Josef von Sternberg
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Josef von Sternberg, (29 May 1894 – 22 December 1969) was an Austrian-American film director. His family emigrated permanently to the United States when he was fourteen, and he grew up in New York City. He started working at World Film Company in Fort Lee, New Jersey, where he was mentored by French director Emile Chautard.
|Josef von Sternberg|
29 May 1894
22 December 1969 (aged 75)|
Riza Royce (1926–1930; divorced)|
Jean Annette McBride (1945–1947; divorced)
Meri Otis Wilner (1948–1969; his death; 1 child)
|Parent(s)||Moses (Morris) Sternberg|
Sternberg started in Hollywood after making his first film as a director in 1925. Charlie Chaplin became interested in him, and had him direct a film. Sternberg worked on late silent films in the late 1920s, by which time he had adopted the use of "von" in his name, a pretension to aristocratic origins to which he had no claim. After working with the award-winning German star Emil Jannings, he was invited from Hollywood to Berlin in 1930 to make Germany's first feature-length full-talkie, Der blaue Engel (The Blue Angel), a coproduction between Paramount in the US and UFA in Germany, with Jannings and an unknown revue-artist, Marlene Dietrich. His encouragement of the latter's performances helped to create the Dietrich legend in the six additional films they made together in Hollywood. He was nominated for the Academy Award for Best Director for two of these, Morocco (1930) and Shanghai Express (1932).
Early life and educationEdit
Josef von Sternberg was born Jonas Sternberg (some sources give "Jonas Stern" or "Josef Stern") in 1894 to a Jewish family in Vienna. When he was two years old, his father Moses (Morris) Sternberg, a former soldier in the army of Austria-Hungary, moved to the United States in search of work. The rest of the family emigrated and rejoined his father when Jonas was seven. Three years later, the entire family returned to Vienna. After Sternberg had turned fourteen, the family emigrated again to the United States, settling in New York City. His father found work there as a lace worker, but they struggled to survive. Sternberg learned English in public schools in New York, which were filled with immigrants.
Sternberg dropped out of Jamaica High School and worked as an errand boy in a lace warehouse. He later obtained a job cleaning and repairing movie prints. By about 1915 he was working for William A. Brady at the World Film Company at Fort Lee, New Jersey. There he was mentored by Emile Chautard and other French-speaking directors and cinematographers at World. Chautard hired Sternberg as an assistant director in 1919 for The Mystery of the Yellow Room. Sternberg made his directorial début in 1925 with The Salvation Hunters, considered by some historians to be the first American independent film.[who?]
Actor/co-producer Elliott Dexter added the nobiliary particle 'von' to Sternberg's name in 1925 during the production of By Divine Right, supposedly so as not to disrupt the array of credits as they appeared on screen. Sternberg issued no protest and decided to retain the affectation.
Charlie Chaplin was impressed by The Salvation Hunters, and encouraged Douglas Fairbanks and Mary Pickford to acquire the rights to it. Pickford asked Sternberg to direct a film with her as star, but rejected his first scenario. Chaplin commissioned him to write and direct A Woman of the Sea (also known as The Sea Gull), starring his former star and lover Edna Purviance, but later destroyed the film. Still photographs from A Woman of the Sea were published by Purviance's family in 2008.
Sternberg had some commercial success later in the 1920s at Paramount Pictures with the late-period silent films The Last Command and The Docks of New York (both 1928). These were both noted for their influential cinematography. His reputation was also advanced by a series of early gangster films including Underworld (1927) and Thunderbolt (1929).
Sternberg's career suffered a decline after Thunderbolt and he accepted an invitation to make a film in Germany. In 1929, Sternberg worked in Berlin, where he directed Der blaue Engel (The Blue Angel; 1930) in both German and English versions simultaneously. This became widely acclaimed. It was Sternberg's second film with the German actor Emil Jannings, who played the doomed Professor Rath. (The first was The Last Command.)
Sternberg cast the then little-known Marlene Dietrich as Lola Lola, the female lead; as a result, she became an international star overnight. He then invited her to the US, welcoming her with gifts including a green Rolls-Royce Phantom II. The car later appeared in their first US film, Morocco. Sternberg and Dietrich later continued to collaborate in the United States on six notable films: Morocco (1930), Dishonored (1931), Shanghai Express (1932), Blonde Venus (1932), The Scarlet Empress (1934), and The Devil is a Woman (1935). The Scarlet Empress is particularly celebrated for its atmospheric and suggestively demonic production design. One of the more important performances in Cooper's early career was his portrayal of a sullen legionnaire in Josef von Sternberg's 1930 film Morocco with Marlene Dietrich in her introduction to American audiences. During production, von Sternberg focused his energies on Dietrich and treated Cooper dismissively. Tensions came to a head after von Sternberg yelled directions at Cooper in German. The 6-foot-3-inch (191 cm) actor approached the 5-foot-4-inch (163 cm) director, physically picked him up by the collar and said, "If you expect to work in this country you'd better get on to the language we use here." Despite the tensions on the set, Cooper produced "one of his best performances", according to Thornton Delehanty of the New York Evening Post. He also contributed to the glamorous image of stars such as Dietrich, Carole Lombard, Rita Hayworth and Dolores del Rio, helping to create and define this concept in Hollywood. Grace Moore starred in 1936 as Empress Elisabeth of Austria in his production The King Steps Out.
In 1932, Sternberg commissioned the architect Richard Neutra to design the 'Von Sternberg House', an avant-garde American modernist residence. Ayn Rand later bought it and lived in it. The house was eventually demolished in 1972 when a later owner decided to redevelop the lot.
Macao (1952) was Sternberg's last Hollywood film, and the next year his Anatahan (1953) was made in Japan. It is the story of a group of Japanese soldiers who refused to believe that the Second World War had ended. Sternberg wrote, narrated, photographed, and also directed the film. His last work, it had limited release and was a financial failure.
Between 1959 and 1963, Sternberg taught a course on film aesthetics at the University of California at Los Angeles, based on his own works. His students included Jim Morrison and Ray Manzarek, who went on to form the rock group The Doors. The group recorded songs referring to Sternberg. Manzarek describes Sternberg as "perhaps the greatest single influence on The Doors."
Sternberg wrote an autobiography, Fun in a Chinese Laundry (1965); the title was drawn from an early film comedy. He died in 1969 from a heart attack, aged 75. He was interred in the Westwood Village Memorial Park Cemetery in Westwood, California near several film studios.
von Sternberg's contemporaries comment on the director:
Scottish-American screenwriter. Aeneas MacKenzie: "To understand what Sternberg is attempting to do, one must first appreciate that he imposes the limitations of the visual upon himself: he refuses to obtain any effect whatsoever save by means of pictorial composition. That is the fundamental distinction between von Sternberg and all other directors. Stage acting he declines, cinema in its conventional aspect he despises as mere mechanics, and dialogue he employs primarily for its value as integrated sound. The screen is his medium – not the camera. His purpose is to the emotional significance of a subject by a series of magnificent canvasses".
American film actress and dancer Louise Brooks: "Sternberg, with his detachment, could look at a woman and say ‘this is beautiful about her and I’ll leave it…and this is ugly about her and I’ll eliminate it'. Take away the bad and leave what is beautiful so she’s complete…He was the greatest director of women that ever, ever was".
American actor Edward Arnold: "It may be true that [von Sternberg] is a destroyer of whatever egotism an actor possesses, and that he crushes the individuality of those he directs in pictures…the first days filming Crime and Punishment …I had the feeling through the whole production of the picture that he wanted to break me down...to destroy my individuality…Probably anyone working with Sternberg over a long period would become used to his idiosyncrasies,. Whatever his methods, he got the best he could out of his actors…I consider that part of the Inspector General one the best I have ever done in the talkies.
American film critic Andrew Sarris: "Sternberg resisted the heresy of acting autonomy to the very end of his career, and that resistance is very likely one of the reasons his career was foreshortened".
- The Salvation Hunters (1925)
- The Exquisite Sinner (1926, lost)
- A Woman of the Sea (1926, also known as The Sea Gull or Sea Gulls or The Woman who loved once, lost)
- Underworld (1927)
- The Last Command (1928)
- The Dragnet (1928, lost)
- The Docks of New York (1928)
- The Case of Lena Smith (1929, lost)
- Thunderbolt (1929)
- The Blue Angel (1930)
- Morocco (1930)
- Dishonored (1931)
- An American Tragedy (1931)
- Shanghai Express (1932)
- Blonde Venus (1932)
- The Scarlet Empress (1934)
- The Devil is a Woman (1935)
- Crime and Punishment (1935)
- The King Steps Out (1936)
- Sergeant Madden (1939)
- The Shanghai Gesture (1941)
- The Town (1943, short film)
- Macao (1952)
- Anatahan (1952–8, also known as The Saga of Anatahan)
- The Masked Bride (1925, directed with Christy Cabanne, uncredited)
- It (1927, directed with Clarence G. Badger, uncredited)
- Children of Divorce (1927, directed with Frank Lloyd, uncredited)
- Street of Sin (1928, directed with Mauritz Stiller, uncredited)
- I, Claudius (1937, unfinished)
- The Great Waltz (1938, directed with Julien Duvivier, uncredited)
- I Take This Woman (1940, directed with W.S. Van Dyke, uncredited)
- Duel in the Sun (1946, directed with King Vidor, uncredited)
- Jet Pilot (1957; Sternberg only directed a small portion of this film, in 1950, while still under contract to Howard Hughes)
- Sternberg, Josef von: Fun in a Chinese Laundry. London: Secker and Warburg, 1965.
- Academic American Encyclopedia. Aretê Publishing Company. 1980. p. 260. ISBN 978-0-933880-00-9.
- Joseph Francis Clarke (1977). Pseudonyms. BCA. p. 168.
- Sarris, 1966. p. 5-6
- Sarris, 1966. p. 10
- "Marlene Dietrich in Shanghai Express by Don English (Paramount, 1932)". Auction Results Archives. Heritage Capital Corporation. Retrieved 5 January 2013.
With direction and lighting by genius Josef von Sternberg, photographer Don English took what would become the most iconic image of Marlene Dietrich.
- "THE EX-MARLENE DIETRICH, MULTIPLE BEST IN SHOW WINNING 1930 Rolls-Royce Phantom". Bonhams.
- Kemp, Peter H. "Beyond Camp or the Politics of Persona: Josef von Sternberg's The Scarlet Empress". Senses of Cinema. Retrieved 24 April 2018.
- Buena suerte viviendo: Dolores del Río
- The Saga of Anatahan (1953): Joseph von Sternberg Archived 4 January 2006 at the Wayback Machine., Online Film Critics Society, at Rotten Tomatoes
- The Doors and Ben-Fong Torres, The Doors
- Wolf, Jaime."What A Design Guru Really Does", The New York Times, 1 December 2002. Accessed 23 October 2015. "Or the house in Weehawken that Walrod wants to save, which wasn't only designed by a close associate of Walter Gropius's but was also originally commissioned by Josef von Sternberg, later sold to an eccentric baroness who was famous for supporting jazz musicians like Charlie Parker and Thelonious Monk and was ultimately, it turns out, the place where Monk died."
- Staff. "A NATIVE RETURNS; Josef Von Sternberg of Fond Memory Resumes Directing in Hollywood Winner Revelation", The New York Times, 10 September 1950. Accessed 23 October 2015. "or when Von Sternberg, after a long absence from Hollywood, was beckoned back here by Howard Hughes last fall from his home in Weehawken, N. J., he had no assurnace that he would even be handed the controls on 'Jet Pilot.'"
- Sarris, 1966. p. 6
- Brooks, 1965.
- Cardullo, et al., 1998. p. 76-77
- Sarris, 1966. p. 23
- Arnold, Edward. 1940. Lorenzo Goes to Hollywood: The Autobiography of Edward Arnold (New York: Liveright, 1940) pp. 256-277 in Playing to the Camera: Film Actors Discuss Their Craft. Bert Cardullo et al. 1998. P. 76-77 Yale University Press. New Haven and New York. ISBN 0-300-06983-9
- Baxter, John: The Cinema of Josef von Sternberg. London: A. Zwemmer / New York: A. S. Barnes & Co., 1971.
- Baxter, John: Von Sternberg. Kentucky: University Press of Kentucky, 2010.
- Baxter, Peter: Just Watch!: Sternberg, Paramount and America. London: British Film Institute, 1993.
- Baxter, Peter (ed.): Sternberg. London: British Film Institute, 1980.
- Brooks, Louise. 1965. People will Talk. Aurum Press/A.Knopf. 1986. pp. 71-97, in Playing to the Camera: Film Actors Discuss Their Craft. Bert Cardullo et al. 1998. p. 51 Yale University Press. New Haven and New York. ISBN 0-300-06983-9
- Cardullo, Bert, et al. 1998. Playing to the Camera: Film Actors Discuss Their Craft. Yale University Press. New Haven and New York. ISBN 0-300-06983-9
- Sarris, Andrew: The Films of Josef von Sternberg. New York: Doubleday, 1966.
- Studlar, Gaylyn: In the Realm of Pleasure: Von Sternberg, Dietrich, and the Masochistic Aesthetic. New York: Columbia University Press, 1992.
- Weinberg, Herman G.: Josef von Sternberg. A Critical Study. New York: Dutton, 1967.
- Alexander Horwath, Michael Omasta (Ed.), Josef von Sternberg. The Case of Lena Smith, FilmmuseumSynemaPublikationen Vol. 5, Vienna 2007, ISBN 978-3-901644-22-1. Book on Josef von Sternberg's last silent movie - one of the legendary lost masterpieces of the American cinema.