John Marshall Alexander Jr. (June 9, 1929 – December 25, 1954), known by the stage name Johnny Ace, was an American rhythm-and-blues singer. He had a string of hit singles in the mid-1950s. He died of an accidental self-inflicted gunshot wound at the age of 25.
Ace in 1954
|Birth name||John Marshall Alexander Jr.|
|Born||June 9, 1929|
Memphis, Tennessee, United States
|Died||December 25, 1954 (aged 25)|
Houston, Texas, United States
Alexander was born in Memphis, Tennessee, the son of a preacher, and grew up near LeMoyne-Owen College. After serving in the U.S. Navy during the Korean War, he joined Adolph Duncan's Band as a pianist. He then joined the B. B. King band. Soon King departed for Los Angeles, and the band's singer, Bobby Bland, joined the army. Alexander took over vocal duties and renamed the band the Beale Streeters. He also took over King's radio show on WDIA.
He began performing as Johnny Ace. He signed with Duke Records (originally a Memphis label associated with WDIA) in 1952. His first recording, "My Song", an urbane "heart ballad", topped the R&B chart for nine weeks in September. (A cover version by Aretha Franklin was released in 1968, on the flip side of "See Saw".)
Ace began heavy touring, often with Willie Mae "Big Mama" Thornton. In the next two years, he had eight hits in a row, including "Cross My Heart", "Please Forgive Me", "The Clock", "Yes, Baby", "Saving My Love for You" and "Never Let Me Go". In December 1954 he was named the Most Programmed Artist of 1954, according to the results of a national poll of disc jockeys conducted by the U.S. trade weekly Cash Box.
Ace's recordings sold very well for those times. Early in 1955, Duke Records announced that three of his 1954 recordings, along with Thornton's "Hound Dog", had sold more than 1,750,000 copies.
After touring for a year, Ace had been performing at the City Auditorium in Houston, Texas, on Christmas Day 1954. During a break between sets, he was playing with a .32-caliber revolver. Members of his band said he did this often, sometimes shooting at roadside signs from their car.
It was widely reported that Ace killed himself playing Russian roulette. However, Big Mama Thornton's bass player, Curtis Tillman, who witnessed the event, said, "I will tell you exactly what happened! Johnny Ace had been drinking and he had this little pistol he was waving around the table and someone said ‘Be careful with that thing…’ and he said ‘It’s okay! Gun’s not loaded… see?’ and pointed it at himself with a smile on his face and ‘Bang!’ — sad, sad thing. Big Mama ran out of the dressing room yelling ‘Johnny Ace just killed himself!'"
Thornton said in a written statement (included in the book The Late Great Johnny Ace) that Ace had been playing with the gun but not playing Russian roulette. According to Thornton, Ace pointed the gun at his girlfriend and another woman who were sitting nearby but did not fire. He then pointed the gun toward himself, bragging that he knew which chamber was loaded. The gun went off, shooting him in the side of the head.
Ace's funeral was held on January 2, 1955, at Clayborn Temple AME church in Memphis. It was attended by an estimated 5,000 people. His remains were buried at New Park Cemetery in Memphis, Tennessee.
"Pledging My Love" was a posthumous R&B number 1 hit for 10 weeks beginning February 12, 1955. As Billboard bluntly put it, Ace's death "created one of the biggest demands for a record that has occurred since the death of Hank Williams just over two years ago." His single recordings were compiled and released as The Johnny Ace Memorial Album.
Bob Dylan and Joan Baez performed "Never Let Me Go" on tour with the Rolling Thunder Revue in 1975. The same song would also be covered by Luther Vandross in 1993, as the title track to his eighth studio album.
Paul Simon wrote and performed the song "The Late Great Johnny Ace", in which a boy, upon hearing of the death of Ace, orders a photograph of the deceased singer: "It came all the way from Texas / With a sad and simple face / And they signed it on the bottom / From the Late Great Johnny Ace." The song develops a touching counterpoint with the death of two other Johnnies – John Lennon and John F. Kennedy. Simon also performed "Pledging My Love" on his tour of Europe and North America in 2000.
"Pledging My Love" was used in the 1973 film Mean Streets, directed by Martin Scorsese; the 1983 film Christine, directed by John Carpenter; the 1985 film Back to the Future, directed by Robert Zemeckis; and the 1992 film Bad Lieutenant, directed by Abel Ferrara.
The Teen Queens' song "Eddie My Love", originally entitled "Johnny My Love", was written in memory of Ace.
The Swiss singer Polo Hofer and the Schmetterband wrote the song "Johnny Ace" in 1985; it was released on the album Giggerig.
Rock-and-roll historian Harry Hepcat noted that "Johnny Ace was a crooner who sounded like Johnny Mathis with soul. ....Soon after the death of Johnny Ace, Varetta Dillard recorded "Johnny Has Gone" for Savoy Records in early 1955. She incorporated many of Ace's song titles in the lyrics. This was the first of the many teen tragedy records that were to follow in the later 50s and early 1960s."
Original singles, all issued simultaneously on 78- and 45-rpm discs by Duke Records
- "My Song" / "Follow the Rule" (1952)
- "Cross My Heart" / "Angel" (1953)
- "The Clock" / "Aces Wild" (1953)
- "Saving My Love for You" / "Yes, Baby" (the B-side is a duet with Willie Mae "Big Mama" Thornton) (1954)
- "Please Forgive Me" / "You've Been Gone So Long" (1954)
- "Never Let Me Go" / "Burley Cutie" (instrumental) (1954)
- "Pledging My Love" / "Anymore" / "No Money" (1955), #1 on U.S. R&B chart for 10 weeks, peaked at #17 on U.S. Pop chart
- "Anymore"/ "How Can You Be So Mean" (1955)
- "So Lonely" / "I'm So Crazy, Baby" (1956)
- "Don't You Know" / "I Still Love You So" (1956)
One split single, issued on 78- and 45-rpm discs by Flair Records
- "Mid Night Hours Journey" (Johnny Ace) / "Trouble and Me" (Earl Forest) (1953)
Studio albums and compilations containing only or mostly recordings by Ace
- Johnny Ace Memorial Album, Duke (1955)
- Johnny Ace: Pledging My Love, Universal Special Products (1986)
- Johnny Ace: The Complete Duke Recordings, Geffen (2004)
- The Chronological Johnny Ace: 1951–1954, Classics (2005)
- Johnny Ace: Essential Masters, Burning Fire, digital download (2008)
Notes and referencesEdit
- Robert Palmer. Deep Blues. Penguin Books. p. 230. ISBN 978-0-14-006223-6.
- Whitburn, Joel (2004). Top R&B/Hip-Hop Singles: 1942–2004. Record Research. p. 22. ISBN 0-89820-160-8.
- Dahl, Bill. "Johnny Ace | Biography". AllMusic. Retrieved 2015-09-06.
- Warner, Jay (2006). On This Day in Black Music History. Hal Leonard. ISBN 0-634-09926-4.
- Jackson, Laura (2003). "Out of the Shadows". Paul Simon: The Definitive Biography of the Legendary Singer/Songwriter. Citadel Press. pp. 12–13. ISBN 978-0-8065-2538-9. Retrieved August 30, 2009.
- "Johnny Ace Is Victim of Russ Roulette". Billboard: 14. January 8, 1955. ISSN 0006-2510.
- Gilliland, John (1969). "Show 4 – The Tribal Drum: The Rise of Rhythm and Blues. [Part 2]" (audio). Pop Chronicles. University of North Texas Libraries.
- "realbluesmagazine.com". realbluesmagazine.com. Retrieved 2015-09-06.
- Tosches, Nick (1984). "Number One with a Bullet". Unsung Heroes of Rock 'n' Roll. C. Scribner's Sons. p. 136. ISBN 0-684-18149-5. Retrieved 28 January 2012.
- Salem, James M. (2001). The Late Great Johnny Ace and the Transition from R & B to Rock 'n' Roll. Champaign: University of Illinois Press. pp. 141ff. ISBN 0-252-06969-2.
- "Talent Corner". Billboard: 34. January 29, 1955. ISSN 0006-2510.
- "Dash Rip Rock Lyrics". Mp3lyrics.org. Retrieved 2015-09-06.
- Hepcat, Harry. "History of Rock and Roll, Part III". Harryhepcat.com.
- Joel Martin Show, "Death Rock", WBAB 102.3 FM, New York, with guest Harry Hepcat, May 23, 1982
- Ankeny, Jason. "Gezundheit/Let the Wires Ring – AllMusic Review". AllMusic. Retrieved 2015-09-06.
- Bashe, Patricia Romanowski; George-Warren, Holly; Pareles, Jon (1995). The New Rolling Stone Encyclopedia of Rock & Roll (rev. updated ed.). New York: Fireside. ISBN 0-684-81044-1.
- Rees, Dafydd; Crampton, Luke (1991). Rock Movers and Shakers. Santa Barbara: ABC-CLIO. ISBN 0-87436-661-5.
- Rock On: The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Rock n' Roll: The Solid Gold Years: 1974. 1982: Thomas Y. Crowell Company, Harper & Row: New York. ISBN 0-06-181642-6.