Josei manga (女性漫画, lit. women's comics, pronounced [dʑoseː]) are Japanese comics aimed at older teenage girls and adult women who are able to read kanji without the aid of furigana. Josei manga should not be confused with "shōjo manga" (少女漫画) for younger teenage girls or "ladies comics" (レディースコミックス redīsu komikkusu) or "LadyComi" (レディコミ redikomi), which tend to contain erotic content and only takes up a portion of josei rather than its entirety. Readers can range in age from 18 to 45. "Josei" is the Japanese word for "woman".
Josei manga often portray realistic romance, as opposed to the mostly idealized romance of shōjo manga, but this is not always the case. They tend to be both more sexually explicit and contain more mature storytelling than shōjo manga, although this is not always the case either. It is also not unusual for themes such as infidelity and rape to be present in josei manga. Examples of well-known josei manga include Yun Kouga's Loveless, Ai Yazawa's Paradise Kiss, and the award-winning works of Erica Sakurazawa.
Some of the most popular josei manga have featured male protagonists and/or an almost entirely male main cast, and the male characters are often quite compassionate toward other men. Although some josei manga can contain plots and characters influenced by shōjo manga, others tell action-packed stories and lack the romantic and slice of life elements associated with shōjo.
Josei manga adapted into anime are often noted for their tendency to feature homoerotic themes.
The western approach to josei has all but ignored some of its more recent trends, such as an increase in shonen-influenced series. Although there are housewife, family and young mother-themed josei manga published in Japan, very few non-yaoi josei series are licensed for Western publication.
The shōjo and josei manga magazine Monthly Comic Zero Sum features plenty of popular josei series. These include Makai Ōji: Devils and Realist, 07-Ghost, Loveless, Karneval, Are You Alice?, and +C: Sword and Cornett, all of which are leading examples of josei's unique characteristics.
The reported average circulations for some of the top-selling josei manga magazines in 2007 are as follows:
|Magazine title||Reported circulation|
|Romance White Paper Pastel||150,000|
For comparison, here are the circulations for the top-selling magazines in other categories for 2007.
|Category||Magazine title||Reported circulation|
|Top-selling shōnen manga magazine||Weekly Shōnen Jump||2,778,750|
|Top-selling seinen manga magazine||Weekly Young Magazine||981,229|
|Top-selling shōjo manga magazine||Ciao||982,834|
|Top-selling non-manga magazine||Monthly The Television||1,018,919|
(Source for all circulation figures: Japan Magazine Publishers Association)
This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (March 2011)
Josei manga (then called Ladies Comics, or Redikomi) began to appear in the 1980s, during a boom period in manga, when the women who grew up reading shōjo manga in the 1950s and 60s wanted manga for adult women. The first ladies comic magazine, Be-Love, was printed in 1980. At the end of 1980 there were two ladies comics magazines, at the end of 1989 there were over fifty. Early ladies comics were free of sexual content, and the comics became more and more sexually extreme until the early 1990s. Manga branded as "Ladies' Comics" has acquired a reputation for being low-brow, and "dirty", and the term josei was created to move away from that image.
- Children's (Kodomo): intended for younger children
- Shōnen manga: intended for boys
- Shōjo manga: intended for girls
- Seinen manga: intended for adult men
- List of josei manga magazines
- Yaoi: stories about men in love, either romantic or homoerotic
- Yuri: stories about women in love, either romantic or homoerotic
- Frederik Schodt. 1996. Dreamland Japan: Writings on Modern Manga. Stone Bridge Press. p. 124
- Ito, Kinko (2003). "The World of Japanese Ladies' Comics: from Romantic Fantasy to Lustful Perversion". The Journal of Popular Culture. 36 (1): 68–85. doi:10.1111/1540-5931.00031.
- Jim Breen's online Japanese-English dictionary entry for josei. Accessed 21 September 2012.
- Tangorin online Japanese-English dictionary entry for josei. Accessed 21 September 2012.
- http://www.animenewsnetwork.com/news/2013-01-08/japanese-comic-ranking-december-24-30 - see rank #18 and #22
- http://www.jappleng.com/culture/articles/anime-manga/156/josei-genre - in reference to genre elements of Josei
- "Josei - Anime News Network".
- Japan Magazine Publishers Association Magazine Data 2007 Archived 2012-03-15 at the Wayback Machine. The publication, which relies on information provided by publishers, categorizes the magazine Cookie (with a reported circulation of 200,000) as josei, but Shueisha's "S-MANGA.NET" site clearly categorizes that magazine as shōjo, and it is therefore not included here.
- Matt Thorn What Shôjo Manga Are and Are Not
- Fusami Ogi, 2003: "Female Subjectivity and Shoujo (Girls) Manga (Japanese Comics): Shoujo in Ladies' Comics and Young Ladies' Comics". The Journal of Popular Culture, Volume 36, Issue 4, pages 780–803. doi:10.1111/1540-5931.00045.
- Gretchen Jones, 2003: "'Ladies' Comics': Japan's Not-So-Underground Market in Pornography for Women", US-Japan Women's Journal English Supplement, Volume 22, pages 3–30.
- Deborah Shamoon, "Office Sluts and Rebel Flowers: The Pleasures of Japanese Pornographic Comics for Women", in: Porn Studies, ed. Linda Williams, 2004.
- Gretchen Jones, "Bad Girls Like to Watch: Writing and Reading Ladies' Comics", in: Bad Girls of Japan, ed. Laura Miller and Jan Bardsley, 2005.
- Jonathan Clements, "Living Happily Never After in Women's Manga", in Manga & Philosophy, ed. Josef Steiff and Adam Barkman, 2010.