This article has multiple issues. Please help improve it or discuss these issues on the talk page. (Learn how and when to remove these template messages)(Learn how and when to remove this template message)
Bernhardt Patrick John O’Mara Bockris (5 January 1923  – 7 July 2013) was a professor in the physical sciences, chiefly electrochemistry. Among wide-ranging contributions to physical chemistry, Bockris is best known for his creation of physical electrochemistry, taking an old and decayed subject into modern times (1950 to 1970); for the introduction of a hydrogen economy (1971 to present); and for the first claimed nuclear reactions to be carried out in aqueous solutions (1989 to 1997).
Two of the areas (out of 23) which he chose to study have provoked controversy, namely cold fusion and transmutation. His interests in these areas brought harsh criticism. Dr. Bockris was exonerated of fraud or scientific misconduct by his university after three investigations in 1995.
Bockris authored and/or co-authored more than 712 papers and more than 24 books. His areas of interest included physical electrochemistry, environmental chemistry, photoelectrochemistry, bioelectrochemistry, quantum electrochemistry, and founding contributions to condensed matter nuclear reactions. He had undergraduate students come from 14 countries to do research with him. Between 1961 and 1969 he ranked between 8th and 11th of the frequency of quotations among U.S. physical chemists.
John Bockris was born 5 January 1923, in Johannesburg, South Africa. His father was Alfred Bockris, and his mother Emmeline Mary MacNally.
From 1929 until 1930 he attended a Catholic convent school in Brighton, England.
For his elementary education he attended Kendrick House, Brighton, from 1930 to 1934.
From 1934 to 1937, he attended Withdean Hall, a preparatory school in Brighton, where a variety of subjects, including French and Latin, were taught. Bockris was a member of the soccer team. Students underperforming in mathematics were beaten by the headmaster, Mr. Hamilton, while his wife would sometimes compel pupils to go outside for runs at night when the weather was bad.
After leaving Withdean Hall, he attended Xaverian College, Brighton, from 1937 to 1940. This was a Catholic secondary school. English, French, Latin, Algebra and Geometry to Pythagoras’ Theorem were taught. When called on by the teacher, boys had to stand up and translate Latin into English without hesitation. One teacher of note was Brother Alloyisch Hollingshead, who made pupils aware that what they were supposed to do in life was to serve the community. At age 14 to 16, Bockris spent two hours per day lying on his back as he suffered from scoliosis. Forbidden to play football, he served as referee.
His mother and aunt earned their income from tailoring. His father was not present during his childhood. His mother had him taught public speaking.
In the years 1940–43, Bockris began his scholarly education at Brighton Technical College, which after World War II became Brighton University. He began studying for advanced placement in Chemistry, Physics, and Mathematics, also Higher German (Old German, and Middle High German). Brighton Technical College was affiliated with Imperial College, London, where Bockris later continued his technical education. Bockris wanted to study for a degree in Physics but this was not possible, because the war was on and thus many of the people who would normally have taught courses leading to a special degree in Physics were not available. However, Bockris was able to take an intermediate, general degree in Pure and Applied Mathematics, Chemistry and Physics.
At Brighton Technical College, the qualification Bockris obtained was the general B.Sc. degree in Pure and Applied Mathematics, Physics and Chemistry. This took two years with the third year being the preparation for residence at a research university. Bockris received a first class degree, and he then left Brighton Technical College as a qualified chemist, going on to London University for training in research. Only about eight percent of the students attained first class.
In 1943, Bockris applied to Imperial College. Students working for a Ph.D. were normally supervised by one of the faculty. Many science academics were employed by the government on committees during the war. Bockris’ Ph.D. supervisor was H.J.T. Ellingham, known for diagrams bearing his name.
Bockris relates that he was given only a one-hour talk by Ellingham to set him on the research path. Ellingham wanted him to work on non-aqueous Electrochemistry but he was vague as to what Bockris should be investigating. The final choice had to be made by Bockris himself. Ellingham left the university halfway through Bockris’ Ph.D. course, after which he received casual help from other faculty members and fellow students.
Students in those days finished their Chemistry degree up to the stage of writing a thesis in two to three years. Bockris was fortunate in being able to finish the research for his thesis, "Electrochemistry of Non-aqueous Solutions," in only two years and he applied to Dr. Ellingham who granted his request thereafter. Bockris, armed with a thesis, met the external examiner.
An external examiner is hired by the University for each Ph.D. degree and usually travels from a university which is not nearby. Bockris’ examiner was Sir Harry Melville from Edinburgh University, a famous surface chemist. After two hours discussion of the thesis the external said he was satisfied with the thesis and this meant that Bockris would be awarded the Ph.D. degree which came officially in September 1945.
The University of London offers a higher degree called a Doctor of Science, D.Sc. and this is only awarded to people who have at least 50 publications (in Physics and Chemistry). Bockris received his D.Sc. in 1952, by which time he had more than 60 publications. Most of the publications were mostly coauthored with his students. This degree is given to about three percent of those who get a Ph.D. degree.
Upon completion of the Ph.D. degree in 1945 Bockris was appointed to the faculty of Imperial College and this meant an influx of graduate students who asked to be supervised by him for their own Ph.D. degree. By 1946 he had ten such students and kept that number for the rest of the time he was teaching in London (eight years). The average time for a Ph.D. there was 3.5 years and Bockris supervised 28 people for that degree in the next eight years.
The principal subjects studied in this early development of his research program was electrode kinetics which has a connection to Bockris’ thesis work; then a new topic, very high temperature chemistry, some of it remains cogent to this day. Another topic of interest is salting out and salting in changes in solubility in solution due to the presence of electrolytes.
Research supervision was also shared in respect to Martin Fleischmann who worked on hydrogen in palladium, which later on was used by him to claim nuclear reactions in the cold. He also received a Fellowship of the Royal Society.
- Imperial College of Science and Technology, University of London, September 1945 – 1953. The position here was not named "professor" but it was equivalent to an assistant professor position.
- The Flinders University of South Australia, 1971-1979. Professor of Physical Science.
- Texas A&M University, 1979 – 1997. A Professor and a Distinguished Professor of Chemistry (1980).
Areas of investigationEdit
The number of scientific publications co-authored by Bockris and his collaborators at the time of his retirement amounted to about 700 including 24 books. (1997)
The most prominent area of investigation was Physical Electrochemistry, a discipline having broad applications to many areas of technology. The basic content of this discipline is the consideration of electron and proton transfer between ionic solutions and metals or semi-conductors.
Hydrogen in metals (H embrittlement).
Bio-electrochemistry with special reference to the consequences of regarding biological substances as semi-conductors (St. Gyorgyi, Nobel Prize 1946).
In his early years (1946–1952), in London, Bockris led a team of three in an investigation of the structure of glasses and slags. This work involved development of high temperature Physical Chemistry to 2000 °C and led to models involving silicate anions. It replaced the former molecular models.
Apart from Physical Electrochemistry, Bockris’ name is well known in two other fields.
- Environmental Chemistry with the foundation of the Hydrogen Economy in 1971.
- Condensed Matter Nuclear Reactions: Identification for the first time of a nuclear reaction occurring in aqueous solutions (1989).
In retirement, Bockris authored a book "The New Paradigm," (2005). This 505 page book considers to what extent physics has to be modified to react to new phenomena which seem to be established under the title "Paranormal Phenomena," (e.g., telepathy, far-viewing, precognition.)
Investigations of Bockris' nuclear workEdit
The work published under the title Cold Fusion or in its modern title, "Condensed Matter Nuclear Reactions" gave rise to a series of attacks upon Bockris and his work which began in 1992 and continued through 1995.
Nuclear reactions involving deuterons were dismissed as due to fraud.
The University (Texas A&M) contained at least one world expert in the Cyclotron, an accepted pathway to transmutation. Perhaps because of this and because several of the reactions published by Bockris were inconsistent with material in textbooks, gave rise to some anxiety and this spread eventually to the administration of the university.
Three formal investigations of the work were made. The first investigators were chosen for their knowledge of nuclear chemistry. They could not agree with the conclusions which Bockris made in this area, but they could find no evidence of fraud.
A second, more formal investigation, was carried out by four distinguished professors examining an accusation of "misconduct in research." This team reported that it had examined over one thousand documents and among them were documents which turned out to have been purloined from Bockris’ offices presumably by night visitors.
The conclusion of this investigation was complete exoneration upon the charge.
A third and still more formal group of academics, this time from the administration of the university, was gathered for a third investigation despite the distinguished professors who had decided there was nothing further to investigate. This last investigation continued for eleven months.
Finally, Bockris received a letter from the Provost, Charles Lee, 25 May 1995. This letter stated that the committee had come to the conclusion that Bockris had not violated any rule made by the university in respect to research.
Of the 24 books published, only one was written at popular standard and this was a book on hydrogen as a fuel and was published in eleven countries. The second book of the 24 authored by Bockris and was entitled: "Energy: The Solar-Hydrogen Alternative, and was first published in Australia in 1975. The book has historical importance: At that time, the future of energy was seen as being in coal. At the same time (from about 1969) there was a consciousness of environmental pollution, particularly in "smog" striking particularly the Los Angeles area.
The idea that there could be a future in which the difficulties due to carbonaceous fuels could be overcome was new and relieving.
It is reasonable to state that the 1975 book (published also in New York and London) was the beginning of a large field of alternative fuels, energy sources which would combine inexhaustibility with the absence of damage to the atmosphere. Solar energy, often cited, had not until this book been cited as a general source of energy. The major research project developed, NSF funded, at present 2012 at Caltech can be seen as having its roots in this book.
There is of course difficulty in abbreviating a presentation of work which covers more than 700 papers and 25 books. A BIG division would include:
- Electrode Kinetic Chemistry
- Environmental Chemistry
- Condensed Matter Nuclear Reactions
Training of electrochemistsEdit
About 250 people collaborated with Bockris between 1945 and 1997. 85 students obtained a Ph.D. degree with his supervision.
After the one -eek symposium given by The American Chemical Society 1987. (Friends flanking Professor and Mrs. Bockris are Norman Hackerman and Earnest Yeager)
Boris Cahan helps FCS Saluga determine vibration potentials, Cf., Phys. Chem, 16, 2160.
Recognition by means of awards given to Bockris (chronological order):
- Medaile D’Honour, from the University of Louvain in Belgium, 1951.
- Breyer-Gutmann Medal, Australian Chemical Society, 1975.
- The Faraday Medal, The Chemical Society of London, 1979
- The Chemical Lecture Award, The Swedish Academy, 1979.
- Award of the Chemical Society of the USA for Developments of Modern Fuels, 1982.
- Award of the Euro-Solar Society, Germany, for the development of the Hydrogen Economy, 1982. (Shared with Edward Justi)
- Award in Teaching Electrochemistry, Electrochemical Society, 1985.
- Honorary Ph.D. of the University of Hokkaido, Sapporo, Hokkaido, Japan 1988.
- The 1997 Ig Nobel Prize in Physics, for his achievements in cold fusion, in the transmutation of base elements into gold, and in the electrochemical incineration of domestic rubbish.
- Jules Verne Medal of the International Society for Hydrogen Energy, 2000.
- Volta Medal in Physics associated with the Bicentenary of Volta, Pavia, Italy, 2000. (Five medals awarded in the fields in which Volta was seen as primary.)
- The Preparata Medal, International Society for Condensed Matter Nuclear Reactions (2010), for original work done in the early days of research on this field, (1989–1990), to be awarded in 2012 in Seoul, Korea.
- Member of Swedish Academy of Engineers, foreign member, 1979.
- Member of the Serbian Academy of Sciences, 1992.
- Awarded Ph.D. degree from the University of La Plata, Argentina, 1986.
Later years and recent workEdit
Bockris retired from Texas A&M University in 1997 at the age of 74. Following his retirement he worked on two themes:
- Carbon-neutral fuels to replace gasoline.
- Further examination of the validity of D + D → He and 24 Mev reaction first described in 1992.
In the latter case, he had much correspondence and interchanges with colleagues. Synthesis of He is very rare.
A further major contribution was published in 2005. This is a full consideration (500 + pages) of the challenges offered to the standard model of physics by many of the phenomena studied under paranormal science.
The book includes wide discussion of, e.g., the concept of consciousness.
Experimental Techniques (32 papers)
Physical Chemistry of Ionic Solutions (33 papers)
Physical Chemistry of Molten Salts (33 papers)
The Structure of Glasses and Liquid Silicates (15 papers)
Electrical Double Layers (47 papers)
Spectroscopic Studies of the Solid-Solution Interface (55 papers)
Quantum Electrochemistry (47 papers)
Hydrogen and Oxygen: Electrode Kinetics and Mechanism (70 papers)
Electrocatalysis (53 papers)
Photo-electrochemistry (76 papers)
Electrocrystalization (32 papers)
Organo Electrochemistry (12 papers)
Hydrogen In Metals (17 papers)
Bio Electrochemistry (18 papers)
Friction (3 papers)
A Hydrogen Economy (2 papers)
Environmental Chemistry (21 papers)
Renewable Energy (6 papers)
Methodology (4 papers)
Condensed Matter Nuclear Reactions (11 papers)
Scanning Tunneling Microscopy
- Platt, Charles. (November 1998). What If Cold Fusion Is Real? Wired (Issue 6.11).
- S. Krivit, N. Winocur, "The rebirth of cold fusion", Pacific Oak Press, 2004,
- Storms, E., A Student’s Guide to Cold Fusion. 2003, LENR-CANR.org. Revised April 2012. Spanish edition Estudio de la Fusión en Frío, Brazilian Portuguese edition Estudo Fusao a Frio.
- Nagel, D.J., Scientific Overview of ICCF15. 2009
- Rothwell, J., Cold Fusion And The Future. 2004.
- U.S. Defense Intelligence Agency report on cold fusion: Technology Forecast: Worldwide Research on Low-Energy Nuclear Reactions Increasing and Gaining Acceptance DIA-08-0911-003, 13 November 2009
- McKubre. Simultaneous Series Operation of Light & Heavy Water Cells; Excess Power vs. Current Density.
- McKubre, M.C.H., Cold Fusion (LENR) One Perspective on the State of the Science. Proceedings 15th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science (Part 1). 2009.
- Hagelstein, P.L., et al. New Physical Effects in Metal Deuterides. in Eleventh International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2004. Marseille, France. This paper references 130 other papers.
- Mallove, E. "Fire From Ice" describes the early history of the subject before 1991.
- Beaudette, C. G., "Excess Heat: Why Cold Fusion Research Prevailed" gives an in depth history of the subject up to 2002.
- Krivit, S. and Winocur, N, "The Rebirth of Cold Fusion: Real Science, Real Hope, Real Energy" 2004.
- Mizuno, T., "Nuclear Transmutation: The Reality of Cold Fusion" describes the experimental work of Prof. Mizuno.
- Storms, E. "The Science of Low Energy Nuclear Reaction" World Scientific, 2007, describes the experimental work of Dr. Storms and compiles and summarizes most of the experimental and theoretical work in the field up to 2007.
- Marwan, J. and Krivit, S., "Low-Energy Nuclear Reactions Sourcebook" is an edited collection of scientific papers that were presented at an American Chemical Society Meeting held in 2007.
- Low-Energy Nuclear Reactions and New Energy Technologies Sourcebook Volume 2
- Brian Wallstin, "Aggie Alchemy: John Bockris was known around Texas A&M as a chemist interested in "weird science." Joe Champion gave him all he could handle." Houston Press, 7 April 1994
- Krivit, N. Winocur, "The rebirth of cold fusion", Pacific Oak Press, 2004, page 179
- "LENR News and Research • John O’Mara Bockris, 90". News.newenergytimes.net. 2013-07-10. Retrieved 2013-08-16.
- Packham, N.J.C., et al., Production of tritium from D2O electrolysis at a palladium cathode. J. Electroanal. Chem., 1989. 270: p. 451.
- J.O’M. Bockris and Z. Minevski, Two Zones of Impurities, Infinite Energy Magazine, Nov. 1995.
- S. Krivit, N. Winocur, "The rebirth of cold fusion", Pacific Oak Press, 2004
- Taubes, Gary (1990), "Cold fusion conundrum at Texas A&M", Science 248 (15 June 1990): 1299, Bibcode 1990Sci...248.1299T, DOI:10.1126/science.248.4961.1299, PMID 17735269
- "Texas Panel Finds No Fraud In Cold Fusion Experiments". New York Times. 1990-11-20.
- Bockris, J., Accountability and academic freedom: The battle concerning research on cold fusion at Texas A&M University. Accountability Res., 2000. 8: p. 103.
- "Academic Freedom or Scientific Misconduct?", editorial by Mike Epstein, Journal of Scientific Exploration
- Report: Committee of inquiry. Re: Allegation of Scientific Misconduct against J. O'M Bockris, 31 January 1994. Texas A&M university, Office of the Vice President for Research and Associate Provost for Graduate Studies.
- This was organized by Mrs. Hamilton who chose nights with storms, rain and cold. She came into the dormitory at about 2 a.m. and would shout out "all out!" She meant get up. "Clothes on. Go for a run." She had equipped one boy with a satchel full of small pieces of paper, pledged to run ahead dropping pieces of paper wherever he went. The run lasted about twenty minutes. Immediately upon return she would shout out, "All in the bath." It would be a cold bath and after a few minutes boys were to get up, don their night clothes, and go to sleep until 7 a.m.
- Electrochemistry in Non-aqueous Solutions, J.O’M. Bockris, Thesis, Imperial College, 1945.
- W. Beck, J.O’M. Bockris, L. Nantis, & J.McBreen, Proc. Roy. Soc., A290 (1966), 220 (effects of stress on solubility)
- John O'M. Bockris and Amulya K. N. Reddy: Modern Electrochemistry, Plenum Press, 1970
- John O'M. Bockris and Amulya K. N. Reddy: Modern Electrochemistry 2nd Edition, Plenum Press
- J.O’M. Bockris and A.J. Appleby, The Hydrogen Economy: An Ultimate Economy?, Environment, This Month, 1 (1972) p 29
- George Olah, Alan Goeppart, C.K. Prakesh, The Methanol Economy, Wiley-VCH, Berlin, 2006., Idem, Ibid, 2009 (expanded edition)
- M. Fleischmann, S. Pons, & M. Hawkins, J.Eletroanal. Chem., 261 (1989) p/301.
- J.O’M. Bockris and A.J. Appleby, The Hydrogen Economy: An Ultimate Economy?, Environment, This Month, 1 (1972) p 29.
- Packham, N.J.C., et al., Production of tritium from D2O electrolysis at a palladium cathode. J. Electroanal. Chem., 1989. 270: p. 451, cited by Storms, "Science of Low Energy Nuclear Reaction: A Comprehensive Compilation of Evidence and Explanations", page 82, 2007, Singapore: World Scientific, ISBN 981-270-620-8.
- John O'M. Bockris: The New Paradigm, D&M Enterprises, 2005, ISBN 978-0-9767444-0-5
- Packham, N.J.C., et al., Production of tritium from D2O electrolysis at a palladium cathode. J. Electroanal. Chem., 1989. 270:
- Letter dated 31 January 1994, letter and report of the Committee of Inquiry into Scientific Misconduct charges, 1 p letter and 4 page report.
- Final Letter dated 25 May 1995, from J. Charles Lee, Provost TAMU, 2 pages.
- John O’M. Bockris, Energy: The Solar-Hydrogen Alternative, 1975 – ISBN 0-470-084294
- John O'M. Bockris and Amulya K. N. Reddy: Modern Electrochemistry , Plenum Press, 1970.
- J.O’M. Bockris, International Journal of Hydrogen Technology, 35 (2010) 565.
- C. Chien, D. Hodko, Z. Minevski, J.O’M. Bockris, J. Electroanal. Chem., 338 (1992) p189.
- John O'M. Bockris and Amulya K. N. Reddy: Modern Electrochemistry, Plenum Press Volume 1: Ionics (2nd Edition), 1998, ISBN 0-306-45554-4
- Volume 2A: Fundamentals of Electrodics (2nd Edition), 1998, ISBN 0-306-46166-8
- Volume 2B: Electrodics in Chemistry, Engineering, Biology, and Environmental Science (2nd Edition), 1998, ISBN 0-306-46324-5
- A.K. Reddy, M.A.V. Devanathan and J.O’M. Bockris, Chrono Ellipsometry: A New Technique for the Study of Processes Involving Very Thin Films, Journal of Electroanalytical Chemistry, 6 (1963) p 62.
- B.E. Conway, J. O’M. Bockris and H. Linton, Proton Conductance and the Existence of the H3O - Ion, Journal of Chemical Physics, 24 (1956) p834.
- C. Solomons, J.H.P. Clark, and J. O’M. Bockris, Raman Spectral of the Nature of the Complex Ions in Liquid Cryolite, Journal of Chemical Physics, 49 (1968) p 445
- J.O’M. Bockris and D.C. Lowe, Viscosity and the Structure of Molten Silicates, Proceedings of the Royal Society, A226 (1954) p423
- J.O’M. Bockris, M.A.V. Devanathan, K. Muller, On the Structure of Charge Interfaces, Proceedings of the Royal Society, A274 (1963) p55.
- J.O’M. Bockris and P.K. Chandrasekaran, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopic Investigations of Adsorbed Intermediates in Electrochemical Reactions, ACS Series No. 38, Electrochemical Surface Science: Molecular Phenomenon at Electrode Surfaces, (1988)
- S.U.M. Khan, R.C. Kainthla, and J.O’M. Bockris, The Redox Potential and the Fermi Level in Solution, Journal of Chemical Physics, 91 (1987) p 5974
- J.O’M. Bockris and Taka Otheawa, The Electrocatalysis of Oxygen Evolution and Perovskites, Journal of the American Chemical Society, 131 (1984) p 290
- J.O’M. Bockris and Z. Minevski, Electrocatalysis: A Futuristic View, International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, 17 (1992) p 423
- G.H. Lin, R. Abdu and J.O’M. Bockris, Investigations of Resonance Light Adsorption and Rectification of Sub-Nano Structures, Journal of Applied Physics, 80 (1996) p 565
- R. G. Raicheff, A. Damjanovic and J. O’M. Bockris, Dependence of the Velocity of Anodic Dissolution on Viewed Rate of the Metal Under Tension, Journal of Chemical Physics, 47, (1967) p 2198
- K. Chandrasekaran, J.C. Wass, J.O’M. Bockris, The Potential Dependence of Intermediates in Methanol Oxidation observed in the Steady State by FTIR Spectroscopy, Journal of the Electrochemistry Society, 137 (1990)
- W. Beck, J.O’M. Bockris, L. Nanis and James McBreen, Hydrogen Permeation in Metals as a Function of Stress, Temperature and Dissolved Hydrogen, Proceedings of the Royal Society, A290, (1966) p 220
- J.O’M. Bockris, F. Gutmann, and M.A. Habib, A fuel Cell Model in Biological Energy Conversion, Journal of Biological Physics, 33 (1985) p 3
- Wet Surfaces, J.O’M. Bockris, P.K. Sen, Variation of the Coefficient of Friction with Potential at a Solid-Solution Contact, Surface Science, 30 (1972) p 237
- J.O’M. Bockris and A.J. Appleby, The Hydrogen Economy: An Ultimate Economy? Environment, This Month, 1 (1972) p 29
- C.L.. Tennakoon, R.C. Bhardwaj, J.O’M. Bockris, Electrochemical Treatment of Human Waste in a Packed Bed Reactor, Journal of Applied Electrochemistry, 26 (1996) p 18
- J.O’M. Bockris, Methanol Formed Using CO2 From the Atmosphere Would Give A Convenient Replacement for Gasoline with No Global Warming, International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, 35 (2010) p 5165 and Methanol Formed from CO2 in the Atmosphere: Such a Liquid Would Burn As Does Gasoline But Not Give a Net Addition to Global Warming: It’s Liquid Hydrogen (Olah)
- J.O’M. Bockris, Electrochemically Obtained Information Concerning the Atromistics of Fracture in the Presence of Moisture, Atromistics of Fracture edited by R. M. Latanison and J.R. Pickens, Plenum, New York (1983)
- N.L.C. Packham, K.L. Wolf, J.C. Wass, R.C. Kainthla and J.O’M. Bockris, Packham, N.J.C., et al., Production of tritium from D2O electrolysis at a palladium cathode. J. Electroanal. Chem., 170 (1989) p 461
- M. Szklarzcyck, O. Velev and J.O’M. Bockris, Atomic Resolution of Carbon and Lead Atoms From Measurements Made In Solution by STM, Journal of Electrochemistry Society, 136, (1989) p 2433
- John O'M. Bockris: The New Paradigm: A Confrontation Between Physics and the Paranormal Phenomenon, D&M Enterprises, College Station, TX (2005), 505 pages, ISBN 978-0-9767444-0-5
- LingaFranca.com, 9 November 2000
- Bryan-College Station Eagle, 15 April 1997
- Taubes, Gary. June 1993. "Bad Science: The Short Life and Weird Times of Cold Fusion"
- Journal of Scientific Exploration, Vol. 8/1, 1994
- Pool, Robert (1993), "Alchemy altercation at Texas A&M", Science 262: 1367.