In the early 1930s the American company Paramount Pictures took over the studios and made French-language versions of their hit films. In total films were made in fourteen different languages as Joinville became a hub of such multi-language versions. While many were remakes of English-language hits, some were original stories. This practice declined as dubbing became more commonplace.
- Crisp p.95
- Crisp p.119
- Bentley p.52
- Williams p.175-77
- Bentley, Bernard. A Companion to Spanish Cinema. Boydell & Brewer 2008.
- Crisp, C.G. The Classic French Cinema, 1930-1960. Indiana University Press, 1993
- Williams, Alan Larson. Republic of Images: A History of French Filmmaking. Harvard University Press, 1992.
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