José Hipólito Raposo

José Hipólito Raposo (13 February 1885 in São Vicente da Beira – 26 August 1953) was a Portuguese politician, writer, lawyer and historian.

IntegralismEdit

He was educated at the University of Coimbra before taking up practice as a lawyer.[1] Part of a conservative monarchist group active within the intelligentsia at the time in 1911 he took a trip to Paris with his friend Alberto Monsaraz and whilst there they established contact with Action Française with whom they shared many aims.[2] He joined with Monsaraz, António Sardinha, João do Amaral and José Adriano Pequito Rebelo in relaunching the monarchist journal A Nação Portuguesa in 1913.[2] From this basis he became the founder of Integralismo Lusitano that same year along with Monsaraz and Sardinha.[3] Raposo became known as one of the main ideologues of the new group and as a theorist he had a deep influence on Plínio Salgado who frequently referenced his works.[4]

FascismEdit

In the early 1920s Raposo also became close to a minor group known as Cruzada Non'Alvares, which was the first group in Portugal to openly endorse Benito Mussolini and Italian fascism.[1] Like others in the Integralist movement Raposo also keenly watched the development Movimento Nacional-Sindicalista but, although he personally had some sympathies towards the cause of national syndicalism, he did not follow the likes of Monsaraz in switching to the new movement.[1] However despite his flirtations with fascism Raposo, unlike Sardinha, had no truck with the racialist theories associated with Nazism and similar ideologies and indeed considered the Black African populations of colonies such as Portuguese Angola and Portuguese Mozambique to be as much Portuguese as himself.[1]

Later yearsEdit

His influence faded following the emergence of António de Oliveira Salazar and his final attempt to push the integralist line, by launching a journal entitled Integralismo Lusitano with Luís de Almeida Braga in 1932 was not a success.[5] Having initially been ambivalent in his attitudes towards Salazar, Raposo decided in 1940 that the dictator was ruining Portugal and published a book, Amar e Servir, in which he savaged the Estado Novo founder.[1]

WritingEdit

His 1947 book Dona Luísa de Gusmão, duquesa e rainha (1613-1666) is still recognised as the standard biography of Luisa of Medina-Sidonia.[6] As a writer he also published poetry, theatre criticism, fiction and essays on the academic traditions of Coimbra University.[2]

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b c d e Philip Rees, Biographical Dictionary of the Extreme Right Since 1890, 1990, p. 314
  2. ^ a b c Antonio Costa Pinto, 'A formaçãodo integralismo lusitano (1907-17)'
  3. ^ Anna Klobucka, The Portuguese Nun: Formation of a National Myth, 2000, p. 83
  4. ^ Roger Griffin & Matthew Feldman, Fascism: The "Fascist Epoch", 2004, p. 83
  5. ^ Rees, Biographical Dictionary of the Extreme Right, 1990, p. 8
  6. ^ Dauril Alden, The Making of an Enterprise: The Society of Jesus in Portugal, 1996, p. 110