments and tributes for him, including Nicolas Gombert, Jacquet of Mantua and Jheronimus Vinders.

Josquin wrote both sacred and secular music, but it was his motets, which number over a hundred, that would be his most influential legacy.[5] These motets are often four-voiced psalm settings, and of considerable variety, both stylistically and structurally; Josquin appears to have experimented with the genre continuously throughout his life. His masses can generally be grouped into cantus firmus masses, paraphrase masses, parody masses, or those based on solmization or canonic structures. More than 370 works are attributed to him;[6] it was only after the advent of modern analytical scholarship that some of these attributions were challenged and revealed as mistaken, on the basis of stylistic features and manuscript evidence. While recent scholarship has cast doubt or rejected the authenticity of much music attributed to Josquin, the remaining compositions represent some of the most famous and enduring of the Renaissance.[7]

NameEdit

Josquin's full name is 'Jossequin Lebloitte dit Desprez', a fact unknown to scholars until the late 20th century.[8] This information stems from a pair of documents found in Condé dated to 1483, where he is referred to as the nephew of Gille Lebloitte dit Desprez and the son of Gossard Lebloitte dit Desprez.[9] The word "dit" is used to indicate common law names, and documents about Josquin's father and grandfather seems to indicate that the surname Desprez (or "despres"/"des pres") have been used in the family for at least two generations, possibly to distinguish them from other branches of the Lebloitte family.[10] The name "Lebloitte" is extremely rare and the reason that Josquin's family took up the more common surname "Desprez" remains uncertain.[11]

The name "Josquin" is a diminutive form of Josse, the French form of the name of a Judoc, a Breton saint of the 7th century.[12] During the 15th and 16th centuries, the name Josquin was common in regions of Flanders and Northern France.[13] This later name is given under a wide variety of spellings in French, Italian, and Latin, including 'Iosquinus Pratensis' and 'Iodocus a Prato'. His motet Illibata Dei virgo nutrix includes an acrostic of his name, where he spelled it "IOSQVIN Des PREZ".[14] Later documents from Condé, where he lived for the last years of his life, always referred to him as "Maistre Josse Desprez". This includes a letter written by the chapter of Notre-Dame de Condé to Margaret of Austria where he is named as "Josquin Desprez".[15] Opinions on whether his surname should be written as one word ("Desprez") or two ("des Prez") are divided, with publications in English preferring the latter and publications from continental Europe preferring the former.[16] Modern scholarship typically refers to the composer by 'Josquin', rather than 'des Prez/Desprez'.[17]

LifeEdit

Birth and backgroundEdit

 
Hainault and the surrounding area in the time of Josquin

Josquin's father and grandfather were both called, among other forms, Gossard des Pres. Both of them also served successively as sergent or policeman in the castellany of Ath, a subdivision of the County of Hainaut, and were active in the region between there and Tournai. The elder Gossard was documented from 1393 to 1425, and later became the mayor of Saint-Sauveur, a small village in which Josquin later held a benefice. The younger Gossard commenced his duty as policeman no later than 1440 and throughout his career was accused of numerous offenses, including multiple complaints of undue force; he disappeared from extant records after 1448.[n 2] Nothing is known of Josquin's mother; given her absence in surviving wills and other documents, it is likely that she was either not considered the composer's legitimate mother, or that she died soon after, or perhaps during, Josquin's birth. Around 1466, perhaps on the death of his father, Josquin was named by his uncle and aunt, Gille Lebloitte dit Desprez and Jacque Banestonne, as their heir.[19][20]

There is little known for certain about Josquin's early life.[21] Much is inferential and speculative, and has been the subject of immense discussion between scholars for centuries; the musicologist William Elders noted that "it could be called a twist of fate that neither the year, nor the place of birth of the greatest composer of the Renaissance is known".[8] Josquin is traditionally held to have been born c. 1450. A now-outdated theory held that he was born in around 1440, as he was long mistaken for another man, Jushinus de Kessalia, whose name was recorded in some documents as "Judocus de Picardia".[16][n 3] A reevaluation of his later career trajectory, name and family background has made this claim impossible.[21] Modern scholarship now continues to favor a birthdate around 1450, and at the latest 1455.[21] This would make him nearly the same age as his contemporaries, Loyset Compère and Heinrich Isaac, and slightly older than Jacob Obrecht.[21]

Josquin was born somewhere in the French-speaking area of Flanders, modern-day northeastern France or Belgium.[22] Despite his close association with Condé-sur-l'Escaut later in his life, modern scholarship has concluded that this was not his birthplace.[21][16][n 4] The only solid evidence for his exact birthplace is a later legal document in which Josquin himself described being born from beyond Noir Eauwe,[21] literally the "Black Water".[16] The exact meaning of this has puzzled scholars, and a variety of theories have been developed on which body of water is being referred to.[21] The L'Eau Noire river in the Ardennes has been proposed, and there is known to have been a village named 'Prez' there,[21] though Fallows contends that the complications surrounding Josquin's name makes a surname connection irrelevant, and that the river is too small and far from Condé to be a candidate.[23] Instead, Fallows proposes a birthplace near the rivers which meet at Condé, the Escaut and Haine, preferring the latter since it was known for transporting coal, which might have made the river fit the "Black Water" description.[24] If the Haine theory is correct, that would mean Josquin was born in the County of Hainaut, which would fit with a 1560 verse by the poet Pierre de Ronsard which labels Josquin as such.[25] Other theories include a birth near Saint-Quentin, Aisne, due to his early association with the Collegiate Church of Saint-Quentin, or in the small village of Beaurevoir, which is near Escaut, a river that may be referred to by an acrostic in his later motet Illibata Dei virgo nutrix.[21][n 5]

Early lifeEdit

 
Comparison of Josquin's double motet Alma Redemptoris mater/Ave regina caelorum (top) and Ockeghem's Alma Redemptoris mater (bottom). Ockeghem's initial motif is seemingly quoted by Josquin (both identified by brackets).

No certain documents survive concerning Josquin's education or upbringing.[26] Fallows identifies him with 'Goseequin de Condent', recorded as an altar boy at the collegiate church of Saint-Géry, Cambrai until the summer of 1466.[27] Other scholars such as Gustave Reese relay a 17th-century account of from Cardinal Richelieu's friend Claude Hémeré, who contended that Josquin became a choirboy with his friend Jean Mouton at the Collegiate Church of Saint-Quentin,[26] though doubt has been cast of the reliability of this account.[21] All records from Saint-Quentin were destroyed in 1669; however, the collegiate chapel there was a center of music for the entire area, and was an important center of royal patronage. Compère and Jean Mouton were buried there and it is possible that Josquin acquired his later connections with the French royal chapel through an early association with Saint-Quentin.[21] Alternatively, Josquin may have studied under Johannes Ockeghem, a leading composer whom he greatly admired throughout his life. This is suggested both by the testimony of Gioseffo Zarlino and Lodovico Zacconi, writing later in the 16th century, and by Josquin's lamentation on the death of Ockeghem in 1497, Nymphes des bois/Requiem aeternam.[21] However, there is no solid evidence for this tutorship, and is possible that later commentators were stating that Josquin only "learnt from the older composer’s example".[21]

It is possible Josquin was associated with Cambrai Cathedral, as there is a 'des Prez' listed is among the Cathedral's musicians listed in Omnium bonorum plena, a motet by Compère.[28] The motet, composed before 1474, names some of the most important musicians of the time, including Antoine Busnois, Johannes Tinctoris, Johannes Regis, Ockeghem and most notably Guillaume Du Fay.[21] Though the motet may instead refer to Pasquier Desprez, there is substantial evidence that it indicates Josquin, raising questions about his possible early association with Cambrai and important musicians of the period.[21][29][n 6] Regardless of a direct connection of not, he was certainly influenced by the music Du Fay,[30] though the musicologist Alejandro Planchart asserts that the impact was not a particularly large one.[31] Ockeghem's influence on Josquin was substantial; he quoted Ockeghem a few times, most directly in his double motet Alma Redemptoris mater/Ave regina caelorum which shares an opening line with Ockeghem's motet Alma Redemptoris mater.[21][32][n 7][n 8]

The first definite record of Josquin's employment is dated 19 April 1477, and shows that he was a singer at the chapel of René, Duke of Anjou, in Aix-en-Provence. He remained there at least until 1478. No certain records of his movements exist for the period from March 1478 to 1483, but if he remained in the employ of René he would have transferred to Paris in 1481 along with the rest of the chapel. One of Josquin's early motets, Misericordias Domini in aeternum cantabo, suggests a direct connection with Louis XI, who was king during this time. In 1483, Josquin returned to Condé to claim his inheritance from his aunt and uncle, who may have been killed by the army of Louis XI in May 1478, when they besieged the town, locked the population into the church, and burned them alive.[34]

Milan and travelsEdit

Tentative outline of Josquin's life from 1483–1489[35]
Date Location Confidence
March 1483 Condé Certainly
August 1483 Departure from Paris Possibly
March 1484 Rome Possibly
June–August 1484 Milan (with Ascanio) Certainly
Up to July 1484 Rome (with Ascanio) Certainly
July 1485 Plans to leave (with Ascanio) Certainly
1485 – ? Hungary Possibly
January – February 1489 Milan Certainly
Early May 1489 Milan Probably
June 1489 Rome (in Sistine Chapel Choir) Certainly

The period from 1480 to 1482 has puzzled biographers; contradictory evidence exists suggesting either that Josquin was still in France, or that he was already in the service of the Sforza family, specifically with Ascanio Sforza, who had been banished from Milan and resided temporarily in Ferrara or Naples. Residence in Ferrara in the early 1480s could explain the Missa Hercules dux Ferrariae, composed for Ercole d'Este, but which stylistically does not fit with the usual date of 1503–04 when Josquin was known to be in Ferrara. Alternatively it has been suggested that Josquin spent some of that time in Hungary, based on a mid-16th-century Roman document describing the Hungarian court in those years, and including Josquin as one of the musicians present.[36]

Though he may arrived immediately after his 1483 trip to Condé, a surviving record indicates that Josquin was in Milan by at least 15 May 1484.[36] By this time, Milan had become the musical center of Europe, with sacred music of the Milan Cathedral in particular having a reputation for excellence.[37] It was common for composers to galvanize their careers in Italy, as along with Milan, the courts in Naples and Ferrara were emerging as musically prominent, while the musical establishment of Josquin's native Burgundy had been declining since the death of Charles the Bold in 1477.[38] Josquin was employed by the House of Sforza, with a surviving record from 20 June 1984 stating his employment in service of the cardinal Ascanio Sforza.[39]

While in their employ, he made one or more trips to Rome, and possibly also to Paris; while in Milan he made the acquaintance of Franchinus Gaffurius, who was maestro di cappella of the cathedral there. He was in Milan again in 1489, after a possible period of travel; but he left that year.[40]

RomeEdit

From June 1489 until at least April 1494, Josquin was a member of the papal choir in Rome, first under Pope Innocent VIII, and later under the Borgia pope Alexander VI.[41][n 9] Josquin may have arrived there due to an exchange of singers between Ludovico Sforza and Pope Innocent, where the latter sent Gaspar van Weerbeke to Milan, presumably in return for Josquin.[41] It is possible that Josquin's arrival brought much-needed prestige to the choir, as the composers Gaspar and Johannes de Stokem had left recently and the only other choristers known to be composers were Marbrianus de Orto and Bertrandus Vaqueras.[43][n 10] Two months after his arrival, Josquin laid claim to the first of various benefices in 18 August.[44] Holding three unrelated benefices at once, without having residency there or needing to speak that area's language, was a special privilege that Josquin's tenure and position offered;[45] many of his choir colleagues had made use of such privileges as well.[41] His claims included a canonry at the Notre-Dame de Paris; Saint Omer, Cambrai; a parish in the gift of Saint-Ghislain Abbey; the Basse-Yttre parish church; two parishes near Frasnes, Hainaut; and Saint-Géry, Cambrai.[41] Surviving papal letters indicate that he claim was approved for a few of these, but he does not appear to have formally taken up any of the canonries.[45]

 
Josquin's presumed signature (JOSQUINJ) on Sistine Chapel's choir gallery wall

The chapel's monthly payment records give the most consistent and substantial extant record of Josquin's career at any period; however, all papal chapel records from April 1494 to November 1500 are lost, making it uncertain when he left Rome.[42] The most likely scenarios are that he either stayed in Rome for a few years, or lived in northern Europe for that time.[46]

After restorations from 1997–1998, the name JOSQUINJ was found as graffito on the wall of the Sistine Chapel's cantoria (choir gallery).[41][47] This inscription is one of almost four hundred names inscribed in the chapel, around a hundred of which can be identified with singers of the papal choir.[47] They date from the 15th to 18th centuries, and the 'Josquin/Josquinus' seems to be from the 15th.[48][n 11] There is some evidence suggesting the name refers to Josquin des Prez; it may be interpreted as either 'Josquin' or 'Josquinus', depending on whether the curved line on the far right is read as the abbreviation for 'us'.[47] Either way, other choristers named Josquin tended to sign their name in full, whereas Josquin des Prez is known do have done so mononymously on some occasions.[47] A relatively early account from Andrea Adami da Bolsena in his 1711 Osservazioni per ben regolare il coro dei cantori della Cappella Pontificia notes that in his time Josquin's name was visibly 'sculpted' in the Sistine Chapel's choir room.[48] The musicologist Richard Sherr notes that "while this is not a true autograph signature, the possibility that Josquin des Prez actually produced it durning his stay in the papal chapel is very high",[48] and Fallows notes that "it hardly counts as an autograph, but it may be the closest we can get."[49]

Milan and FranceEdit

Around 1498, Josquin most likely re-entered the service of the Sforza family, on the evidence of a pair of letters between the Gonzaga and Sforza families.[50] He probably did not stay in Milan long, for in 1499 Louis XII captured Milan in his invasion of northern Italy and imprisoned Josquin's former employers. Around this time Josquin most likely returned to France, although documented details of his career around the turn of the 16th century are lacking. Prior to departing Italy, he most likely wrote one of his most famous secular compositions, the frottola El Grillo, as well as In te Domine speravi ("I have placed my hope in you, Lord"), based on Psalm 30. The latter composition may have been a veiled reference to the religious reformer Girolamo Savonarola, who had been burned at the stake in Florence in 1498, and for whom Josquin seems to have had a special reverence; the text was the Dominican friar's favorite psalm, a meditation on which he left incomplete in prison prior to his execution.[51]

Some of Josquin's compositions, such as the instrumental Vive le roy, have been tentatively dated to the period around 1500 when he was in France. A motet, Memor esto verbi tui servo tuo ("Remember thy promise unto thy servant"), was, according to Heinrich Glarean writing in the Dodecachordon of 1547, composed as a gentle reminder to the king to keep his promise of a benefice to Josquin, which he had forgotten to keep. According to Glarean's story, it worked: the court applauded, and the king gave Josquin his benefice. Upon receiving it, Josquin reportedly wrote a motet on the text Benefecisti servo tuo, Domine ("Lord, thou hast dealt graciously with thy servant") to show his gratitude to the king.[52]

FerraraEdit

 
Ercole I d'Este, an important patron of the arts, was Josquin's employer during 1503–1504.

By 30 May 1503, Josquin arrived in Ferrara, and the deed he signed that day indicates he did not intend to stay there for long.[53] He had come to the city to serve under Ercole I d'Este, Duke of Ferrara, an important arts patron who had been trying for many years to replace the recently-deceased composer and choirmaster Johannes Martini.[54][55] Though no extant documents record Josquin as having worked in Ferrara before, his earlier connections with Ercole and the general uncertainty of his career suggest he may have.[56] Two rare letters survive explaining the circumstances of his arrival, both from courtiers who scouted out musical talent in the service of Ercole.[57] The first of these was from Girolamo da Sestola (nicknamed 'Coglia') to Ercole, explaining that "My lord, I believe that there is neither lord nor king who will now have a better chapel than yours if your lordship sends for Josquin [...] and by having Josquin in our chapel I want to place a crown upon this chapel of ours" (14 August 1502).[50] The second extant letter, from the courtier Gian de Artiganova, criticized Josquin and promoted Heinrich Isaac instead:[58]

"To me [Isaac] seems well suited to serve your lordship, more so than Josquin, because he is more good-natured and companionable, and will compose new works more often. It is true that Josquin composes better, but he composes when he wants to and not when one wants him to, and he is asking 200 ducats in salary while Isaac will come for 120 — but your lordship will decide."

— Gian de Artiganova to Ercole I d'Este, 2 September 1502[50][n 12]

Around three months later Josquin was eventually decided over Isaac; his salary of 200 ducats was the highest ever earned by a ducal chapel member.[59] The well-known letter from Artiganova is a unique reference to Josquin's personality, which the musicologist Patrick Macey interprets as meaning Josquin was "difficult colleague and that he took an independent attitude towards producing music for his patrons".[50] The Josquin scholar Edward Lowinsky connected his purportedly 'difficult' behavior with musical talent, and used the letter as evidence that Josquin's contemporaries recognized his 'genius'.[60][61] Differently, musicologist Rob Wegman expresses hesitancy in connecting Josquin's supposed personality to 'genius', and questions whether meaningful conclusions can be drawn from such an anecdote.[62] In a later publication, Wegman notes the largely unprecedented nature of such a position in the first place and warns that "yet of course the letter could equally well be seen to reflect the attitudes and expectations of its recipient, Ercole d'Este".[63]

While in Ferrara, Josquin wrote some of his most famous compositions, including the austere, Savonarola-influenced Miserere mei, Deus,[64] which became one of the most widely distributed motets of the 16th century.[65] Also probably from this period was the virtuoso motet Virgo salutiferi, set to a poem by Ercole Strozzi, and O virgo prudentissima on a poem by Poliziano.[66] It is possible that the well-known Missa Hercules Dux Ferrariae, was written at this time, but while the it was certainly written for Ercole, there is controversy whether its composition occurred in this period.[67] Josquin did not stay in Ferrara long. An outbreak of the plague in the summer of 1503 prompted the evacuation of the Duke and his family, as well as two-thirds of the citizens, and Josquin left by April of the next year, possibly also to escape the plague. His replacement, Jacob Obrecht, died of the plague in the summer of 1505.[66]

Condé-sur-l'EscautEdit

 
The four-voice motet Domine, ne in furore is a later work by Josquin

Josquin probably went directly from Ferrara to his home region of Condé-sur-l'Escaut, and became provost of the collegiate church of Notre-Dame on 3 May 1504.[68][n 13] Though this is the traditional account, the original record does not survive and Fallows has expressed uncertainty concerning contradictory documents and whether Josquin could have made the trip so quickly.[70] His obtainment of the post may have been helped by sponsorship from Philip I of Castile, and Notre-Dame's previous provost, Pierre Duwez, was asked to resign and take a position in Douai instead.[68] Josquin's role gave him political responsibility, and put him in-charge of a substantial workforce, including a dean, treasurer, 25 canons, 18 chaplains, 16 vicars, 6 choir-boys and other priests.[71] Numerous factors would have likely made this an appealing place for Josquin live in old age: it was near his birthplace, had a renowned choir and was the leading musical establishment in Hainaut, besides St. Vincent at Soignies and Cambrai Cathedral.[68] Very few records of Josquin's activity survive from this time; one document states that he bought a house in September 1504, though another says he sold it (or possibly a different house) in November 1508.[72] While the chapter at Bourges Cathedral asked him to become master of the choirboys there in 1508, it is not known how he responded, and there is no record of his having been employed there; most scholars presume he remained in Condé.[73] In 1509, he held concurrently provost and choir master offices at Saint Quentin collegiate church.

During the last two decades of his life, Josquin's fame spread abroad along with his music. The newly developed technology of printing made wide dissemination of his music possible, and Josquin was the favorite of the first printers: one of Petrucci's first publications, and the earliest surviving print of music by a single composer, was a book of Josquin's masses which he printed in Venice in 1502. This publication was successful enough that Petrucci published two further volumes of Josquin's masses, in 1504 and 1514, and reissued them several times.[74]

On his death-bed, Josquin asked that he be listed on the rolls as a foreigner, so that his property would not pass to the Lords and Ladies of Condé.[75] This bit of evidence has been used to show that he was French by birth. Additionally, he left an endowment for the performance of his late motet, Pater noster, at all general processions in the town when they passed in front of his house, stopping to place a wafer on the marketplace altar to the Holy Virgin. Pater noster may have been his last work.[76]

MusicEdit

OverviewEdit

 
Agnus Dei II, from Josquin's Missa L'homme armé super voces musicales, as reprinted in the Dodecachordon of Heinrich Glarean

Following death of Guillaume Du Fay in 1474, Josquin and his contemporaries lived in a musical world of frequent stylistic change.[31] This transitional period was in part due to the movement of musicians between different regions of Europe.[77] A long line of commentators, including August Wilhelm Ambros, Otto Ursprung [de], Friedrich Blume, Helmuth Osthoff and Noble have credited Josquin with three primary developments: 1) the gradual departure from extensive melismatic lines, and emphasis instead on smaller motifs.[78] These 'motivic cells' were, short, easily and recognizable melodic fragments which passed from voice to voice in a contrapuntal texture, giving it an inner unity.[79] 2) The prominent use of imitative polyphony, equally between voices, which "combines a rational and homogeneous integration of the musical space with a self-renewing rhythmic impetus".[78] Lastly, 3) a focus on the text, the meaning of which musical aspects serve to further emphasize—i. e. word painting.[78] Noble concludes that these three innovations demonstrate the transition from the earlier music of Du Fay and Ockeghem, to Josquin's successors Adrian Willaert and Jacques Arcadelt, and eventually to the late Renaissance composers, Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina and Orlande de Lassus.[78]

A professional singer throughout his life, Josquin's music is almost exclusively vocal.[5] He wrote compositions in primarily three genres: the mass, motet, and chanson (with french-text).[5] In his 50 year career, Josquin's oeuvre numbers more works than any composer of his period, besides perhaps Isaac and Obrecht.[80] Establishing a chronology of his compositions is immensely difficult; the sources in which they were published scarcely offer evidence, and both historical and contextual connections are meager.[81] Few manuscripts of Josquin's music date from before the 16th-century, due to, according to Noble, "time, war and enthusiasm (both religious and anti-religious)".[80] Thus, identifying earlier works is particularly difficult, while later works only occasionally offer anymore certainty.[80]

MassesEdit

 
Manuscript showing the opening Kyrie of the Missa de Beata Virgine, a late work. Rome, Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana, Capp. Sist. 45, ff. 1v-2r.

By the 15th century, the mass was firmly secured as a central genre in Western classical music, and new compositions of it were in high demand.[82] By Josquin's time, typical masses had become generally standardized into a substantial, five-movement work—including the Kyrie, Gloria, Credo, Sanctus and Agnus Dei—and were both highly polyphonic and the central rite of the Catholic Church.[82] Josquin and his contemporaries were faced with a daunting legacy to follow, as previous examples in the genre by composers such as Du Fay and Ockeghem were widely admired and emulated.[82] These pressures stimulated an intense flowering of the genre, lead by Josquin and Obrecht in the late 15th-century.[83][82] Compared to his motets, Josquin's masses are generally less progressive—though he is credited with numerous innovations in the genre.[82] His less-radical approach may be explained by most of his masses being earlier works, or the structural and textual limitations that define the genre.[82]

Josquin wrote masses which can be loosely categorized into the following styles:

  • canonic mass, in which an entire mass is based on canonic techniques, and no pre-existing material has been identified.
  • cantus firmus mass, in which a pre-existing tune appeared, mostly unchanged, in one voice of the texture, with the other voices being more or less freely composed;
  • paraphrase mass, in which a pre-existing tune was used freely in all voices, and in many variations;
  • parody mass, in which a pre-existing multi-voice song appeared in whole or in part, with material from all voices in use, not just the tune;
  • soggetto cavato, or solmization mass, in which the tune is drawn from the syllables of a name or phrase (for example "la sol fa re mi"—A, G, F, D, E—based on the syllables of Lascia fare mi ("let me do it", a phrase used by an unknown patron, in a context around which much legend has arisen).[84]

In the mid-Renaissance, masses had begun to loose their dedication to strict versions based on cantus firmi.[85] Josquin was a pioneer writing paraphrase and parody masses, neither of which were well established before the 16th-century.[85] Many of his works combine the cantus firmus style with those of these two, making strict categorization sometimes problematic.[85] Reflecting on Josquin's masses, the musicologist Jeremy Noble notes that "In general his instinct, at least in his mature works, seems to be to extract as much variety as possible from his given musical material, sacred or secular, by any appropriate means."[85]

Canonic massesEdit

 
Opening of the Agnus Dei II from the Missa L'homme armé super voces musicales.  Play  The movement consists of a three-out-of-one mensuration canon. The middle voice is the slowest; the lowest voice sings at twice the speed of the middle voice, and the top voice at three times the speed. The first four notes of the canon are shown connected by lines of the same color. (The first eight notes of the canon are a quotation of the contratenor of Ockeghem's "Ma bouche rit".)

Canonic masses came into increasing prominence in the latter part of the 15th century. Early examples include Ockeghem's famous Missa prolationum, consisting entirely of mensuration canons, the Missa L'homme armé of Guillaume Faugues, whose cantus firmus is presented in canon at the descending fifth, the Missa [Ad fugam] of Marbrianus de Orto, based on freely composed canons at the fifth between superius and tenor, and the two great canonic masses of Josquin, the Missa Ad fugam and Missa Sine nomine. Josquin makes use of canon in the Osanna and Agnus Dei III of the Missa L'homme armé sexti toni, throughout the Missa Sine nomine and Missa Ad fugam, and in the final three movements of the Missa De beata virgine. The Missa L'homme armé super voces musicales incorporates mensuration canons in the Kyrie, Benedictus, and Agnus Dei II.[86][87][85]

Cantus-firmus massesEdit

Prior to Josquin's mature period, the most common technique for writing masses was the cantus firmus, a technique which had been in use already for most of the 15th century. It was the technique that Josquin used earliest in his career, with the Missa L'ami Baudichon, considered one of his earliest masses.[85] This mass is based on a secular—indeed ribald—tune similar to "Three Blind Mice". That basing a mass on such a source was an accepted procedure is evident from the existence of the mass in Sistine Chapel part-books copied during the papacy of Julius II (1503 to 1513).[88]

Josquin's most famous cantus-firmus masses are the two based on the "L'homme armé" (lit.'the armed man') tune, which was the favorite tune for mass composition of the entire Renaissance. The earlier of the two, Missa L'homme armé super voces musicales, is a technical tour-de-force on the tune, containing numerous mensuration canons and contrapuntal display.[89] The second, Missa L'homme armé sexti toni, is a "fantasia on the theme of the armed man."[90] While based on a cantus firmus, it is also a paraphrase mass, for fragments of the tune appear in all voices. Technically it is almost restrained, compared to the other L'homme armé mass, until the closing Agnus Dei, which contains a complex canonic structure including a rare retrograde canon, around which other voices are woven.[91]

Paraphrase massesEdit

The paraphrase technique differs from the cantus-firmus technique in that the source material, though it still consists of a monophonic original, is embellished, often with ornaments. As in the cantus-firmus technique, the source tune may appear in many voices of the mass.[92] Several of Josquin's masses feature the paraphrase technique, such as the Missa Gaudeamus. The relatively early Missa Ave maris stella, which probably dates from his years in the Sistine Chapel choir, paraphrases the Marian antiphon of the same name; it is also one of his shortest masses.[93] The late Missa de Beata Virgine paraphrases plainchants in praise of the Virgin Mary; it is a Lady Mass, a votive mass for Saturday performance, and was his most popular mass in the 16th century.[86][94]

By far the most famous of Josquin's masses using the technique, and one of the most famous mass settings of the entire era, was the Missa pange lingua, based on the hymn by Thomas Aquinas for the Vespers of Corpus Christi. It was probably the last mass that Josquin composed.[95] This mass is an extended fantasia on the tune, using the melody in all voices and in all parts of the mass, in elaborate and ever-changing polyphony. One of the high points of the mass is the et incarnatus est section of the Credo, where the texture becomes homophonic, and the tune appears in the topmost voice; here the portion which would normally set "Sing, O my tongue, of the mystery of the divine body" is instead given the words "And he became incarnate by the Holy Ghost from the Virgin Mary, and was made man."[96]

Parody massesEdit

In parody masses, the source material was not a single line, but an entire texture, often of a popular song. Several works by Josquin fall loosely into this category, including the Missa Fortuna desperata, based on the three-voice song Fortuna desperata (possibly by Antoine Busnois); the Missa Malheur me bat (based on a chanson variously ascribed to Obrecht, Ockeghem, or, most likely, Abertijne Malcourt);[85] and the Missa Mater Patris, based on a three-voice motet by Antoine Brumel. The Missa Mater Patris is probably the first true parody mass to be composed, for it no longer contains any hint of a cantus firmus.[97] Parody technique was to become the most usual means of mass composition for the remainder of the 16th century, although the mass gradually fell out of favor as the motet grew in esteem.

Masses on solmization syllablesEdit

The earliest known mass by any composer using solmization syllables—the soggetto cavato—is the Missa Hercules Dux Ferrariae, which Josquin wrote for Ercole I in the late 15th century.[67][86] The notes of the cantus firmus are drawn from the musical syllables of the Duke's name: Ercole, Duke of Ferrara in Latin is Hercules Dux Ferrarie. Taking the solmization syllables with the same vowels gives: Re–Ut–Re–Ut–Re–Fa–Mi–Re (in modern nomenclature: D–C–D–C–D–F–E–D).[98][99] Another mass using this technique is the Missa La sol fa re mi, based on the musical syllables contained in "Lascia fare mi" ("let me do it"). The story, as told by Glarean in 1547, was that an unknown aristocrat used to order suitors away with this phrase, and Josquin immediately wrote an "exceedingly elegant" mass on it as a jab at him.[99]

MotetsEdit

 
The opening passage from Josquin's motet Ave Maria ... Virgo serena, which demonstrates imitative counterpoint between the four voices

Out of Josquin's entire oeuvre, his motets remain his most celebrated and influential works.[5] His motet style varies considerably,[5] but can generally be divided into three groups: 1) almost strictly homophonic settings with block chords and syllabic text declamation; 2) highly ornate—and often imitative—contrapuntal fantasias which in which the text is overshadowed by music and 3) psalm settings which combined these extremes with the addition of rhetorical figures and text-painting that foreshadowed the later development of the madrigal.[100] He wrote most of his motets for four voices, an ensemble size which had become the compositional norm around the mid-15th century, and descended from the four part writing of Guillaume de Machaut and John Dunstaple in the late Middle Ages.[101] Though not the first to write motets for five and six voices, Josquin was also a considerable innovator in those genres.[102]

Many of Josquin's motets use some kind of compositional constraint on the process,[103] though others are freely composed.[104] Some of them use a cantus firmus as a unifying device; some are canonic; some use a motto which repeats throughout; some use several of these methods. The motets which use canon can be roughly divided into two groups: those in which the canon is plainly designed to be heard and appreciated as such, and another group in which a canon is present, but not exposed and difficult to hear.[105] Josquin frequently used imitation in writing his motets, with sections akin to fugal expositions occurring on successive lines of the text he was setting.[104] This is prominent in his well-known motet Ave Maria ... Virgo serena, an early work where each voice enters by restating the line sung before them.[104][n 14] Other early works such as a Alma Redemptoris mater/Ave regina caelorum show prominent imitation,[104] as do later ones such as his setting of Dominus regnavit (Psalm 93), for four voices.[107][n 15] The technique would remain favored throughout Josquin's career.[104]

In writing polyphonic settings of psalms, Josquin was a pioneer, and psalm settings form a large proportion of the motets of his later years.[104] Few composers prior to Josquin had written polyphonic psalm settings.[108] Some of Josquin's settings include the famous Miserere, written in Ferrara in 1503 or 1504 and most likely inspired by the recent execution of the reformist monk Girolamo Savonarola,[109] Memor esto verbi tui, based on Psalm 119, and two settings of De profundis (Psalm 130), both of which are often considered to be among his most significant accomplishments.[107][110] Josquin wrote several examples of a new type of piece developed by the composers in Milan, the motet-chanson.[111] Though similar to 15th century based on the formes fixes mold, they differed in that unlike those completely secular works, they contained a chant-derived Latin cantus-firmus in the lowest of the three voices.[111] The other voices, in French, sang a secular text which had either a symbolic relationship to the sacred Latin text, or commented on it.[111] Josquin's three known motet-chansons are Que vous madame/In pace, A la mort/Monstra te esse matrem, and Fortune destrange plummaige/Pauper sum ego.[111]

Secular musicEdit

In the domain of secular music, Josquin left numerous French chansons, for three to six voices—though some were probably intended for instrumental performance as well—and a handful of Italian secular songs known as frottole.[112] Inside of his chansons, he often used a cantus firmus, sometimes a popular song whose origin can no longer be traced, as in Si j'avoye Marion.[113] Other times he used a tune originally associated with a separate text; and still other times he freely composed an entire song, using no apparent external source material. Another technique he sometimes used was to take a popular song and write it as a canon with itself, in two inner voices, and write new melodic material above and around it, to a new text: he used this technique in one of his most famous chansons, Faulte d'argent ("The problem with money").[114]

Josquin's earliest chansons were probably composed in northern Europe, under the influence of composers such as Ockeghem and Busnois. Unlike them, however, he never adhered strictly to the conventions of the formes fixes—the rigid and complex repetition patterns of the rondeau, virelai, and ballade—instead he often wrote his early chansons in strict imitation, a feature they shared with many of his sacred works.[86] He was one of the first composers of chansons to make all voices equal parts of the texture; and many of his chansons contain points of imitation, in the manner of motets. However he did use melodic repetition, especially where the lines of text rhymed, and many of his chansons had a lighter texture, as well as a faster tempo, than his motets.[86][114] Some of his chansons were almost certainly designed to be performed instrumentally. That Petrucci published many of them without text is strong evidence of this; additionally, some of the pieces (for example, the fanfare-like Vive le roy) contain writing more idiomatic for instruments than voices.[114] Josquin's most famous chansons circulated widely in Europe; some of the better-known include his lament on the death of Ockeghem, Nymphes des bois/Requiem aeternam; Mille regretz, an uncertain attribution to Josquin;[n 16] Nimphes, nappés; and Plus nulz regretz.[115]

Problems of attribution are even more acute with the chansons than they are with other portions of his output: while about 70 three and four-voice chansons were published under his name during his lifetime, only six of the more than thirty five- and six-voice chansons attributed to him were circulated under his name during the same time.[n 17] Many of the attributions added after his death are considered to be unreliable, and much work has been done in the last decades of the 20th century to correct attributions on stylistic grounds.[112][114]

In addition to his French chansons, Josquin wrote at least three pieces in the manner of the Italian frottola, a popular Italian song form which he would have encountered during his years in Milan. These songs include Scaramella, El grillo, and In te domine speravi. They are even simpler in texture than his French chansons, being almost uniformly syllabic and homophonic, and they remain among his most frequently performed pieces.[86][114]

PortraitsEdit

(Left) Early 16th-century painting attributed to Filippo Mazzola, with a man holding the canon by Josquin. It possibly depicts Josquin or Nicolò Burzio [it]
(Right) The Portrait of a Musician by Leonardo da Vinci, 1483–1487, in which Josquin has been proposed as the sitter, though without any certainty

A small woodcut with the caption "Josquinus Pratensis" depicting Josquin is the most reproduced image any Renaissance composer.[116] Printed in Petrus Opmeer's 1611 Opus chronographicum orbis universi, the woodcut is the earliest known depiction of the Josquin and presumably based on the oil portrait painting which Opmeer says was kept in the collegiate church of St. Goedele.[117][n 18] Church documents discovered in the 1990s have corroborated Opmeer's once unverifiable statement about the oil painting's existence.[119] The painting may have been painted during Josquin's lifetime, and was subsequently owned by Petrus Jacobi (d. 1568), a cantor and organist at St. Gudula, Brussels.[116][1] Jacobi's will dictated that the portrait was to be combined with a portrait of St. Peter and one of Jacobi himself as a triptych.[116] Following the will's instructions, the altarpiece was placed next to Jacobi's tomb, but destroyed in the late 16th-century by Protestant iconoclasts.[1] Whether the woodcut is a realistic likeness of the oil painting remains uncertain.[2] The original oil painting is described as "with a very distinguished expression and charming eyes", but Elders contends that comparisons between contemporaneous derivative woodcuts whose original paintings survive show in incompetent realizations, putting the accuracy of the woodcut into question.[120]

A portrait from the early 16th-century kept in the Galleria nazionale di Parma is often related to Josquin. The work is usually attributed to Filippo Mazzola and thought to depict the Italian music theorist Nicolò Burzio [it], though neither the attribution or sitter are certain.[121] The man in the painting is holding sheet music, which has been identified as an altered version of Guillaume se va chauffer, a canon by Josquin.[122] Whether the subject is Josquin himself remains uncertain.[123] Fallows notes that the man has similar facial features to the portrait printed by Opmeer, but concludes that there is not enough information available to reasonably conclude Josquin is the sitter.[124]

The Portrait of a Musician, widely attributed to Leonardo da Vinci,[n 19] depicts a man holding sheet music, which has led many scholars to identify him as a musician.[127] Usually dated between 1483 and 1487,[n 20] numerous candidates have been proposed, including Franchinus Gaffurius and Atalante Migliorotti, though none have achieved wide approval.[128] In 1972, the Belgian musicologist Suzanne Clercx-Lejeune [fr] was the first to argue the subject is Josquin.[1] She interpreted the words on the sitter's sheet music as "Cont" (an abbreviation of "Contratenor"), "Cantuz" (Cantus), and "A Z" (an abbreviation of "Altuz"),[129] and identified the music as Josquin's llibata Dei Virgo nutrix.[130] However, the painting does not resemble the Opmeer portrait and the notation is largely illegible.[131][132] As a priest in his mid-thirties, Macey contends that Josquin does not seem like the younger layman of the portrait.[1] Fallows disagrees, noting that "a lot of new details point to Josquin, who was the right age, in the right place, had already served at least two kinds, and was now rich enough to have his portrait painted by the best".[130] Fallows concludes, however, that "we shall probably never know who Leonardo's musician was".[130]

Clercx-Lejeune also suggested Josquin was depicted in Jean Perréal's fresco of the Liberal arts in the Le Puy Cathedral, though this has not achieved acceptance from other scholars.[1] A 1811 painting by Charles-Gustave Housez [fr] also depicts Josquin.[133] Though created long after the composer's death, Clercx-Lejeune contended that it is an older portrait which Housez restored and modified.[134]

Influence and reputationEdit

 
Imaginary portrait of Josquin by Charles-Gustave Housez [fr] ,1881[133]

During the 16th century, Josquin acquired the reputation of the greatest composer of the age, his mastery of technique and expression universally imitated and admired. Writers as diverse as Baldassare Castiglione and Martin Luther wrote about his reputation and fame, with Luther declaring that "he is the master of the notes. They must do as he wills; as for the other composers, they have to do as the notes will."[135] Theorists such as Heinrich Glarean and Gioseffo Zarlino held his style as that best representing perfection.[136] Josquin's fame was only eclipsed after the beginning of the Baroque era, with the decline of the pre-tonal polyphonic style. During the 18th and 19th centuries Josquin's fame was overshadowed by later Roman School composer Palestrina, whose music was seen as the summit of polyphonic refinement, and codified into a system of composition by theorists such as Johann Fux. Despite the decline of popularity in Josquin’s music during this time, Josquin’s influence in music beyond the 15th century cannot be overstated. Travelling Franco-Flemish composers like Josquin were a primary component in Italian chapels. They used their unique styles and ideas to influence Italian music, thus contributing to iconic Italian genres such as the madrigal.[137] During the 20th century, Josquin's reputation has grown steadily, to the point where scholars again consider him "the greatest and most successful composer of the age."[138][139] To sell more copies of their compositions, it was not uncommon for composers or publishers to put Josquin’s name on their work both during and after Josquin’s lifetime. Analysis of dissonance treatments and cantus firmi have helped scholars in the past decades to determine which pieces were most likely written by Josquin himself.[140] According to Richard Sherr, writing in the introduction to the Josquin Companion, addressing specifically the shrinking of Josquin's canon due to correction of misattributions, "Josquin will survive because his best music really is as magnificent as everybody has always said it was."[7]

Since the 1950s Josquin's reputation has been boosted by the increasing availability of recordings, of which there are many, and the rise of ensembles specializing in the performance of 16th century vocal music, many of which place Josquin's output at the heart of their repertoire.[141]

ReferencesEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ There have been doubts concerning whether this depiction is an accurate likeness,[2] see §Portraits
  2. ^ The younger Gossard, Josquin's father, definitely died by the time Josquin took up his inheritance in 1483 since the documents describe him as deceased. It remains uncertain though if Josquin's father died after 1466, opening up the possibility that the composer was an orphan for much of his youth.[18]
  3. ^ See Roth (2000) for further information concerning "Judocus de Picardia".
  4. ^ The rejection of Condé-sur-l'Escaut near the County of Hainaut as Josquin's birthplace is because when Josquin lived in Condé later in his life he labeled himself an aubain (foreigner) indicating that he was not native to Condé.[21][16]
  5. ^ Reese (1984, p. 2) notes that interpreting this anarchistic remains "conjectural", and that numerous scholars have offered different interpretations
  6. ^ Due to chronological issues in his career Josquin was long dismissed as the 'des Prez' of Compère's motet.[28] However, modern research which has reconfigured the composer's biography allows for the reexamination of this possibility. See Fallows (2020, pp. 25–29) for further information.
  7. ^ Fallows notes that the similarities between these two pieces are "often cited as a clear allusion".[33] However, he expresses some uncertainty on how meaningful the similarities between Josquin's Alma Redemptoris mater/Ave regina caelorum and Ockeghem's Alma Redemptoris mater actually are, see Fallows (2020, p. 37). See Finscher (2000, p. 258–260) for analysis on how Josquin quickly departs from Ockeghem's style in this work.
  8. ^ At least four works by Josquin have been suggested as quoting Ockeghem's chanson D’ung aultre amer, including a mass, sanctus and two motets, Tu solus qui facis mirabilia and Victimae paschali laudes.[21]
  9. ^ Until 1997 Josquin was thought to have joined the papal choir in 1486, as he was mistakingly identified with a 'Jo. de Pratis' in papal documents. It is now certain that this name refers to the composer Johannes de Stokem instead, and thus the earliest record of Josquin's employment in the papal choir is from 1489.[42] See Starr (1997) for further information.
  10. ^ See Fallows (2020, p. 140) for a complete list of Josquin's colleagues at the choir when he arrived there in 1494
  11. ^ There is not absolute certainty that the JOSQUINJ is from the 15th-century, but the lettering style conforms to northern European standards in that time.[47]
  12. ^ See Fallows (2020, pp. 236–237) for the a larger excerpt of the letter, which goes into more detail on Isaac's music.
  13. ^ During the French Revolution, the collegiate church of Notre-Dame, Condé was destroyed.[69] It is not to be confused with the Notre-Dame de Paris
  14. ^ Ave Maria ... Virgo serena is among Josquin's most frequently analyzed and celebrated works.[106] See Dumitrescu (2009), Milsom (2015) and Rifkin (2003) for further information on the motet.
  15. ^ Each of the lines of the Dominus regnavit psalm begins with a voice singing a new tune alone, quickly followed by entries of other three voices in imitation.[107]
  16. ^ See Fallows (2001, pp. 214–252) and Litterick (2000, pp. 374–376) for information on the attribution issues surrounding Mille regretz
  17. ^ For instance, in early 16th-century publications of his music by Ottaviano Petrucci numerous secular works of questionable authenticity were attributed to Josquin. In later publications Petrucci himself even removed some of these.[114]
  18. ^ The woodcut was printed alongside a lament for Josquin, see Haggh (1994, pp. 93–93) for the text. The lament is only relayed in Opmeer's publication partially; the writers Sweetius and Rombaut recorded the entire lament in their own publications.[118]
  19. ^ The Portrait of a Musician has a complex and controversial history of attribution (see §Attribution) but modern scholarship has secured at least a partial attribution to Leonardo da Vinci.[125][126] Fallows noted in 2020 that "no scholar in the last thirty years has disputed Leonardo's authorship, at least for the main body of the general painting."[127]
  20. ^ Scholars date the painting to 1483–1487:

CitationsEdit

  1. ^ a b c d e f Macey et al. 2011, §8 "Portrait of Josquin".
  2. ^ a b Wegman 2000, p. 22.
  3. ^ Macey et al. 2011, § "Introduction".
  4. ^ Milsom 2011, § para. 1.
  5. ^ a b c d e Milsom 2011, § para. 5.
  6. ^ Wegman 2000, p. 28.
  7. ^ a b Sherr 2000a, p. 10.
  8. ^ a b Elders 2013, p. 17.
  9. ^ Matthews & Merkley 1998, pp. 208–215.
  10. ^ Fallows 2020, p. 12.
  11. ^ Matthews & Merkley 1998, p. 214, footnote.
  12. ^ Fallows 2020, p. 9.
  13. ^ Macey et al. 2011.
  14. ^ Fallows 2020, p. 52.
  15. ^ Fallows 2020, p. 306.
  16. ^ a b c d e Fallows 2020, p. 18.
  17. ^ Higgins 2004, p. 448.
  18. ^ Kellman 2009, p. 199, note 57.
  19. ^ Fallows 2020, pp. 11–13.
  20. ^ Kellman 2009, pp. 183–200.
  21. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r Macey et al. 2011, §1 "Birth, family and early training (c1450–75)".
  22. ^ Sherr 2017, § "Introduction".
  23. ^ Fallows 2020, p. 19.
  24. ^ Fallows 2020, pp. 19–20.
  25. ^ Fallows 2020, p. 20.
  26. ^ a b Reese 1984, p. 3.
  27. ^ Fallows 2020, pp. 13, 35.
  28. ^ a b Fallows 2020, p. 25.
  29. ^ Fallows 2020, p. 27.
  30. ^ Fallows 2020, p. 39.
  31. ^ a b Planchart 2004, §2 "Posthumous reputation".
  32. ^ Finscher 2000, pp. 258–259.
  33. ^ Fallows 2020, p. 37.
  34. ^ Macey et al. 2011, §2 "Aix-en-Provence, ?Paris, Condé-sur-l’Escaut (c1475–1483)".
  35. ^ Fallows 2020, p. 118.
  36. ^ a b Macey et al. 2011, §3 "Milan and elsewhere (1484–9)".
  37. ^ Fallows 2020, p. 109.
  38. ^ Fallows 2020, pp. 109–110.
  39. ^ Fallows 2020, p. 110.
  40. ^ Fallows 1996.
  41. ^ a b c d e Macey et al. 2011, §4 "The papal chapel (1489–1494)".
  42. ^ a b Fallows 2020, p. 139.
  43. ^ Fallows 2020, p. 141.
  44. ^ Fallows 2020, pp. 139–140.
  45. ^ a b Fallows 2020, p. 171.
  46. ^ Fallows 2020, pp. 191–192.
  47. ^ a b c d e Fallows 2020, p. 173.
  48. ^ a b c Sherr 2000a, p. 2.
  49. ^ Fallows 2020, p. 174.
  50. ^ a b c d Macey et al. 2011, §5 "France and Italy (1494–1503)".
  51. ^ Macey 1998, p. 155.
  52. ^ David W. Barber, If It Ain't Baroque: More Music History as It Ought to Be Taught (Toronto: Sound and Vision, 1992), p. 34.
  53. ^ Fallows 2020, p. 238.
  54. ^ Merkley 2001, pp. 547–548.
  55. ^ Fallows 2020, p. 235.
  56. ^ Reese 1984, p. 9.
  57. ^ Reese 1984, p. 10.
  58. ^ Fallows 2020, pp. 236–237.
  59. ^ Reese 1984, p. 11.
  60. ^ Lowinsky 1964, pp. 484–486.
  61. ^ Wegman 2000, p. 36–37.
  62. ^ Wegman 1999, pp. 335–337.
  63. ^ Wegman 2000, p. 39.
  64. ^ Macey 1998, p. 184.
  65. ^ Milsom 2000, p. 307.
  66. ^ a b Macey et al. 2011, §6 "Ferrara (1503–4)".
  67. ^ a b Merkley 2001, pp. 578–579.
  68. ^ a b c Macey et al. 2011, §7 "Condé-sur-l’Escaut (1504–21)".
  69. ^ Fallows 2020, p. 276.
  70. ^ Fallows 2020, pp. 273–276.
  71. ^ Fallows 2020, pp. 276–277.
  72. ^ Fallows 2020, p. 277.
  73. ^ Sherr 2000b, p. 17.
  74. ^ Boorman, Stanley. "Petrucci, Ottaviano (dei)." Music Printing and Publishing. New York: Norton, 1990, pp. 365–369.
  75. ^ Sherr 2000b, p. 16.
  76. ^ Milsom 2000, pp. 303–305.
  77. ^ Reese 1954, pp. 184–185.
  78. ^ a b c d Macey et al. 2011, §10 "Works: canon and chronology", § para. 7.
  79. ^ Godt 1977, pp. 264–292.
  80. ^ a b c Macey et al. 2011, §10 "Works: canon and chronology", § para. 5.
  81. ^ Macey et al. 2011, §10 "Works: canon and chronology", § paras. 5–7.
  82. ^ a b c d e f Macey et al. 2011, §12 "Masses".
  83. ^ Lockwood & Kirkman, § para. 7.
  84. ^ Blackburn 2000, Bloxam 2000 and Planchart 2000 in Sherr 2000, pp. 51–210
  85. ^ a b c d e f g Macey et al. 2011, §12 "Masses: (ii) Complete masses".
  86. ^ a b c d e f Noble 1980.
  87. ^ Bloxam 2000.
  88. ^ Blackburn 2000, p. 72.
  89. ^ Blackburn 2000, pp. 53–62.
  90. ^ Blackburn 2000, p. 63.
  91. ^ Blackburn 2000, p. 64.
  92. ^ Planchart 2000.
  93. ^ Planchart 2000, p. 109.
  94. ^ Planchart 2000, pp. 120–130.
  95. ^ Planchart 2000, pp. 130, 132.
  96. ^ Planchart 2000, p. 142.
  97. ^ Reese 1954, p. 240.
  98. ^ Taruskin 2010, p. 560.
  99. ^ a b Blackburn 2000, p. 78.
  100. ^ Finscher 2000, p. 251.
  101. ^ Finscher 2000, p. 249.
  102. ^ Milsom 2000, p. 282.
  103. ^ Milsom 2000, p. 284.
  104. ^ a b c d e f Macey et al. 2011, §11 "Motets".
  105. ^ Milsom 2000, p. 290.
  106. ^ Sherr 2017, § "Ave Maria . . . virgo serena".
  107. ^ a b c Reese 1954, p. 249.
  108. ^ Reese 1954, p. 246.
  109. ^ Macey 1998, p. xxx.
  110. ^ Milsom 2000, p. 305.
  111. ^ a b c d Litterick 2000, p. 336.
  112. ^ a b Litterick 2000, pp. 335, 393.
  113. ^ Brown 1980.
  114. ^ a b c d e f Macey et al. 2011, §13 "Secular Works".
  115. ^ Fallows 2020, p. 351.
  116. ^ a b c Elders 2013, p. 27.
  117. ^ Haggh 1994, p. 91.
  118. ^ Haggh 1994, p. 94.
  119. ^ Haggh 1994, p. 92.
  120. ^ Elders 2013, p. 28.
  121. ^ Fallows 2020, p. 244.
  122. ^ Fallows 2020, p. 245.
  123. ^ Fallows 2020, p. 247.
  124. ^ Fallows 2020, pp. 247–248.
  125. ^ Syson et al. 2011, p. 95.
  126. ^ Zöllner 2019, p. 225.
  127. ^ a b Fallows 2020, p. 135.
  128. ^ Fallows 2020, pp. 135–137.
  129. ^ Marani 2003, p. 164.
  130. ^ a b c Fallows 2020, p. 137.
  131. ^ Fagnart 2019, p. 75.
  132. ^ Syson et al. 2011, p. 97.
  133. ^ a b "Tableau et cadre: Portrait de Josquin des Près" [Painting and Frame: Portrait of Josquin des Près] (in French). Ministry of Culture. Retrieved 2 March 2022.
  134. ^ Reese 1984, p. 16.
  135. ^ Burkholder, Grout & Palisca 2014, p. 203.
  136. ^ Wegman 2000, pp. 21–25.
  137. ^ Bowen, William. "The Contribution of French Musicians to the Genesis of the Italian Madrigal". Renaissance & Reformation/Renaissance et Reforme. 27 (2): 101–14.
  138. ^ Fallows 2000, p. 575.
  139. ^ Higgins 2004, p. 444.
  140. ^ Rodin, Jesse (2006). "A Josquin Substitution". Early Music. 34 (2): 249–257. doi:10.1093/em/cal002. JSTOR 3805844. S2CID 191649267.
  141. ^ Sherr, p. 577; also Appendix B (Discography)

SourcesEdit

Books and chapters

Journal and encyclopedia articles

Online

Further readingEdit

See and Fallows (2020, pp. 469–495) and Sherr (2017) for extensive bibliographies

  • Charles, Sydney R. Josquin des Prez: A Guide to Research. New York and London: Garland Publishing, Inc., 1983.
  • Duffin, Ross W., ed. A Josquin Anthology. Oxford University Press, 1999. ISBN 0-19-353218-2.
  • Elders, Willem, ed. New Josquin Edition, 30 vols. Utrecht: Koninklijke Vereniging voor Nederlandse Muziekgeschiedenis, 1987– . ISBN 978-90-6375-051-0.
  • Elders, Willem, and Frits de Haen, eds. Proceedings of the International Josquin Symposium, Utrecht 1986 . Utrecht: Vereniging voor Nederlandse Muziekgeschiedenis, 1986. ISBN 90-6375-148-6.
  • Fiore, Carlo. Josquin des Prez. L'Epos: Palermo, 2003, ISBN 978-88-8302-220-3.
  • Steib, Murray. "A Study in Style, or Josquin or Not Josquin: The Missa Allez regretz Question". The Journal of Musicology 16, 4 (Autumn, 1998): 519–544.

External linksEdit