John Alec Entwistle (9 October 1944 – 27 June 2002) was an English musician who was the bassist for the rock band the Who. Entwistle's music career spanned over four decades. Nicknamed "The Ox" and "Thunderfingers",[1] he was the band's only member with formal musical training and also provided backing and occasional lead vocals. Entwistle was inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame as a member of the Who in 1990.

John Entwistle
Entwistle at Maple Leaf Gardens in Toronto, Canada, 1976
Entwistle at Maple Leaf Gardens in Toronto, Canada, 1976
Background information
Birth nameJohn Alec Entwistle
Also known as
  • The Ox
  • Thunderfingers
  • The Quiet One
  • Big Johnny Twinkle
Born(1944-10-09)9 October 1944
Chiswick, Middlesex, England
Died27 June 2002(2002-06-27) (aged 57)
Paradise, Nevada, U.S.
  • Musician
  • songwriter
  • singer
  • Bass guitar
  • vocals
  • French horn
Years active1961–2002
Formerly of

Renowned for his musical abilities, Entwistle's instrumental approach used pentatonic lead lines and a then-unusual treble-rich sound ("full treble, full volume"). He was voted as the greatest bassist ever in a 2011 Rolling Stone readers' poll[2] and, in 2020, the same magazine ranked him number three in its own list of the 50 greatest bassists of all time.[3]

Early life edit

John Alec Entwistle was born on 9 October 1944 in Chiswick, which is now part of London.[4] He was an only child. His father, Herbert, who died in 2003, played the trumpet[5] and his mother, Maud (née Lee) (29 November 1922 – 4 March 2011),[6] played the piano.[7] His parents' marriage failed soon after he was born, and he was mostly raised by his mother at his grandparents' house in South Acton.[8] Divorce was uncommon in the 1940s, and this contributed to Entwistle becoming reserved and socialising little.[7]

His musical career began at age 7, when he started taking piano lessons. He did not enjoy the experience and after joining Acton County Grammar School aged 11, switched to the trumpet,[7] moving to the French horn when he joined the Middlesex Schools Symphony Orchestra.[8] He met Pete Townshend in the second year of school, and the two formed a trad jazz band, the Confederates. The group only played one gig together, before they decided that rock and roll was a more attractive prospect.[5] Entwistle, in particular, was having difficulty hearing his trumpet with rock bands, and decided to switch to playing guitar, but due to his large fingers, and also his fondness for the low guitar tones of Duane Eddy, he decided to take up the bass instead.[9] He made his own instrument at home,[10] and soon attracted the attention of Roger Daltrey, who had been in the year above Entwistle at Acton County, but had been expelled and was working as an electrician's mate. Daltrey was aware of Entwistle from school, and asked him to join as a bassist for his band, the Detours.[11]

Career edit

The Who edit

After joining the Detours, Entwistle played a major role in encouraging Pete Townshend's budding talent on the guitar, and insisting that Townshend be admitted into the band as well. At this point the band consisted of Entwistle, Townshend and drummer Doug Sandom, a semi-professional player who was several years older than the others. Daltrey relinquished the role of guitarist to Townshend in 1963, instead becoming frontman and lead vocalist.[citation needed]

The band considered several changes of name, finally settling on the name the Who while Entwistle was still working as a tax clerk (temporarily performing as the High Numbers for four months in 1964).[12] When the band decided that the blond Daltrey needed to stand out more from the others, Entwistle dyed his naturally light brown hair black, and it remained so until the early 1980s.[13] Around 1963, Entwistle played in a London band called the Initials for a short while; the band broke up when a planned resident engagement in Spain fell through.

Entwistle picked up two nicknames during his career as a musician. He was nicknamed "The Ox" because of his strong constitution[14] and seeming ability to "eat, drink or do more than the rest of them". He was also later nicknamed "Thunderfingers". Bill Wyman, bassist for the Rolling Stones, described him as "the quietest man in private but the loudest man on stage". Entwistle was one of the first to make use of Marshall stacks in an attempt to hear himself over the noise of his band members, who famously leapt and moved about on the stage, with Townshend and Keith Moon smashing their instruments on numerous occasions (Moon even used explosives in his drum kit during one television performance on The Smothers Brothers Comedy Hour). Townshend later remarked that Entwistle started using Marshall amplification to hear himself over Moon's rapid-fire drumming style, and Townshend himself also had to use them just to be heard over Entwistle. They both continued expanding and experimenting with their rigs, until they were both using twin stacks with new experimental prototype 200 watt amps, at a time when most bands used 50–100 watt amplifiers with single cabinets. All of this quickly gained the Who a reputation for being "the loudest band on the planet"; they reached 126 decibels at a 1976 concert in London, listed in the Guinness Book of World Records as the loudest rock concert in history.

The band had a strong influence at the time on their contemporaries' choice of equipment, with Cream and the Jimi Hendrix Experience both following suit. Although they pioneered and directly contributed to the development of the "classic" Marshall sound (at this point their equipment was being built or tweaked to their personal specifications), they only used Marshall equipment for a few years. Entwistle eventually switched to using a Sound City rig, with Townshend later following suit. Townshend points out that Jimi Hendrix, their new label mate, was influenced beyond just the band's volume. Both Entwistle and Townshend had begun experimenting with feedback from the amplifiers in the mid-1960s, and Hendrix did not begin destroying his instruments until after he had witnessed the Who's "auto-destructive art".

Entwistle backstage before a gig at Friedrich-Ebert-Halle in Ludwigshafen, Germany, 1967

Entwistle's wry and sometimes dark sense of humour clashed at times with Townshend's more introspective, intellectual work. Although he wrote songs on every Who studio album except for Quadrophenia, Entwistle was frustrated at Daltrey not allowing him to sing them himself. As he said, "I got a couple [of songs] on per album but my problem was that I wanted to sing the songs and not let Roger sing them."[15] This was a large part of the reason[citation needed] that he became the first member of the band to release a solo studio album, Smash Your Head Against the Wall (1971), which featured contributions from Keith Moon, Jerry Shirley of Humble Pie, Vivian Stanshall, Neil Innes and the Who's roadie, Dave "Cyrano" Langston.

He was the only member of the band to have had formal musical training.[16] In addition to the bass guitar, he contributed backing vocals and performed on the French horn (heard on "Pictures of Lily" and throughout Tommy), trumpet, piano, bugle, and Jew's harp, and on some occasions he sang the lead vocals on his compositions. He layered several horns to create the brass section as heard on songs such as "5:15", among others, while recording the Who's studio albums, and for concerts, arranged a horn section to perform with the band.

Entwistle performing with the Who at Maple Leaf Gardens in Toronto, Canada, 1976

While Entwistle was known for being the quietest member of the Who, he in fact often exerted major influences on the rest of the band. For instance, Entwistle was the first member of the band to wear a Union Jack waistcoat. This piece of clothing later became one of Townshend's signature garments.[17]

In 1974, he compiled Odds & Sods, a collection of unreleased Who material.[18] Entwistle designed the cover art for the band's seventh studio album, The Who by Numbers (1975), and in a 1996 interview remarked that it had cost £30 to create, while the Quadrophenia cover, designed by Pete Townshend, had cost £16,000.[19]

Entwistle also experimented throughout his career with "Bi-amping", where the high and low ends of the bass are sent through separate signal paths, allowing for more control over the output. At one point his rig became so loaded down with speaker cabinets and processing gear that it was dubbed "Little Manhattan", in reference to the towering, skyscraper-like stacks, racks and blinking lights.

Songwriting edit

While Townshend emerged as the Who's songwriter-in-chief, Entwistle began making distinctive contributions to the band's catalogue, beginning with "Whiskey Man" and "Boris the Spider" on the band's second studio album A Quick One (1966), continuing with "Doctor, Doctor" and "Someone's Coming" (1967); "Silas Stingy", "Heinz Baked Beans" and "Medac" from the band's third studio album The Who Sell Out (1967); "Dr. Jekyll & Mr. Hyde" (1968); and "Heaven and Hell", with which the Who opened their live shows between 1968 and 1970.[20]

Entwistle wrote "Cousin Kevin" and "Fiddle About" for the Who's fourth studio album Tommy (1969) because Townshend had specifically requested Entwistle to write 'nasty songs' that he felt uncomfortable with. "My Wife", Entwistle's driving, comedic song about marital strife from the band's fifth studio album Who's Next (1971), also became a popular stage number. He wrote "Success Story" for The Who by Numbers (1975), for which he also drew the illustration on the album cover; "Had Enough", "905", and "Trick of the Light" for Who Are You (1978); "The Quiet One" and "You" for Face Dances (1981); and "It's Your Turn", "Dangerous" and "One at a Time" for It's Hard (1982), his final studio album with the Who.[1]

Other work edit

Solo career edit

In 1971, Entwistle became the first member of the band to release a solo studio album, Smash Your Head Against the Wall, which earned him a cult following in the US for fans of his brand of black humour.[citation needed] Other solo studio albums included: Whistle Rymes (1972), Rigor Mortis Sets In (1973), Mad Dog (1975), Too Late the Hero (1981), and The Rock (1996). The band was preoccupied with recording The Who by Numbers during the spring of 1975 and did not do any touring for most of the year, so Entwistle spent the summer performing solo concerts. He also fronted the John Entwistle Band on US club tours during the 1990s, and appeared with Ringo Starr & His All-Starr Band in 1995. A talented visual artist, Entwistle held regular exhibitions of his paintings, with many of them featuring the Who.[1] In 1984, he became the first artist besides Arlen Roth to record an instructional video for Roth's company Hot Licks Video.[citation needed]

Later years edit

In 1990, Entwistle toured with the Best, a short-lived supergroup which included Keith Emerson of Emerson, Lake & Palmer, Joe Walsh of the Eagles, Jeff "Skunk" Baxter of Steely Dan and the Doobie Brothers, and session musician Simon Phillips. Towards the end of his career, he formed the John Entwistle Project with longtime friend, drummer Steve Luongo, and guitarist Mark Hitt, both formerly of Rat Race Choir. This evolved into the John Entwistle Band, with Godfrey Townsend replacing Mark Hitt on guitar and joining harmony vocals. In 1996, the band went on the "Left for Dead" tour with Alan St. Jon joining on keyboards. After Entwistle toured with the Who for Quadrophenia in 1996–97, the John Entwistle Band set off on the "Left for Dead – the Sequel" tour in late 1998, now with Gordon Cotten on keyboards. After this second venture, the band released an album of highlights from the tour, titled Left for Live and a studio album Music from Van-Pires in 2000. The album featured lost demos of Who drummer Keith Moon together with newly recorded parts by the band.[21]

In 1995, Entwistle also toured and recorded with Ringo Starr in one of the incarnations of Starr's All-Starr Band. This one also featured Billy Preston, Randy Bachman of the Guess Who, and Mark Farner of Grand Funk Railroad. In this ensemble, he played and sang "Boris the Spider" as his Who showpiece, along with "My Wife". Toward the end of his career he used a Status Graphite Buzzard Bass, which he had designed. From 1999 to early 2002, he played as part of the Who. Entwistle also played at Woodstock '99, along with Mickey Hart of the Grateful Dead, being the only performers there to have taken the stage at the original Woodstock. As a side project, he played the bass guitar in a country rock studio album project of original songs called the Pioneers, with Mickey Wynne on lead guitar, Ron Magness on rhythm guitar and keyboards, Roy Michaels, Andre Beeka on vocals, and John Delgado playing drums. The album was released by Voiceprint Records. Shortly before his death, Entwistle had agreed to play some US dates with the band including Nashville's Grand Ole Opry, following his final upcoming tour with the Who.

In 2001, he played in Alan Parsons' Beatles tribute show A Walk Down Abbey Road. The show also featured Ann Wilson of Heart, Todd Rundgren, David Pack of Ambrosia, Godfrey Townsend, Steve Luongo, and John Beck of It Bites. That year he also played with the Who at the Concert for New York City. He also joined forces again with the John Entwistle Band for an 8-gig tour. This time Chris Clark played keyboards. From January–February 2002, Entwistle played his last concerts with the Who in a handful of dates in England, the last being on 8 February at London's Royal Albert Hall. In late 2002, an expanded 2-CD Left for Live Deluxe was released, highlighting the John Entwistle Band's performances.

Art edit

Between 1996 and 2002, Entwistle attended dozens of art openings in his honour. He chatted with each collector, personalising their art with a quote and a sketch of "Boris". In early 2002, Entwistle finished what was his last drawing. "Eyes Wide Shut" represented a new style for Entwistle. Featuring Jimi Hendrix, Pete Townshend, Jimmy Page of Led Zeppelin and Eric Clapton, Entwistle's style had evolved from simple line drawings and caricatures to a more lifelike representation of his subjects. He was more confident and relaxed with his art and ready to share that with his collectors.[1]

Entwistle wrote this on one of his pictures:

Now ... ! I'm still the bass guitarist. If you're reading this bio at a show – don't forget to wave – I'm the one on the left. If you're reading this at an art show – Help support a starving Artist BUY SOMETHING![1]

Personal life edit

In 1967, Entwistle married his childhood sweetheart, Alison Wise.[22] He bought a large semi-detached home in Stanmore, London, filling it with all sorts of extraordinary artifacts, ranging from suits of armour to a tarantula spider. His eccentricity and taste for the bizarre was to remain with him throughout his life, and when he finally moved out of the city in 1978, to Stow-on-the-Wold in Gloucestershire, his 17-bedroom Victorian manor, Quarwood, resembled a museum. It also housed one of the largest guitar collections belonging to any rock musician.[1]

Entwistle and Wise had a son, Christopher. The marriage ended in divorce[23] and Entwistle later married Maxene Harlow.[24] At the time of his death, his long-term partner was Lisa Pritchett-Johnson.[25]

Death and legacy edit

Entwistle died in Room 658 at the Hard Rock Hotel and Casino in Paradise, Nevada, on 27 June 2002, one day before the scheduled first show of the Who's 2002 United States tour. He was 57 years old. Entwistle had gone to bed that night with Alycen Rowse, a local stripper and groupie, who awoke the next morning to find Entwistle cold and unresponsive.[26][27] The Clark County medical examiner determined that his death was due to a heart attack induced by an undetermined amount of cocaine. Entwistle already had severe heart disease and usually smoked 20 cigarettes a day.[28]

Entwistle had undergone a medical examination for insurance purposes before the Who's 2002 tour started. The exam revealed high blood pressure and high cholesterol. Entwistle's authorised biographer Paul Rees has suggested that a more detailed physical examination would have revealed that three of his arteries were blocked and necessitated surgery.[29]

His funeral was held at St Edward's Church in Stow-on-the-Wold, Gloucestershire, England, on 10 July 2002.[16] His body was cremated and his ashes were buried privately on the grounds of his mansion, Quarwood. A memorial service was held on 24 October at St Martin-in-the-Fields, Trafalgar Square, London. Entwistle's huge collection of guitars and basses was auctioned at Sotheby's in London by his son, Christopher, to meet anticipated taxes on his father's estate.

Display of Entwistle's bass along with a shirt formerly owned by bandmate Keith Moon at the Hard Rock Cafe, London

On Pete Townshend's website, Townshend and Roger Daltrey published a tribute, saying, "The Ox has left the building—we've lost another great friend. Thanks for your support and love. Pete and Roger."[12]

Entwistle's mansion, Quarwood, and some of his personal effects were later sold off to meet the demands of the Inland Revenue; he had worked for the agency from 1962 to 1963 as a tax officer before being demoted to filing clerk, prior to joining the Who.

One aspect of Entwistle's life which emerged after his death came as a surprise even to those closest to him, including the members of the Who. "It wasn't until the day of his funeral that I discovered that he'd spent most of his life as a Freemason", said Townshend.[30]

Welsh bassist Pino Palladino, who had previously played on several of Townshend's solo studio albums, took over for Entwistle onstage when the Who resumed their postponed US tour on 1 July 2002.[31] Townshend and Daltrey spoke at length about their reaction to Entwistle's death. Some of their comments can be found on The Who Live in Boston DVD.

On the opening night of their Vapor Trails tour, which began in Hartford, Connecticut on 28 June 2002 (the night after Entwistle's death), Geddy Lee of Rush dedicated the band's performance of the song "Between Sun and Moon" to Entwistle.[32]

Pearl Jam's seventh studio album Riot Act, released in late 2002, was dedicated to Entwistle, among others.[33]

Oasis played a cover version of "My Generation" during their Summer 2002 European Tour as a tribute to Entwistle.[34]

In a Red Hot Chili Peppers gig at Slane Castle in 2003, Flea got on stage wearing a version of the skeleton suit Entwistle wore during the Who's 1970 tour, as a tribute.[35]

Technique edit

Entwistle performing with the Who at the Manchester Apollo in 1981

Entwistle's playing technique incorporated fingerstyle, plectrum,[36] tapping, and the use of harmonics.[37] He changed his style between songs and even during songs to alter the sound he produced. His fingering technique involved plucking strings very forcefully to produce a trebly, twangy sound. He changed his thumb position from pick-up to the E string and occasionally even positioned his thumb near the pick-up. His plectrum technique involved holding the plectrum between his thumb and forefinger, with the rest of his fingers outstretched for balance.

The Who's studio recordings seldom did justice to Entwistle's playing, in part because he was better heard in concert,[38] where he and Pete Townshend frequently exchanged roles, with Entwistle providing rapid melodic lines and Townshend anchoring the song with rhythmic chord work. At the same time, Townshend noted that Entwistle provided the true rhythmic timekeeping in the band, while Keith Moon, with his flourishes around the kit, was more like a keyboardist. In 1989, Entwistle pointed out that, by modern standards, "the Who haven't got a proper bass player."[39]

Entwistle also developed what he called a "typewriter" approach to playing the bass.[40] It involved positioning his right hand over the strings so all four fingers could be used to tap percussively on the strings, causing them to strike the fretboard with a distinctive twangy sound. This gave him the ability to play three or four strings at once, or to use several fingers on a single string. It allowed him to create passages that were both percussive and melodic. This method should not be confused with tapping or slapping, and in fact predates these techniques. Modern players such as Ryan Martinie of heavy metal band Mudvayne have used similar techniques. Entwistle can be seen using this technique in Mike Gordon's documentary film, Rising Low (2002). Notable in his left-hand technique was his use of slides, positioning his left hand for octaves, and his use of the pentatonic when playing with the Who.

Entwistle was notorious for the extremely high volume at which he played bass, going so far as to rig pick-ups to each string on his instruments. This led to him developing hearing loss,[41] similar to Townshend. Although not as public about his problems as Townshend, he reputedly had to rely on lip reading to understand speech in his later years. Randy Bachman of Bachman–Turner Overdrive claimed that towards the end of his life, Entwistle mostly played by feeling the rush of air from his giant amp stacks.[42] Entwistle blamed his hearing loss on using headphones.[43]

Influence edit

Entwistle identified his influences as a combination of his school training on French horn, trumpet, and piano (giving his fingers strength and dexterity). Musicians who influenced him included rock and roll guitarist Duane Eddy,[44] and American soul and R&B bassists such as James Jamerson.[45] In turn, Entwistle has been a considerable influence on the playing styles and sounds used by generations of bassists that have followed him, including Tom Hamilton,[46] Brian Gibson,[47] Geezer Butler,[48] Krist Novoselic,[49] Geddy Lee,[50] Billy Sheehan,[51] Victor Wooten,[52] Tom Petersson,[53] John Myung[54] and Chris Squire.[55]

Entwistle continues to top 'best ever bass player' polls in musicians magazines. In 2000, Guitar magazine named him "Bassist of the Millennium" in a readers' poll.[56] J. D. Considine ranked Entwistle No. 9 on his list of "Top 50 Bass Players".[57] He was named the second best rock bassist on Creem Magazine's 1974 Reader Poll Results.[58] In 2011, a Rolling Stone Magazine reader poll selected him as the No. 1 rock bassist of all time.[2]

Equipment edit

Entwistle collaborated with bass guitar manufacturers such as Alembic, Warwick, and Status Graphite[59][60] His bass solo on the "My Generation" single was a Fender Jazz Bass[61] with stock tapewound strings.[62]

Entwistle's collection of guitars and basses was auctioned at Sotheby's in May 2003.[63]

Discography edit

Studio albums

References edit

  1. ^ a b c d e f "John Entwistle; THE ART OF JOHN ENTWISTLE". The Who. Archived from the original on 3 July 2015.
  2. ^ a b "Rolling Stone Readers Pick the Top Ten Bassists of All Time". Rolling Stone. 31 March 2011. Archived from the original on 11 April 2012.
  3. ^ Bernstein, Jonathan (1 July 2020). "The 50 Greatest Bassists of All Time". Rolling Stone. Retrieved 7 July 2020.
  4. ^ Marsh 1983, p. 24.
  5. ^ a b Marsh 1983, p. 26.
  6. ^ "Queenie Entwistle 29th November 1922 to 3rd March 2011". Retrieved 19 April 2017.
  7. ^ a b c Marsh 1983, p. 25.
  8. ^ a b Neill & Kent 2009, p. 12.
  9. ^ Marsh 1983, p. 29.
  10. ^ "John Entwistle Gear: 1960-1963 | John Entwistle Bass Gear | Whotabs".
  11. ^ Marsh 1983, p. 30,32.
  12. ^ a b "Entertainment | The Who bassist Entwistle dies". BBC News. 28 June 2002. Retrieved 4 July 2014.
  13. ^ Rees, Paul (12 March 2020). The Ox: The Last of the Great Rock Stars: The Authorised Biography of the Who's John Entwistle. Little, Brown Book. ISBN 9781472129376.
  14. ^ "The Ox by Paul Rees review – the Who's bass player behaving badly". 8 March 2020.
  15. ^ "John Entwistle Quotes". BrainyQuote. 26 July 2013. Archived from the original on 26 July 2013.
  16. ^ a b Rees, Paul (2 November 2017). "John Entwistle: "I just wanted to play louder than anyone else"". Classic Rock Magazine. Retrieved 12 June 2019.
  17. ^ Eliscu, Jenny. "Rock & Roll: John Entwistle - The Who Bassist Dies at Fifty-Seven on the Eve of a Major U.S. Tour". Rolling Stone LLC. ProQuest 1193455. {{cite journal}}: Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  18. ^ "Odds And Sods". Retrieved 12 June 2019.
  19. ^ "John Entwistle: "I just wanted to play louder than anyone else"". 2 November 2017.
  20. ^ "Heaven and Hell by the Who".
  21. ^ "Music from Van-Pires - The John Entwistle Band - Songs, Reviews, Credits". AllMusic.
  22. ^ Rees, Paul (12 March 2020). The Ox: The Last of the Great Rock Stars: The Authorised Biography of the Who's John Entwistle. Little, Brown Book. ISBN 9781472129376.
  23. ^ "Obituary: John Entwistle". 29 June 2002.
  24. ^ "'Moonstruck' Film Premiere". 16 March 1988.
  25. ^ Hughes, Janet (3 March 2020). "Book lifts lid on rock star's Gloucestershire party house". GloucestershireLive.
  26. ^ Hickman, Martin (12 December 2002). "Stripper found Entwistle dead after heart attack triggered by cocaine". The Independent. UK. Retrieved 5 January 2018.
  27. ^ Snow, Mat (2 November 2015). The Who: Fifty Years of My Generation. Race Point Publishing. p. 205. ISBN 9781631061615.
  28. ^ "Cocaine stopped Entwistle's heart". BBC News. 11 December 2002.
  29. ^ "'Insurance medical at fault' for death of The Who bassist John Entwistle, biography says". 2 March 2020. Retrieved 6 May 2020.
  30. ^ Caruana, Caesar (10 November 2011). "Quadrophenia was nearly 'the end', says Pete Townshend". Retrieved 2 January 2012.
  31. ^ "Who Album". Archived from the original on 19 March 2012.
  32. ^ "Headbangers - Rush Live in Hartford, CT". 15 July 2002. Archived from the original on 1 August 2014. Retrieved 4 July 2014.
  33. ^ Riot Act (liner notes). Pearl Jam. Epic Records. 2002. EK86825.{{cite AV media notes}}: CS1 maint: others in cite AV media (notes) (link) Photo
  34. ^ "OASIS PAY TRIBUTE TO WHO LEGEND". July 2002. Retrieved 26 May 2023.
  35. ^ "Flea Paid Tribute to Fellow Bassist John Entwistle by Rocking a 'Skeleton Suit'". 23 September 2013. Retrieved 12 June 2019.
  36. ^ "John Entwistle (IM Sep 1975)". International Musician & Recording World (September 1975): 24–27. September 1975.
  37. ^ Chris Charlesworth (4 July 2019). "Why John Entwistle was the greatest rock bassist of all time". Retrieved 26 August 2021.
  38. ^ "Partners In Time: John Entwistle & Keith Moon". 23 August 2013. Retrieved 26 August 2021.
  39. ^ Guitar Player's Chris Jisi in 1989
  40. ^ Morgan, Simon. "BBC - Music - Review of John Entwistle - So Who's The Bass Player?". Retrieved 26 August 2021.
  41. ^ November 2017, Paul Rees02 (2 November 2017). "John Entwistle: "I just wanted to play louder than anyone else"". Retrieved 26 August 2021.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: numeric names: authors list (link)
  42. ^ Randy Bachman's Vinyl Tap Stories, p. 45
  43. ^ "#21 John Entwistle (The Who) 1996".
  44. ^ Martin, Nicola Woolcock and Nicole (27 June 2002). "The Who's bassist Entwistle dies at 57 on eve of US tour". Archived from the original on 12 January 2022.
  45. ^ Edwards, Briony (13 October 2016). "Mike Watt's Top 5 Bassists | Louder". Retrieved 6 May 2020.
  46. ^ Aerosmith (2 June 2011). "Tom Hamilton: Favorite Bass Players". Retrieved 25 February 2020 – via YouTube.
  47. ^ url=
  48. ^ Ankeny, Jason (17 July 1949). "Geezer Butler | Biography". AllMusic. Retrieved 4 July 2014.
  49. ^ ""I'm never in any bass magazines..." An interview with Krist Novoselic". Archived from the original on 28 May 2019. Retrieved 12 June 2019.
  50. ^ "Geddy Lee | Biography". AllMusic. 29 July 1953. Retrieved 4 July 2014.
  51. ^ Prato, Greg (19 March 1953). "Billy Sheehan | Biography". AllMusic. Retrieved 4 July 2014.
  52. ^ Phares, Heather. "Victor Wooten | Biography". AllMusic. Retrieved 4 July 2014.
  53. ^ Stone, Doug (9 May 1950). "Tom Petersson | Biography". AllMusic. Retrieved 4 July 2014.
  54. ^ "Interview - John Myung - For Bass Players Only". For Bass Players Only. 31 March 2014.
  55. ^ Soocher, Stan: "Squire's bass fire", Circus Weekly, 13 March 1979, 33.
  56. ^ "Bassist of the Millennium". Guitar magazine. 2000. Archived from the original on 30 September 2011.
  57. ^ " ... Steve Parker ... New Boo Of Rock Lists". 4 October 1980. Retrieved 4 July 2014.
  58. ^ " ... Creem magazine selected readers". Retrieved 4 July 2014.
  59. ^ Entwistle, John. Bass Culture: The John Entwistle Guitar Collection. Sanctuary, London 2004, ISBN 978-1860745935.
  60. ^ Archived at Ghostarchive and the Wayback Machine: Wetzel, Michael (11 September 2013). "Video: German Warwick Bass Guitars". Deutsche Welle TV. Retrieved 18 April 2015.
  61. ^ "Jazz bass (serial no. L89716)". 1965. Retrieved 29 May 2022.
  62. ^ Burrows, Terry (22 February 2018). 1001 Guitars to Dream of Playing Before You Die. Octopus. ISBN 9781788400497. Retrieved 12 June 2019 – via Google Books.
  63. ^ "The John Entwistle Collection -- Auction - PopMatters". Archived from the original on 20 March 2020. Retrieved 20 March 2020.
  • Bernhard Valentinitsch, Bassist im Spotlight.In:Rocks - Magazin für Classical Rock.01/2017.Köln 2017, S.91.

External links edit