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José Zulueta (Molo, Iloilo City, November 23, 1889 – December 6, 1972) was a Philippine lawyer and politician. He was elected as Senate President for a brief period in 1953.


José Zulueta
Jose Zulueta portrait.jpg
9th President of the Senate of the Philippines
In office
May 20, 1953 – December 30, 1953
PresidentElpidio Quirino
Preceded byCamilo Osías
Succeeded byEulogio Rodriguez
Senator of the Philippines
In office
December 30, 1951 – December 30, 1957
7th Speaker of the Philippine House of Representatives
In office
June 9, 1945 – December 20, 1945
PresidentSergio Osmeña
Preceded byBenigno Aquino, Sr.[1]
Succeeded byEugenio Pérez
Member of the Philippine House of Representatives from Iloilo's First District
In office
1928–1946
Preceded byEugenio Baldana
Succeeded byMateo M. Nonato
In office
December 30, 1949 – December 30, 1953
Preceded byMateo M. Nonato
Succeeded byPedro G. Trono
In office
December 30, 1969 – September 23, 1972
Preceded byPedro G. Trono
Succeeded byVacant[2]
Post later held by Oscar G. Garin
Secretary of the Interior
In office
1946–1948
PresidentManuel Roxas
Preceded byRafael Alunan
Succeeded bySotero Baluyut
Personal details
Born(1889-11-23)November 23, 1889
Molo, Iloilo, Captaincy General of the Philippines, Spanish Empire
DiedDecember 6, 1972(1972-12-06) (aged 83)
Paco, Manila, Philippines
NationalityFilipino
Political partyLiberal
Spouse(s)Soledad Ramos

CareerEdit

During the Japanese occupation, Zulueta was accused of collaboration, along with Jorge Vargas, Jorge Bocobo and Manuel Roxas, being the first to respond to General Homma's order to form an Executive Commission. After the establishment of the Philippine Republic in 1946, the Department of Interior was restored and Zulueta was appointed by President Manuel Roxas once again to head the agency until 1948. Zulueta's term was marked by heightened tensions with the Hukbalahap movement, with Zulueta instituting a pass system that was required of Central Luzon residents wishing to travel outside their towns. Like his mentor Roxas, he adopted a hardline attitude toward the Huks, declaring in 1947 that the Huks faced only two choices: surrender or annihilation. He gave carte blanche to the Philippine Constabulary in all their operations against "dissidents". He was in charge of negotiating several times with its leaders, including Luis Lava, Luis Taruc, Juan Feleo and Jose de Leon.

In 1946, Zulueta was elected as Speaker of the House of Representatives in the inaugural session of the Congress.

He became Senator (1951–1957) and was briefly elected the Senate President in 1953. He became Provincial Governor of Iloilo in 1959.

During the Marcos administration, he was made the Presidential Consultant on Local Government.

He is among the few Filipinos included in the World Biography, 1948 edition and in the International Who's Who, 1952 edition.

Zulueta was married to Soledad B. Ramos.

Library workEdit

After his stint in journalism, Zulueta returned to academic work and focused on librarian tasks. He travelled the world and met famous collectors including Wenceslao Retana. He collaborated with bibliographers and historians such as James Alexander Robertson and Emma Helen Blair who needed references for work such as The Philippine Islands, 1493 to 1898. He also visited Spain to study the 1887 Exposicion General de Filipinas, and Cambridge to study the Vocabulario Tagalo. In Manila, he created archives and texts to collate the various historical sources for creating the Philippines' history, using both local and foreign sources.

ReferencesEdit