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Josiah William Bailey (September 14, 1873 – December 15, 1946) was a Democratic U.S. senator from the state of North Carolina between 1931 and 1946.

Josiah William Bailey
Josiah W. Bailey.jpg
United States Senator
from North Carolina
In office
March 4, 1931 – December 15, 1946
Preceded byFurnifold McL. Simmons
Succeeded byWilliam B. Umstead
Personal details
Born(1873-09-14)September 14, 1873
Warrenton, North Carolina
DiedDecember 15, 1946(1946-12-15) (aged 73)
Raleigh, North Carolina
Political partyDemocratic


Born in Warrenton, North Carolina, he grew up in Raleigh and graduated from Wake Forest College (now Wake Forest University). Before turning to a career in law, Bailey was editor of the Biblical Recorder, a newspaper for North Carolina Baptists.

Elected to the U.S. Senate in 1930 by defeating longtime Democratic Senator Furnifold McLendel Simmons, Bailey earned a reputation as a conservative while in office. In 1937, he coauthored the bipartisan Conservative Manifesto, a document criticizing President Franklin Roosevelt's New Deal and proposing more conservative alternatives. Among other things, the Manifesto called for lower taxes and less spending.[1]

During his time in office, he served as chairman of two different committees: the Committee on Claims and later the Committee on Commerce.

Bailey died in office in 1946.

See alsoEdit



  • Finley, Keith M. Delaying the Dream: Southern Senators and the Fight Against Civil Rights, 1938–1965 (Baton Rouge, LSU Press, 2008).

Further readingEdit

  • Moore, John Robert. Senator Josiah William Bailey of North Carolina: A Political Biography. Durham: Duke University Press, 1968.

External linksEdit

  • United States Congress. "Josiah Bailey (id: B000046)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress.
  • The "Conservative Manifesto" from the North Carolina History Project
  • Biblical Recorder Column on Bailey at the Wayback Machine (archived September 28, 2007)
  • "Taking on FDR: Senator Josiah Bailey and the 1937 Conservative Manifesto" by Troy Kickler, December 13, 2006
  • Raleigh News & Observer Column on Bailey's Friendship with Huey Long[dead link]
  • Josiah William Bailey at Find-A-Grave
  • Josiah Bailey papers. 1773–1867. 2" linear. At the University of Washington Libraries, Special Collections.
U.S. Senate
Preceded by
Furnifold McLendel Simmons
U.S. Senator (Class 2) from North Carolina
Served alongside: Cameron A. Morrison, Robert Rice Reynolds, Clyde R. Hoey
Succeeded by
William Bradley Umstead