John Neal bibliography

The bibliography of American writer John Neal (1793–1876) spans more than sixty years from the War of 1812 through Reconstruction and includes novels, short stories, poetry, articles, plays, lectures, and translations published in newspapers, magazines, literary journals, gift books, pamphlets, and books. Favorite topics included women's rights, feminism, gender, race, slavery, children, education, law, politics, art, architecture, literature, drama, religion, gymnastics, civics, American history, science, phrenology, travel, language, political economy, and temperance.

Black and white engraving of an old White man with serious countenance and a buttoned black coat
John Neal in 1874 from Portland Illustrated

Between 1817 and 1835 Neal became the first American published in British literary journals, author of the first history of American literature, America's first art critic, a children's literature pioneer, a forerunner of the American Renaissance, and one of the first American male advocates of women's rights. His fiction explores the romantic and gothic genres and aligns with the literary nationalist and regionalist movements. The first American author to use natural diction and a pioneer of colloquialism, John Neal is the first to use the phrase son-of-a-bitch in an American work of fiction.

Bound publicationsEdit

NovelsEdit

As a novelist, John Neal is recognized as "the first in America to be natural in his diction"[1] and "the father of American subversive fiction" for developing a new "wild, rough, and defiant American style" to break with British standards then dominant in the US.[2] A pioneer of American colloquialism and dialects in novels, Neal's novels are aligned with both the literary nationalist and regionalist movements.[3] They also anticipate the characteristics of the American Renaissance.[4]

Title Year 1st publisher Notes Ref.
Keep Cool, A Novel 1817 Baltimore: Joseph Cushing Explores gender roles in relationships and expresses Neal's views against dueling;[5] "Written in Hot Weather, by Somebody, M.D.C. &c. &c. &c. In Two Volumes" [6]
Logan, a Family History 1822 Philadelphia: H.C. Carey & I. Lea A "gothic tapestry"[7] that explores racial boundaries between White and Indigenous Americans;[8] in two volumes; republished in London in 1823 in four volumes by A.K. Newman & Co.; republished as Logan, the Mingo Chief. A Family History "By the Author of "'Seventy Six'" in London in 1840 by J. Cunningham [6]
Seventy-Six 1823 Baltimore: Joseph Robinson First use of "son-of-a-bitch" in an American work of fiction;[9] Neal's favorite of his own novels;[10] in two volumes; published in London the same year in three volumes by Whittaker and Company; facsimile of Baltimore edition published in 1971;[11] excerpted in The Genius of John Neal: Selections from His Writings (1978)[12] [6]
Randolph, a Novel 1823 "Published for Whom it May Concern" (Philadelphia: Stephen Simpson) "A story in the form of letters, giving an account of our celebrities, orators, writers, painters, &c., &c."; in two volumes;[13] contains the earliest of Neal's significant art criticism;[14] "By the Author of Logan — and Seventy-Six"; excerpted in The Genius of John Neal: Selections from His Writings (1978)[12] [6]
Errata; or, the Works of Will. Adams 1823 New York: Published for the Proprietors A semi-autobiographical account of Neal's life before 1823;[15] excerpted in the New England Galaxy (October 17 and November 28, 1835)[16] and The Genius of John Neal: Selections from His Writings (1978);[12] in two volumes; "A Tale by the Author of Logan, Seventy-Six, and Randolph" [6]
Brother Jonathan: or, the New Englanders 1825 Edinburgh: William Blackwood A story of the American Revolution depicting regional American folkways and dialect;[17] in three volumes; excerpted in The Genius of John Neal: Selections from His Writings (1978)[12] [6]
Rachel Dyer: a North American Story 1828 Portland, Maine: Shirley and Hyde "Almost universally regarded as Neal's most successful fictional work";[18] first hardcover novel based on the Salem witch trials;[19] an expansion of "New-England Witchcraft" likely written for but never published by Blackwood's Magazine in 1825, but published serially over five issues of The New-York Mirror (April 20 – May 18, 1839);[20] republished by facsimile in 1964;[11] excerpted in The Genius of John Neal: Selections from His Writings (1978)[12] [21]
Authorship, a Tale 1830 Boston: Gray and Bowen A "spritely spoof" about authors likely largely written during Neal's stay with Jeremy Bentham in London;[22] "By a New Englander Over-Sea" [21]
The Downeasters, &c. &c. &c. 1833 New York: Harper & Brothers Showcases regional variation in American character, dialect, and setting;[23] Neal's "fullest expression" of "regional realism";[24] in two volumes; includes two short stories: "Bill Frazier—the Fur Trader" and "Robert Steele";[25] excerpted in The Genius of John Neal: Selections from His Writings (1978)[12] [21]
Ruth Elder June 17, July 29, August 12, August 19, September 2, September 9, September 30, October 7, October 14, October 21, November 4, November 11, November 25, December 2, and December 9, 1843 Brother Jonathan magazine "A Down-East story of seduction";[26] a serial novella published over fifteen issues; first three installments originally published in the New Mirror (June 3, June 10, and June 17, 1843)[27] [26]
True Womanhood: a Tale 1859 Boston: Ticknor and Fields Defends the dignity of unmarried women; explores social life, business, and legal procedure in New York City; couched in an "abundant and all-pervasive" religious theme[28] [21]
The White-Faced Pacer: or, Before and After the Battle 1863 New York: Beadle and Company A dime novel adaptation of "The Switch-Tail Pacer. A Tale of Other Days" (1841)[29] [21]
The Moose-Hunter; or, Life in the Maine Woods 1864 New York: Beadle and Company A dime novel [21]
Little Moccasin; or, Along the Madawaska 1866 New York: Beadle and Company A dime novel; "A Story of Life and Love in the Lumber Region"; published in London the same year by George Routledge & Sons [21]
Live Yankees; or, The Down Easters at Home 1867 The Pen and Pencil magazine A serial novella published over eight weekly installments; a reworking of the novel The Lumberman, rejected by Beadle and Company [30]

CollectionsEdit

Title Editor Year 1st publisher Notes Ref.
Battle of Niagara, a Poem, without Notes; and Goldau, or the Maniac Harper John Neal 1818 Baltimore: N. G. Maxwell The best poetic description of Niagara Falls up to that time,[31] though Neal did not see it until 1833;[32] "By Jehu O'Cataract" [6]
The Battle of Niagara: Second Edition — Enlarged: with Other Poems John Neal 1819 Baltimore: N. G. Maxwell [6]
Great Mysteries and Little Plagues John Neal 1870 Boston: Roberts Brothers A collection of stories and essays for and about children[33] [21]
A Down-East Yankee from the District of Maine Windsor Daggett 1920 Portland, Maine: A.J. Huston A Biography of Neal that includes Neal's "Rights of Women" speech (originally published in Brother Jonathan magazine June 17, 1843), as well as excerpts from Randolph, Battle of Niagara, Errata, and "Sketches of the Five American Presidents, and of the Five Presidential Candidates, from the Memoranda of a Traveller" [26]
American Writers: A Series of Papers Contributed to Blackwood's Magazine (1824-1825) Fred Lewis Pattee 1937 Durham, North Carolina: Duke University Press First written history of American literature[34] covering 120 authors[35] [26]
Observations on American Art: Selections from the Writings of John Neal (1793-1876) Harold Edward Dickson 1943 State College, Pennsylvania: Pennsylvania State College "A full collection of Neal's most important art criticism"[26] [26]
The Genius of John Neal: Selections from His Writings Benjamin Lease and Hans-Joachim Lang 1978 Durham, North Carolina: Duke University Press Includes four short stories, excerpts from five novels, and eleven essays by Neal and notes and an introduction by the editors[12] [36]

Nonfiction booksEdit

Title Year 1st publisher Notes Ref.
One Word More: Intended for the Reasoning and Thoughtful among Unbelievers 1854 Portland, Maine: Ira Berry A religious tract that "rambles passionately for two hundred pages and closes with breathless metaphor";[37] also published the same year in Boston by Crocker & Brewster [21]
Wandering Recollections of a Somewhat Busy Life 1869 Boston: Roberts Brothers An autobiography that "presents a showy embroidery of bombast and gasconade on a firm fabric of good sound sense";[38] excerpted in The Genius of John Neal: Selections from His Writings (1978)[12] [21]
Portland Illustrated 1874 Portland, Maine: W.S. Jones A Portland, Maine guidebook "so chaotic in arrangement as to diminish greatly its usefulness."[39] [21]

PamphletsEdit

Many of Neal's pamphlets are lectures he delivered between 1829 and 1848, when he supplemented his income by traveling on the lyceum circuit.[40]

Title Year 1st publisher Notes Ref.
Constitution of the Portland Gymnasium with the Rules and Regulations, and the Names of the Subscribers June 1828 Portland, Maine: James Adams Handbook for the gymnasium established by Neal in 1827 [41]
Address Delivered before the Portland Association for the Promotion of Temperance, February 11, 1829 1829 Portland, Maine: Day and Fraser Address delivered at the First Parish Church;[42] also published in The Yankee (1829);[43] excerpted in the Ladies Miscellany August 18, 1829[44] [45]
City of Portland, Being a General Review of the Proceedings Heretofore Had, in the Town of Portland, on the Subject of a City Government 1829 Portland, Maine: Shirley & Hyde A "pamphlet of about fifty octavo pages, with tables, petitions, on both sides, and statistics, giving undeniable statistics, where necessary" advocating municipal incorporation as a city[46] [45]
Our Country 1830 Portland, Maine: S. Colman "An Address Delivered before the Alumni of Waterville-College, July 29, 1830" [45]
An Address Delivered before the M.C. Mechanics Association, Thursday Evening, Jan. 13, 1831 1831 Portland, Maine: Day & Fraser Address delivered to the Maine Charitable Mechanic Association [45]
Banks and Banking 1837 Portland, Maine: Orion Office "A Letter to the Bank Directors of Portland"; "This communication accused banks of ungenerous response to the curtailment in public demand upon them. Neal, among others, had striven to secure leniency of demand upon the local banks in their critical hour, and he now accused the banks of failure to reciprocate with a proper leniency toward the public."[47] [45]
Oration: By John Neal, Portland, July 4, 1838 1838 Portland, Maine: Arthur Shirley Address delivered for a meeting of the Portland, Maine Whigs[48] [45]
Man 1838 Providence: Knowles, Vose & Company "A Discourse, before the United Brothers' Society of Brown University, September 4, 1838" [45]
An Address before the Maine Charitable Mechanic Association, September 26, 1838 1838 Portland, Maine: Charles Day & Co In First Exhibition and Fair of the Maine Charitable Mechanic Association [45]
Appeal from the American Press to the American People, in Behalf of John Bratish Eliovich 1840 Portland, Maine: Argus Office A collection of letters written for, but refused by The New World defending John Bratish Eliovich from recent attacks in periodicals[49] [45]
Past, Present and Future of the City of Cairo, in North America: with Reports, Estimates and Statistics, The 1858 Portland, Maine: Brown Thurston Concerning land development in Cairo, Illinois, in which Neal invested money; based largely on a trip to Cairo by Neal in 1858[50] [45]
Account of the Great Conflagration in Portland, July 4th & 5th, 1866 1866 Portland, Maine: Starbird & Twitchell Concerning the 1866 great fire of Portland, Maine [45]

Collaborative worksEdit

Title Year 1st publisher Neal's contribution Notes Ref.
General Index to the First Twelve Volumes, or First Series, of Niles' Weekly Register 1818 Baltimore: Hezekiah Niles The index The product of sixteen hours of labor a day by Neal, seven days a week, for over four months;[51] "the most laborious work of the kind that ever appeared in any country"[52] [53]
A History of the American Revolution 1819 Baltimore: John Hopkins Vol. 1, pp. 253–592 and all of vol. 2[54] Republished in Baltimore in 1822 by Franklin Betts; pp. 1–252 by Tobias Watkins; preface by Paul Allen[54] [53]
Second Report of the Geology of the State of Maine 1838 Augusta, Maine: State of Maine Pp. 110–112 Otherwise written by Charles T. Jackson [53]
The Sinless Child, and Other Poems, by Elizabeth Oakes Smith 1843 New York: Wiley & Putnam The preface: a biographical sketch of Elizabeth Oakes Smith and Seba Smith Also published in Boston the same year by W.D. Ticknor [53]
The Works of Jeremy Bentham 1843 Edinburgh: W. Tait Vol. 9, pp. 660–662, 648 Edited by John Bowring [53]
The Proceedings of the Woman's Rights Convention, Held at Syracuse, September 8th, 9th, & 10th, 1852 1852 Syracuse: J. E. Masters Pp. 24–28: A letter by Neal read at the 1852 National Woman's Rights Convention by Elizabeth Oakes Smith Prompted the conference leadership to appoint Neal as the Maine representative to the central committee for organizing the next annual convention[55] [56]

Selected articlesEdit

 
Title image to "A Few Words About Tobacco" (1851)

John Neal was "perhaps the foremost critic of [his] era," commenting on literature, art, drama, politics, and a variety of social issues.[57] As a critic and political commentator, his essays and journalism showed distrust of institutions and an affinity for self-examination and self-reliance.[58] Compared to Neal's comparative lesser success at employing his literary theories in creative works,[59] "his critical judgments have held. Where he condemned, time has almost without exception condemned also."[60] Editors of newspapers, magazines, and annual publications sought contributions from Neal on a wide variety of topics, particularly in the second half of the 1830s.[61] His early articles make him one of the first male advocates of women's rights and feminist causes in the US.[62]

Neal was the first American to be published in any British literary magazine[63] and in that capacity wrote the first history of American literature.[64] His early encouragement of writers John Greenleaf Whittier, Edgar Allan Poe, Henry Wadsworth Longfellow, Elizabeth Oakes Smith, Nathaniel Hawthorne, and many others, helped launch their careers.[65]

As an art critic Neal was the first in the US,[66] and his essays from the 1820s are recognized as "prophetic."[67] As an "early firebrand"[68] in theatrical criticism, his "prophesy"[69] for American drama was only partially realized sixty years later.[68]

This list includes only articles that have received the most scholarly attention and/or that are noted in scholarly works as particularly important milestones in Neal's career and/or the histories of the topics they cover. Those omitted here are included in the larger list of articles by John Neal.

Title Date Publication type Publication name Topic Notes Ref.
"Apostasy" April 27, 1814 Newspaper Hallowell Gazette Law and politics Neal's first published work: a political essay published when Neal was living in Hallowell, Maine as a penmanship instructor[70] [71]
"Criticism. Lord Byron" October 1816, November 1816, December 1816, and January 1817 Magazine The Portico Literary criticism A 150-page criticism of Lord Byron's works written in four days and published in four installments;[72] Neal's first published literary criticism[73] [74]
"Essay on Duelling" February 1817 Magazine The Portico Social criticism "Describes dueling as a gendered performance, in which women play an enabling role and which they have an obligation to stop," similar to his subsequent novel, Keep Cool[75] [76]
"Sketches of the Five American Presidents, and of the Five Presidential Candidates, from the Memoranda of a Traveller" May 1824 Magazine Blackwood's Edinburgh Magazine Biography Biographical sketches of George Washington, John Adams, Thomas Jefferson, James Madison, James Monroe, John C. Calhoun, John Quincy Adams, Andrew Jackson, William H. Crawford, and Henry Clay;[77] the first article by an American to appear in a British literary journal;[63] republished in four languages by Alexander Walker in The European Review: or, Mind and its Productions, in Britain, France, Italy, Germany, &c. the same year[78] [79]
"North America. Peculiarities. State of the Fine Arts. Painting." August 1824 Magazine Blackwood's Edinburgh Magazine Art criticism Excerpted in Observations on American Art: Selections from the Writings of John Neal (1793-1876) (1943);[80] a critique of cultivation of fine arts in the US and a discussion of eleven American artists, including Benjamin West and John Trumbull; republished in the Columbian Observer (multiple issues beginning November 17, 1824)[81] [79]
"American Writers" September 1824, October 1824, November 1824, January 1825, February 1825 Magazine Blackwood's Edinburgh Magazine Literary criticism Criticism of 135 American authors in five installments;[82] the earliest written history of American literature;[83] reprinted as a collection in American Writers: A Series of Papers Contributed to Blackwood's Magazine (1824-1825) (1937);[84] excerpted in The Genius of John Neal: Selections from His Writings (1978)[12] [85]
"Men and Women; Brief Hypothesis concerning the Difference in their Genius" October 1824 Magazine Blackwood's Edinburgh Magazine Feminism and women's rights An exploration of how women are unlike, but not inferior, to men[86] [79]
"A Summary View of America" December 1824 Magazine Blackwood's Edinburgh Magazine Multiple Purportedly a review of A Summary View of America by Isaac Candler "literally buried beneath the grasping tendrils and riotous fruitage of Neal's birthright knowledge of his native country" in a "vast panorama" conveying Neal's views on slavery and other topics in thirty-six pages that "should be read by anyone interested in the America of 1825";[87] includes Neal's first call for women's suffrage[88] [79]
"Late American Books. 1. Peep at the Pilgrims; 2. Lionel Lincoln; 3. Memoirs of Charles Brockden Brown; 4. John Bull in America; 5. The Refugee; 6. North American Review, No. XLVI" September 1825 Magazine Blackwood's Edinburgh Magazine Literary criticism A review of North American Review and new American literature including Lionel Lincoln; predicts a new American revolution against "literary, not political bondage";[89] republished in American Writers: A Series of Papers Contributed to Blackwood's Magazine (1824-1825) (1937);[84] excerpted in The Genius of John Neal: Selections from His Writings (1978)[12] [85]
"United States" January 1826 Magazine Westminster Review Social criticism A summary of Neal's views on the American militia system, slavery, legal system, and literary style[90] [91]
"Yankee Notions" April, May, and June 1826 Magazine The London Magazine Travel An account of Neal's departure from Baltimore, transatlantic journey, early impressions of England over late 1823 through early 1824, and contrasts between the UK and US; the most detailed account of Neal's reasons for leaving Baltimore and for relocating to London; published in three installments[92] [44]
"Rights of Women. Review of the Mayor's Report — so far as it relates to the High School for Girls. By E. BAILEY, late Master of that School. Boston. BOWLES & DEARBORN" March 5, 1829 Magazine The Yankee Feminism and women's rights Denounces "with considerable heat" Josiah Quincy III's decision to close the Boston High School for Girls[93] and attacks the legal institution of coverture;[94] includes "Neal's angriest and most assertive feminist claims"[95] [96]
"The Drama" July, September, October, November, and December 1829 Magazine The Yankee Theatrical criticism Published in five installments; Neal's most noteworthy work of theatrical criticism;[97] calls for "a revolution that was still in progress sixty years later";[68] elaborates on points made in the prefaces to Otho (1819) and the second edition of The Battle of Niagara (1819)[98] [91]
"If E.A.P. of Baltimore" September 1829 Magazine The Yankee Literary criticism Neal's first criticism of Edgar Allan Poe;[99] referred to by Poe as "the very first words of encouragement I ever remember to have heard"[100] [91]
"Landscape and Portrait-Painting" September 1829 Magazine The Yankee Art criticism An "early, unprecedented effort to define a canon of American art";[101] anticipates John Ruskin's Modern Painters by distinguishing between "things seen by the artist" and "things as they are"[102] [103]
"Children—What Are They?" 1835 Gift book The Token Children and education An essay of "considerable popularity and a good deal of republication" and "a sensible, original inquiry into the nature of children";[104] "the best John Neal has ever written" according to the New-York Mirror;[105] revised and republished in Portland Magazine (April 1, 1835), New England Galaxy (April 18, 1835),[106] Godey's Lady's Book (March 1848 and November 1849),[107] and The Genius of John Neal: Selections from His Writings (1978);[12] excerpted in the New-York Mirror October 18, 1834;[108] excerpted as "Rustic Civility, or Children—What Are They?" in The Ladies' Companion (July 1838);[109] republished as "Children—What Are They Good For?" in Great Mysteries and Little Plagues (1870)[110] [111]
"The Case of Major Mitchell" January 17, January 24, January 31, February 7, and February 14, 1835 Newspaper New England Galaxy Science An account of Neal's role as the first lawyer to use psychiatric testimony[112] and seek leniency in a US court on account of a defendant's alleged mental defect;[113] published in five installments; reviewed in the Annals of Phrenology (November 1835) [114]
"Rights of Women: The Substance of a Lecture Delivered by John Neal, at the Tabernacle" June 17, 1843 Magazine Brother Jonathan Feminism and women's rights Neal's most influential statement on women's rights;[115] lecture originally delivered January 24, 1843 before 3,000 attendees at the Broadway Tabernacle;[116] "a scathing satire," according to the History of Woman Suffrage;[117] republished in The Genius of John Neal: Selections from His Writings (1978)[12] [118]
"Woman! Letter to Mrs. T. J. Farnham, on the Rights of Women. Being a Reply to her Argument in the Brother Jonathan of June 24th, 1843" July 15, 1843 Magazine Brother Jonathan Feminism and women's rights Responds to arguments against women's suffrage by Eliza Farnham, prompted by Neal's "Rights of Women" speech on January 24 of that year;[119] "Mrs. Farnham lived long enough to retrace her ground and accept the highest truth," according to the History of Woman Suffrage;[117] republished in The Genius of John Neal: Selections from His Writings (1978)[12] [119]
"To Mrs. Eliza W. Farnham" August 5, 1843 Magazine Brother Jonathan Feminism and women's rights Concluding remarks to Eliza Farnham's second essay prompted by Neal's "Rights of Women" speech on January 24 of that year;[120] republished in The Genius of John Neal: Selections from His Writings (1978)[12] [120]
"Slavery" January 27, 1844 Newspaper Portland Tribune Slavery and race "Neal's most significant pronouncement" on slavery; repeats arguments made in "A Summary View of America" (1824) and "United States" (1826); argues for gradual emancipation and colonization [121]
"What is Poetry? And What Is It Good For?" January 1849 Magazine Sartain's Union Magazine of Literature and Art Literature Asserts that all are poets though few recognize it in themselves; claims poetry as a necessary refinement and embellishment of the world; marks a departure from Neal's earlier opinion of poetry as "superficial adornment" and "deliberate falsification of fact"[122] [26]
"Edgar A. Poe" March 19 and April 26, 1850 Newspaper Portland Daily Advertiser Biography A refutation of Rufus Wilmot Griswold's biography of Edgar Allan Poe in two installments;[123] republished in The Genius of John Neal: Selections from His Writings (1978)[12] [91]
"Thinking Aloud; or, Suggestions and Glimpses" August 1852 Magazine Sartain's Union Magazine of Literature and Art English language Uplifts the value of natural diction in writing and expression of thought as it spontaneously occurs to the writer; includes an analysis of New England speech and character he saw as underrepresented in literature;[124] republished in The Genius of John Neal: Selections from His Writings (1978)[12] [55]
"Masquerading" March 1864 Magazine The Northern Monthly Feminism and women's rights "One of the most interesting essays of his career"; "an incisive piece of feminist social criticism" disguised "as a conservative critique of current fashion";[125] "the beginning of the last phase of Neal's feminist journalism"[126] [127]
"Our Painters" December 1868 and March 1869 Magazine Atlantic Monthly Art criticism Republished in Observations on American Art: Selections from the Writings of John Neal (1793-1876) (1943);[128] based on notes from his stay in London over forty years earlier;[129] published in 2 installments [130]
"Portland Up, and Moving" May 5, 1870 Newspaper The Revolution Feminism and women's rights A report of Portland, Maine's first women's suffrage meeting, organized by Neal; republished in History of Woman Suffrage volume 3 (1886)[131] [132]

Short stories and fictional sketchesEdit

John Neal's short stories are "his highest literary achievement"[133] and he published an average of one tale per year between 1828 and 1846.[134] Many of these challenged American socio-political phenomena that grew in the period leading up to and including Andrew Jackson's terms as US president (1829–1837): manifest destiny, empire building, Indian removal, consolidation of federal power, racialized citizenship, and the Cult of Domesticity.[135] His work helped shape the relatively new short story genre,[134] particularly early children's literature.[33]

Title Date Publication type Publication name Notes Ref.
"Albert and Jessy" Between December 1815 and June 1816 Newspaper The Wanderer A "narrative fragment"; originally prepared for recitation at the Wanderer Club of Baltimore; published in volume I, pp. 394–395 [136]
"The Club Room. To Horace De Monde, Esq." February 1817 Magazine The Portico Neal's only contribution to the magazine's regular "Club-Room" department, supervised by the fictitious "Horace De Monde, Esquire" that detailed happenings at real and fictitious clubs; attributed to the pseudonym "Jamie"; "shows a good grasp of character"[137] [76]
"Original Letter" April 1817 Magazine The Portico A satirical letter from a fictitious author to a fictitious recipient outlining the peculiarities of Boston; possibly a precursor to Neal's novel Randolph[138] [76]
"Sketches from Nature — By a club of Painters" May, June, July–August, November, and December 1817 Magazine The Portico A series of five character sketches (four women and one man) published over five issues; a study of human nature that contributed to Neal's first novel, Keep Cool[139] [76]
"Original Letters. Letter I. From J.N. Esquire, to T.S." June 1817 Magazine The Portico A satirical letter from a fictitious author to a fictitious recipient discussing a fictitious "Miss Olivia Teaseabit," possibly based on a real "Miss Olivia T.," on whom Neal had developed a crush after encountering her in Exeter, New Hampshire and Waterville, Maine over the winter of 1813–1814[138] [76]
"A Head" December 1817 Magazine The Portico A character sketch "more penetrating and expository" than his "Sketches from Nature — By a club of Painters" series, likely based on himself[140] [141]
"Frank and George" April–June 1818 Magazine The Portico A dual sketch contrasting two characters; likely used later by Neal as the basis for the Oadley brothers in his novel Seventy-Six[142] [141]
"Anecdote" March 9, March 10, March 23, April 13, April 14, April 22, and April 24, 1819 Newspaper Federal Republican and Baltimore Telegraph A series of narrative sketches with distinct subtitles: "More Dogs," "Fact," "Cats," and "Joe Miller" [143]
"Sketches from Life" 1828–1829 Magazine The Yankee "Fragmentary and unsatisfactory" fictional segments likely drawn from an early draft of Brother Jonathan (1825); published in eleven installments [144]
"Otter-Bag, the Oneida Chief" 1829 Gift book The Token Along with "David Whicher" (1832), one of Neal's best short stories;[145] republished in Stories of American Life; By American Writers edited by Mary Russell Mitford (1830)[53] and The Genius of John Neal: Selections from His Writings (1978);[12] excerpted as "Ruins of North America" in The Literary Gazette of Concord, New Hampshire (March 6, 1835)[44] [111]
"Chalk Drawings No I. Old Bailey — England" 1829 Magazine The Yankee A narrative comical sketch of a criminal trial; likely written while Neal lived in London; republished in The Ladies' Companion as "The Prisoner at the Old Bailey" (May 1838)[146] [147]
"Males and Females" April 9, 1829 Magazine The Yankee A fictional fragment likely from an early draft of Brother Jonathan (1825)[144] that muses about the differences between men and women in a way similar to "Men and Women; Brief Hypothesis concerning the Difference in their Genius" (October 1824)[148] [149]
"The Spare-Chapter" 1829 Magazine The Yankee A fictional fragment of "meaningless nonsense" likely drawn from an early draft of Brother Jonathan (1825) [144]
"What is Courage" 1829 Magazine The Yankee A fictional fragment of "meaningless nonsense" likely drawn from an early draft of Brother Jonathan (1825) [144]
"Intercepted Letters — No 1" 1829 Magazine The Yankee A fictional fragment of "meaningless nonsense" likely drawn from an early draft of Brother Jonathan (1825) [144]
"Live Yankees — No 1" 1829 Magazine The Yankee A fictional fragment of "meaningless nonsense" likely drawn from an early draft of Brother Jonathan (1825) [144]
"Street Scenes — No 1" 1829 Magazine The Yankee A fictional fragment of "meaningless nonsense" likely drawn from an early draft of Brother Jonathan (1825) [144]
"Live Yankees" July and August 1829 Magazine The Yankee A winter recreation scene along the Kennebec River in Maine during the winter of 1815–1816 followed by an exchange between an American and an Englishman in England in 1827 involving counterfeit money; likely semi-autobiographical; "the only piece of pure, unified, prose fiction Neal published in the Yankee"; published in two installments [150]
"Courtship" September 1829 Magazine The Yankee "Though too slight for special commendation, it is not ungracefully done";[151] republished as "The Old Bachelor" in The Ladies' Companion (February 1838),[109] Boston Pearl and Galaxy (February 17, 1838), and the Portland Transcript (July 1, 1848)[152] [11]
"The Utilitarian" 1830 Gift book The Token Reprinted serially in The Free Enquirer on January 15 and January 22, 1831 [153]
"The Adventurer" 1831 Gift book The Token A fictionalized story of the life of John Dunn Hunter based mostly on knowledge gained during cohabitation at a rooming house in London in the mid 1820s[154] [91]
"Old Susap" July 25, 1831 Newspaper Morning Courier and New-York Enquirer A comic tall tale from an "unconsciously ludicrous Down-Easter" [155]
"The Haunted Man" 1832 Gift book The Atlantic Souvenir The first work of fiction to utilize psychotherapy[156] [153]
"David Whicher" 1832 Gift book The Token Along with "Otter-Bag, the Oneida Chief" (1832), one of Neal's best short stories;[145] published anonymously and not attributed to Neal until the 1960s;[134] republished in The Genius of John Neal: Selections from His Writings (1978)[12] [153]
"Bill Frazier—the Fur Trader" 1833 Novel The Down-Easters, &c. &c. &c. Along with "Robert Steele," one of two stories included with The Downeasters to take up space at the request of the publisher[25] [153]
"Robert Steele" 1833 Novel The Down-Easters, &c. &c. &c. Republished in Mrs. Stephens' Illustrated New Monthly (February 1857);[153] along with "Bill Frazier—the Fur Trader," one of two stories included with The Downeasters to take up space at the request of the publisher[25] [153]
"The Squatter" February 1835 Magazine The New-England Magazine "Ostensibly a string of three stories to illustrate the quick destructive power of the Maine forest fire;[157] republished in the New England Galaxy (February 7, 1835),[158] The Literary Gazette of Concord, New Hampshire (February 13, 1835),[44] and The Genius of John Neal: Selections from His Writings (1978)[12] [153]
"Will the Wizard" March 1835 Magazine The New-England Magazine A story about young William Shakespeare[159] [153]
"Hands Off! A Phrenological Case" March 14, 1835 Newspaper New England Galaxy About an Englishman in Virginia who claims his head is so beautifully shaped he wears hats and wigs to hide it from phrenologists like Neal and John Elliotson who want to examine him to no end, though he contemplated offering his head for dissection by Johann Spurzheim for examination by John Pierpont; "aside from the evidence it affords of Neal's ability to laugh at what he took most seriously, this piece has little or no significance" [160]
"Heads and Points" April 4, April 11, April 25, May 23, July 19, and August 8, 1835 Newspaper New England Galaxy A series of six fictional sketches illustrating New England dialect and character [161]
"The Story of E.B." April 25, May 9, May 30, June 27, and August 1, 1835 Newspaper New England Galaxy Based on Neal's travels in England; similar to the novel Authorship; published serially in five installments [162]
"Phantasmagoria — Little Joe Smith" June 27, 1835 Newspaper New England Galaxy Illustrates Neal's opposition to dueling [163]
"The Old Pussy-Cat and the Two Little Pussy-Cats" August 29, 1835 Newspaper New England Galaxy A children's story concerning a cat who protects her noisy kittens from a human child; prefaced by a statement that Neal intends "to furnish a series of the best little books for children that ever appeared" [164]
"The Life and Adventures of Tom Pop" August 29, September 12, September 19, and September 26, 1835 Newspaper New England Galaxy A children's story concerning a homeless orphan reunited with his grandfather who is rewarded for honesty and courage; published serially in four installments [165]
"Extracts from the Autobiography of a Coward" October 17 and November 28, 1835 Newspaper New England Galaxy Two reworked extracts from Errata [16]
"Extracts from the 'Autobiography of John Dunn Hunter'" December 19, 1835 Newspaper New England Galaxy Likely portions of "The Adventurer" rejected by The Token [16]
"The Young Phrenologist" 1836 Gift book The Token Republished in The New England Galaxy October 3, 1835, in Atkinson's Casket in 1838, and in Emerson's United States Magazine and Putnam's Monthly September 1857 [153]
"The Unchangeable Jew" 1836 Book Portland Sketch Book Included in a book edited by Ann S. Stephens featuring Portland, Maine authors [153]
"Animal Magnetism" February 9 February 16, February 23, March 2, March 9, and March 16, 1839 Newspaper The New-York Mirror Published serially over six installments; a study of female development from adolescence to womanhood;[166] includes a character who becomes magnetized[167] [153]
"Goody Gracious! and the Forget-Me-Not" March 23, 1839 Newspaper The New-York Mirror A children's story written for Neal's daughter, Margaret Neal;[168] republished in Ballou's Monthly Magazine in 1866,[79] Great Mysteries and Little Plagues (book) by Neal in 1870,[21] and Little Classics (book) edited by Rossiter Johnson in 1875[53] [127]
"New-England Witchcraft" April 20, April 27, May 4, May 11, and May 18, 1839 Newspaper The New-York Mirror Published serially over five issues; likely written for but never published by Blackwood's Magazine in 1825 and later expanded into Rachel Dyer (1828)[169] [53]
"The Newly Married Man" May 1839 Magazine The Ladies' Companion "A highly artificial, melodramatic sketch, cast so exclusively into dialogue as to be almost dramatic in effect";[170] first of three works in the "Sketches by Lamp-Light" series for The Ladies' Companion [153]
"The Three Caps" July 1839 Magazine The Ladies' Companion Based on Neal's family life;[171] third of three works in the "Sketches by Lamp-Light" series for The Ladies' Companion [153]
"The Runaway" September 1839 Magazine Godey's Lady's Book Based on Neal's experience living with Jeremy Bentham in London in August 1826[172] [153]
"The Instinct of Childhood" 1840 Book The Envoy. From Free Hearts to the Free Written for a collection of anti-slavery prose and poetry edited by Frances Harriet Whipple Green McDougall and published by the Juvenile Emancipation Society;[173] republished in the Portland Tribune circa 1841;[174] republished in The Star of Bethlehem (1845)[111] [53]
"Coming Out" January 18, 1840 Newspaper The New World "A countryman's farcical account ... of his appearance at his first ball"; republished in The Evergreen: A Monthly Magazine of New and Popular Tales and Poetry February 1840 [175]
"The Tragedy of Errors; or Facts Stranger than Fiction" February 15, 1840 Newspaper The New World Intended to be titled "The Self-educated Man" by Neal, but retitled by editor Park Benjamin Sr.; roughly based on Neal's travels in the UK "woven in a bizarre plot involving disastrous elopement and a suicide"; republished in The New World (February 24, 1840) and The Evergreen: A Monthly Magazine of New and Popular Tales and Poetry (March 1840) [176]
"Live Women!" May 2, 1840 Magazine Brother Jonathan "A preposterous bit of tomfoolery" written to accompany an illustration[177] [178]
"The Ins and the Outs, or the Last of the Bamboozled. By a Disappointed Man" October 15, 1841 Magazine The Family Companion and Ladies' Mirror: A Monthly Magazine of Polite Literature An "expression of contempt for politics" based on Neal's involvement in the Benjamin Harrison's 1840 presidential campaign and subsequent failed attempt at securing a political appointment;[179] [153]
"The Countess of Beltokay" November 15, 1841; December 15, 1841; and January 15, 1842 Magazine The Family Companion and Ladies' Mirror: A Monthly Magazine of Polite Literature "Shows a lively crispness that contrasts with the lumbering involutions of Neal's usual long, closely packed, rambling sentences"; three sketches of disparate scenes in Austria-Hungary "bound together by explanatory threads";[180] published in three installments [181]
"A Yankee in Paris" November 20, 1841 Newspaper Portland Tribune A New Englander's visit to the French theatre; "show's Neal's usual facility in Yankee dialect and Yankee psychology" [182]
"The Switch-Tail Pacer. A Tale of Other Days" December 4, 18, and 25, 1841 Magazine Brother Jonathan The story of Nathan Hale "with many variations and considerable subordination of historical fact;[183] published serially over three installments [153]
"Mary Bishop, or the Transformation" February 15, 1842 Magazine The Family Companion and Ladies' Mirror: A Monthly Magazine of Polite Literature Takes its title from Lord Byron's The Deformed Transformed; "advances the notion ... that a beautiful soul may inhabit an unlovely body"; "a careless, perfunctory performance"[184] [185]
"Little Joe Junk and the Fisherman's Daughter" March 12 and 19, 1842 Magazine Brother Jonathan A children's story, "quite meaningless in its haphazard shiftings,"[186] about a young sailor addicted to tobacco and alcohol who experiences a drunken hallucination while shipwrecked; includes an illustration by David Claypoole Johnston[187] published serially in two installments [178]
"Dot and Carry One" April 20, 1842 Newspaper Portland Tribune "A slapdash attempt to represent New England character without plot — with a mere string of meaningless, illogical incidents" about a schoolmaster correcting mispronunciations of a family he visits [188]
"The Charcoal-Burners. A Tale" May 21, June 4, June 11, July 2, July 9, and July 23, 1842 Magazine Brother Jonathan "Rhapsodic, deep-dyed, unrelieved Gothicism as he had not perpetrated since Logan";[186] published serially over six installments [153]
"The China Pitcher" April 1843 Magazine New Mirror About a young wife's attachment to family heirlooms; "slight in its conception" and "gives every evidence of a careless preciptancy [sic] in execution"[189] [27]
"Idiosyncrasies" May 6 and July 8, 1843 Magazine Brother Jonathan Published serially over two installments;[153] republished in The Genius of John Neal: Selections from His Writings (1978)[12] [153]
"The Lottery Ticket" June 1843 Magazine The Magnolia; or, Southern Appalachian A "pseudo-narrative" that portrays lotteries as an objectionable industry that dupes customers into wasting money[190] [44]
"Never Give Up! Always Give Up!" July 1843 Magazine Pierian: or, Youth's Fountain of Literature and Knowledge A sketch of a family with children, likely based on Neal's own, followed by a moral statement about when and when not to give up;[191] republished in the Portland Tribune (September 9, 1843)[192] [193]
"Another Mystery!" December 23, 1843 Magazine Brother Jonathan A "strangely autobiographic" short narrative about an abandoned family with a plot "too complicated for the space allotted it" [194]
"Lead Us Not into Temptation" February 1844 Magazine Columbian Lady's and Gentleman's Magazine "Warns against over-confidence in human powers"[195] [178]
"The Little Fat Quakeress; or, Match-Making at Philadelphia" January 1845 Magazine Columbian Lady's and Gentleman's Magazine A feminist defense of unmarried women[196] [197]
"Budding and Blossoming" January 1846 Magazine Godey's Lady's Book A study of female development from adolescence to womanhood [166]
"Life Assurance" January 1846 Magazine Columbian Lady's and Gentleman's Magazine Illustrates the value of purchasing life insurance and concludes "P.S. Go thou and do likewise"[198] [199]
"My Own Life. By Ruth Elder" July 1, 1848 Newspaper Portland Transcript A sequel to the novella Ruth Elder [200]
"Bubbles" January 1851 Magazine Godey's Lady's Book "A queer hybrid narrative ... with one of Neal's delightful family sketches ... as a symbol of the vanity of life" and a "story of an absurd faith in buried treasures"; republished in the Portland Transcript (December 14, 1850) [107]
"New Englandisms" May 1867 Magazine Beadle's Monthly, a Magazine of To-day Three story fragments illustrating New England speech and social phenomena based on accompanying engravings: "The Memorial Quilt," "The Apple-Bee," and "The Sewing-Circle"[201] [79]

PoemsEdit

The bulk of Neal's poetry was published in The Portico while studying law in Baltimore in the late 1810s.[202] By 1830 he had "acquired quite a reputation, especially as a poet," having been recognized in multiple poetry collections.[203]

Title Date Publication type Publication name Notes Ref.
"Passion" Between December 1815 and June 1816 Newspaper The Wanderer Originally prepared for recitation at the Wanderer Club of Baltimore; published in volume I, pp. 174–175 [136]
"Recovery" Between December 1815 and June 1816 Newspaper The Wanderer Originally prepared for recitation at the Wanderer Club of Baltimore; published in volume I, pp. 221–222 [136]
"To Genius" August 1816 Magazine The Portico Shows influence of Lord Byron;[204] republished in Keep Cool (1817)[205] [193]
"Castle Shane" August 1816 Magazine The Portico Shows influence of Lord Byron; written while Neal was still engaged in dry goods business, at the suggestion of John Pierpont[206] [193]
"Moonlight" September 1816 Magazine The Portico [193]
"To M. A.———" September 1816 Magazine The Portico [193]
"The Lyre of the Winds" October 1816 Magazine The Portico Shows influence of Lord Byron;[204] republished in The Battle of Niagara: Second Edition — Enlarged: with Other Poems (1819)[207] and in the Portland Tribune (circa 1842)[208] [193]
"Religion" November 1816 Magazine The Portico Shows influence of Lord Byron;[204] republished in the Portland Tribune (circa 1841)[209] [193]
"Love's Worst Curse" November 1816 Magazine The Portico [193]
"Expression" November 1816 Magazine The Portico Republished in Randolph (1823), The Yankee (1828), and the Portland Tribune (circa 1841)[210] [193]
"To Power" November 1816 Magazine The Portico Shows influence of Lord Byron;[204] republished in The Yankee (1828) and the Portland Tribune (circa 1841)[211] [193]
"The Oak of the Heart" December 1816 Magazine The Portico Republished in the Portland Tribune (circa 1842)[212] [76]
"To Memory" January 1817 Magazine The Portico [76]
"Song" January 1817 Magazine The Portico Republished in the Portland Tribune (circa 1842);[213] to the tune of "Meeting of the Waters" [76]
"Fragment in Imitation of Byron" February 1817 Magazine The Portico [76]
"To Doubt" February 1817 Magazine The Portico Republished in the Portland Tribune (circa 1841)[214] [76]
"Sympathy" February 1817 Magazine The Portico Republished in the Portland Tribune (circa 1842)[215] [76]
"Song" February 1817 Magazine The Portico [76]
"Impromptu on a sprig of Ambrosia which fell from a Lady's bosom" February 1817 Magazine The Portico [216]
"Ode on the Birth-Day of a Friend" March 1817 Magazine The Portico [217]
"Ambition" March 1817 Magazine The Portico Originally published in The Portico as "Song"; republished in The Battle of Niagara: Second Edition — Enlarged: with Other Poems (1819); revised and republished as "Ambition" in Randolph (1823), Atkinson's Casket (1834), Brother Jonathan (May 2, 1840), The Poet's Gift: Illustrated by One of Her Painters edited by John Keese (1845), and Songs of Three Centuries edited by John Greenleaf Whittier (1877); excerpted in Seventy-Six (1823) and The Gift Book of Gems (1856)[218] [217]
"Song" March 1817 Magazine The Portico To the tune of "Go Where Glory Waits Thee" [217]
"To A.M.C." March 1817 Magazine The Portico [217]
"To Romance" March 1817 Magazine The Portico Republished in the Portland Tribune (circa 1842)[219] [217]
"Fancy" May 1817 Magazine The Portico Republished in Keep Cool (1817)[205] [76]
"The Sailor's Grave—A Song" June 1817 Magazine The Portico Republished in the Portland Tribune (circa 1841)[220] [76]
"Song. The Sailor's Pledge,—By the friend of _____, who fell with Lawrence" June 1817 Magazine The Portico "Given special prominence" at the end of volume 3 of The Portico;[221] republished in the Portland Tribune (circa 1842)[222] [76]
Verse parody addressed to "Mr. Editor" July–August 1817 Magazine The Portico [141]
"Perry's Victory.—A Song" July–August 1817 Magazine The Portico Republished in The Battle of Niagara: Second Edition — Enlarged: with Other Poems (1819);[223] [141]
"To Byron" July–August 1817 Magazine The Portico [141]
"To Ida" September–October 1817 Magazine The Portico [141]
"To ___ ___ ___" September–October 1817 Magazine The Portico [141]
"Song—The Butterfly God" September–October 1817 Magazine The Portico Republished in the Portland Tribune (circa 1842)[224] [141]
"To E. M. P." September–October 1817 Magazine The Portico Republished in the Portland Tribune (circa 1841)[225] [141]
"To William" December 1817 Magazine The Portico [141]
Battle of Niagara 1818 Book Battle of Niagara, a Poem, without Notes; and Goldau, or the Maniac Harper The best poetic description of Niagara Falls up to that time;[31] inspired Charles Naylor as a boy;[226] used by Edward Dickinson Baker in political campaigns;[227] revised and republished in The Battle of Niagara: Second Edition — Enlarged: with Other Poems (1819);[228] excerpted in Lady's Amaranth (December 8, 1838),[44] Brother Jonathan (July 4, 1840),[178] Portland Tribune (circa 1842),[212] The Gift Book of Gems (1856),[185] and A Down-East Yankee from the District of Maine (1920)[229] [11]
Goldau 1818 Book Battle of Niagara, a Poem, without Notes; and Goldau, or the Maniac Harper An epic poem in English verse about the destruction of an Alpine village;[230] revised and republished in The Battle of Niagara: Second Edition — Enlarged: with Other Poems (1819);[231] excerpted in Lady's Amaranth (January 5, 1839)[44] and Portland Tribune (circa 1842)[212] [11]
"Ode, Delivered Before the Delphians. A Literary Society of Baltimore" 1819 Book The Battle of Niagara: Second Edition — Enlarged: with Other Poems Originally written for a Delphian Club meeting (December 26, 1818) as "Ode, alias Poem, on the Anniversary of His Ludships Elevation to the Tripod" [232]
"Conquest of Peru" 1819 Book The Battle of Niagara: Second Edition — Enlarged: with Other Poems A fragmented experiment in blank verse [233]
"Hymn, (Sung at the late ordination of Mr. Pierpont, in Boston)" 1819 Book The Battle of Niagara: Second Edition — Enlarged: with Other Poems Written for the ordination of John Pierpont [223]
"To the Genius of Painting" March 16, 1819 Newspaper Federal Republican and Baltimore Telegraph Republished in the The Battle of Niagara: Second Edition — Enlarged: with Other Poems (1819) [234]
"Hymn for the Lord's Supper" 1823 Book Randolph, A Novel Represented as the work of a fictional character in the novel [235]
"Poetry, Inclosed to —————" 1823 Book Randolph, A Novel Represented as the work of a fictional character in the novel [236]
"To —————" 1823 Book Randolph, A Novel Represented as the work of a fictional character in the novel [237]
"To —————, The Same, In Atonement" 1823 Book Randolph, A Novel Represented as the work of a fictional character in the novel [238]
"Hymn. Supper" 1823 Book Randolph, A Novel Represented as the work of a fictional character in the novel [239]
"What is an Album?" 1823 Book Randolph, A Novel Represented as the work of a fictional character in the novel [240]
"To —————" 1823 Book Randolph, A Novel Represented as the work of a fictional character in the novel [241]
"The Birth of a Poet" January 1, 1828 Magazine The Yankee Republished in The Edinburgh Literary Journal: or, Weekly Register of Criticism and Belles Lettres (May 16, 1829), Specimens of American Poetry (1829), The Poets of America: Illustrated by One of Her Painters edited by John Keese (1840), The Poets and Poetry of America (1842), The Gift Book of Gems (1856), and Cyclopedia of American Literature (1875) [242]
"The Indian Girl of Lake Ontario" February 6, 1828 Magazine The Yankee Republished as "The Indian Girl" in The Ladies' Companion (January 1838) and the Portland Tribune (circa 1841) [243]
"The Sleeper" April 9, 1828 Book The Yankee Republished in Specimens of American Poetry, with Critical and Biographical Notices edited by Samuel Kettell (1829) [244]
"Preliminary Poem" September 10, 1828 Magazine The Yankee [245]
"Address for the New Year by the Editors of The Yankee and Boston Literary Gazette—Jan.1, 1829" 1829 Magazine The Yankee Republished in Specimens of American Poetry, with Critical and Biographical Notices edited by Samuel Kettell (1829), the Portland Tribune (circa 1842), and Brother Jonathan (October 7, 1843) [246]
"How to Make Poetry" 1829 Magazine The Yankee [247]
"Stanzas to Woman" September 1829 Magazine The Yankee Republished in the Portland Tribune (circa 1841) [248]
"A War-Song of the Revolution" July 1829 Magazine The Yankee and Boston Literary Gazette Republished in The Portland Sketch Book (1836); republished as "War Song of Other Days" in the Evening Signal (April 3, 1840), The New World (April 4, 1840), The Evergreen: A Monthly Magazine of New and Popular Tales and Poetry (May 1840) [249]
"The Ideot-Boy" October 1829 Magazine The Yankee Republished in Brother Jonathan (August 5, 1843) [250]
"Language" 1835 Book Practical Grammar of the English Language Republished in the Portland Tribune (circa 1841) and One Word More (1854) [251]
"Shakespeare's Tomb" March 1835 Magazine The New-England Magazine A "once-popular" poem with "vigor and rhetorical apostrophe ... but none of the freshness of diction or image that mark fine poetry";[252] originally published without a title; republished in the Gift Book of Gems (1856) [253]
"The Marriage Ring" October 1, 1835 Magazine The Portland Magazine, Devoted to Literature "Marred by graveyard sentimentality" with "at least one effective stanza" that anticipates the "later macabre effects of Poe"[254] [141]
"Verses Written at Cape Cottage" December 1838 Magazine The Ladies' Companion A ballad about a hotel by that name Neal owned in Cape Elizabeth, Maine;[255] republished in the Portland Tribune (circa 1842)[256] and The New World (January 14, 1843),[255] [147]
"Verses to her who will Understand Them" April 4, 1840 Newspaper The New World Republished in The Evergreen: A Monthly Magazine of New and Popular Tales and Poetry (May 1840),[257] the Portland Tribune (circa 1842), and Brother Jonathan (June 24, 1843)[258] [257]
"One Day in the History of the World" October 15, 1841 Magazine The Family Companion, and Ladies' Mirror [259]
"Bunker Hill" circa 1842 Newspaper Portland Tribune [260]
"To ———" circa 1842 Newspaper Portland Tribune [261]
"Stanzas" circa 1842 Newspaper Portland Tribune [262]
"Where Are They?" circa 1842 Newspaper Portland Tribune Republished in Alexander's Whig Messenger (November 9, 1842) [263]
"A Pair of Verses" circa 1842 Newspaper Portland Tribune [264]
"Washingtonian (Written for a Tea-Party) Your Father is a Man Again" circa 1842 Newspaper Portland Tribune [265]
"The Dying Husband to His Wife" January 15, 1842 Magazine The Family Companion, and Ladies' Mirror Republished in Emerson's United States Magazine December 1856[266] [259]
"Polsko Powstan" March 15, 1842 Magazine The Family Companion, and Ladies' Mirror Republished in Brother Jonathan magazine April 30, 1842[267] [259]
"The Birth of Woman" May 13, 1843 Magazine Brother Jonathan [268]
"To a Friend: On the Birth of Her First Child" November 4, 1843 Magazine Brother Jonathan [269]
"My Child! My Child!" 1847 Gift book The Mayflower Inspired by the death of Neal's infant daughter Eleanor in 1845.[166] [44]
"Inscription" 1851 Book The Memorial: Written by the Friends of the Late Mrs. Osgood Printed in the front of a memorial book in honor of Frances Sargent Osgood[270] [53]
"The Pledge" March 1852 Magazine Graham's Magazine Republished in the Portland Tribune (circa 1842)[271] [185]
"Almighty God! Jehovah! Father! Friend!" 1854 Book One Word More: Intended for the Reasoning and Thoughtful among Unbelievers [272]
"Patience" January 1855 Newspaper The Una: A Paper Devoted to the Elevation of Woman [111]
"Three Hundred Thousand Strong" January 1864 Magazine Harper's Magazine Inspired by the Civil War; appears with the date "Nov. 9, 1863"[273] [185]
"Battle Shadows No. 1 — The Boy-Trooper" March 1864 Magazine The Northern Monthly Inspired by the Civil War; appears with the date "January 28, 1864"[273] [127]
"Our Battle Flag—Hurrah!" July 1864 Magazine The Northern Monthly Inspired by the Civil War[273] [127]
"The Silent Gathering" June 1866 Magazine Beadle's Monthly, a Magazine of To-day Blank verse; about the return of Jews to Jerusalem[274] [79]

OtherEdit

DramaEdit

Neither of Neal's two fully conceived plays, nor his theatrical sketch, were ever produced for the stage.[275]

Title Date Publication type 1st publisher Notes Ref.
Otho: A Tragedy, in Five Acts 1819 Book Boston: West, Richardson and Lord Written in blank verse poetry; entirely rewritten and republished serially in thirteen installments in The Yankee (1828)[276] [6]
Sketch for a Fifth Act 1829 Magazine The Yankee A theatrical fragment of a tragedy about a duel; all three characters die [277]
Our Ephraim, or The New Englanders, A What-d'ye-call-it?–in three Acts May 16, May 23, May 30, June 3, and June 13, 1835 Magazine Brother Jonathan Published serially over five issues of Brother Jonathan; the "fullest detailing of Yankee dialect" of any work by Neal[278] [26]

TranslationsEdit

Neal was fluent in French and able to easily converse and write in Spanish, Italian, and German. In addition, he "could manage ... pretty well" writing and reading Portuguese, Swedish, Danish, Hebrew, Latin, Greek, and Old Saxon.[279] He learned to read Chinese shortly before his death.[280]

Title Author Date Publication type 1st publisher Original language Notes Ref.
"Morals and Legislation" Étienne Dumont and Jeremy Bentham July 2, 1828 – May 1829 Magazine The Yankee French A work on utilitarianism by Jeremy Bentham; published in eighteen installments [281]
"Principles of the Civil Code" Étienne Dumont and Jeremy Bentham June 18, 1829 Magazine The Yankee French A work on utilitarianism by Jeremy Bentham [282]
Principles of Legislation: from the MS of Jeremy Bentham Étienne Dumont and Jeremy Bentham 1830 Book Boston: Wells and Lilly French A translation of the first part of the first volume of Traités de Législation;[283] much of the content originally published in The Yankee (1828–1829);[284] includes short biographies by Neal of Jeremy Bentham and Étienne Dumont [21]
The Wandering Piper José Cortes February 1834 Manuscript Never published Spanish An unpublished play El Gaytero Errante by a Spanish instructor from Spain Neal met in Portland, Maine; Thomas Barry, manager of the Tremont Theatre in Boston, committed to producing it but never did; Barry claimed to have returned the manuscript to Cortes and Neal claimed Barry kept it [285]
"Principles of Legislation: from the MS of Jeremy Bentham" Étienne Dumont and Jeremy Bentham January 17, January 31, March 21, April 4, April 11, April 18, April 25, May 30, June 13, July 4, September 19, October 10, and November 21, 1835 Newspaper New England Galaxy French A translation of the first part of the second volume of Traites de Legislation; published in thirteen installments [286]
Koenig Yngurd Adolph Muellner January 24, 1835 Newspaper New England Galaxy German Excerpts from a poem [287]
"From the 'Traites De Legislation, Civile Et Penale,'—Part of Chapter XV. Vol I" Étienne Dumont and Jeremy Bentham August 5, 1843 Magazine Brother Jonathan French A translation of a portion of the fifteenth chapter of Traités de Législation [288]

Newspapers for which Neal wroteEdit

This list includes newspapers not listed elsewhere in this bibliography.

Title Located Period Ref.
Hallowell Gazette Hallowell, Maine April 27, 1814 [289]
Columbian Centinel Boston August 16, 1817 [289]
Federal Republican and Baltimore Telegraph Baltimore 1817–1822 [289]
Morning Chronicle Baltimore 1819–1822 [289]
Federal Gazette and Baltimore Daily Advertiser Baltimore 1820–1823 [289]
American and Commercial Daily Advertiser Baltimore 1822 [289]
Baltimore Patriot and Mercantile Advertiser Baltimore 1822 [289]
Columbian Observer Philadelphia 1822–1823 [289]
National Journal Washington, D.C. 1823 [289]
The Morning Chronicle London January 27, 1826 [289]
Morning Herald London 1827 [289]
Portland Daily Advertiser Portland, Maine 1829–1876 [289]
Morning Courier and New-York Enquirer New York City 1831–1838 [289]
The Sun New York City 1836 and April 1843 – September 1844 [289]
National Intelligencer Washington, D.C. December 14, 1839 [289]
The Evening Signal New York City January–April 1840 [289]
Eastern Argus Portland, Maine January 24 and April 17, 1840 [289]
Portland Tribune Portland, Maine 1841–1845 [289]
Public Ledger Philadelphia January 13, 1844 [289]
Portland Transcript Portland, Maine 1848–1876 [290]
The State of Maine Portland, Maine 1853–1855 [290]
Portland Daily Press Portland, Maine August 14, 1873 [290]

ReferencesEdit

CitationsEdit

  1. ^ Pattee 1937, p. 22.
  2. ^ Merlob 2012, p. 118n11.
  3. ^ Kayorie 2019, p. 90; Fleischmann 1983, p. 145; Lease 1972, pp. 42, 69–70.
  4. ^ Sears 1978, p. 123.
  5. ^ Fleischmann 1983, p. 232.
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i Richards 1933, p. 1882.
  7. ^ Goddu 1997, p. 60, quoting Alexander Cowie.
  8. ^ Goddu 1997, p. 63.
  9. ^ Sears 1978, p. 46; Barnes 1984, pp. 46–47.
  10. ^ Neal 1869, p. 224.
  11. ^ a b c d e Sears 1978, p. 145.
  12. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t Lease & Lang 1978, p. v.
  13. ^ Neal 1869, p. 229.
  14. ^ Dickson 1943, p. iii.
  15. ^ Lease & Lang 1978, p. xv.
  16. ^ a b c Richards 1933, p. 824.
  17. ^ Fleischmann 1983, p. 284.
  18. ^ Watts & Carlson 2012b, p. xviii.
  19. ^ Sears 1978, p. 82.
  20. ^ Richards 1933, pp. 920–922.
  21. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m Richards 1933, p. 1883.
  22. ^ Sears 1978, p. 84.
  23. ^ Sears 1978, p. 88.
  24. ^ Lease 1972, p. 153.
  25. ^ a b c Richards 1933, p. 732.
  26. ^ a b c d e f g h Sears 1978, p. 147.
  27. ^ a b Richards 1933, p. 1893.
  28. ^ Richards 1933, pp. 1882–1883.
  29. ^ Richards 1933, pp. 1211–1212.
  30. ^ Richards 1933, pp. 1223–1224.
  31. ^ a b Hayes 2012, p. 275.
  32. ^ Richards 1933, p. 1179n2.
  33. ^ a b Sears 1978, p. 120.
  34. ^ Pattee 1937, p. v.
  35. ^ Fleischmann 1983, p. 5.
  36. ^ Watts & Carlson 2012a, p. 296.
  37. ^ Lease 1972, p. 198.
  38. ^ Richards 1933, pp. 1254–1255.
  39. ^ Richards 1933, p. 1260.
  40. ^ Neal 1869, pp. 354–355.
  41. ^ Barry 1979, p. 2D.
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  52. ^ Brooks 1833, p. 85, quoting Hezekiah Niles.
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  101. ^ Orestano 2012, p. 138.
  102. ^ Orestano 2012, pp. 137–138, quoting John Ruskin.
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  113. ^ Holtzman 2015.
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  242. ^ Richards 1933, pp. 1717–1718, 1889.
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External linksEdit