John, Margrave of Brandenburg-Kulmbach

John, nicknamed the Alchemist (German: Johann der Alchimist; 1406 – 16 November 1464) was a Margrave of Brandenburg-Kulmbach and served as the peace-loving Margrave of Brandenburg after the abdication of his father, Frederick I, the first member of the House of Hohenzollern to rule Brandenburg.

John "the Alchemist"
Margrave of Brandenburg-Kulmbach
Died16 November 1464 (aged 57–58)
Noble familyHouse of Hohenzollern
Spouse(s)Barbara of Saxe-Wittenberg
IssueRudolf of Brandenburg
Barbara Gonzaga, Marchioness of Mantua
Elisabeth, Duchess of Pomerania
Dorothea, Queen of Denmark
FatherFrederick I, Margrave of Brandenburg
MotherElisabeth of Bavaria-Landshut

Biography edit

John was the eldest son of Frederick I, Margrave of Brandenburg (1371–1440), and Elisabeth of Bavaria-Landshut (1383–1442), daughter of Frederick, Duke of Bavaria, and his second wife Maddalena Visconti.

After marrying Barbara of Saxe-Wittenberg (1405–1465), daughter of Rudolf III, Duke of Saxe-Wittenberg, John hoped to eventually succeed to Saxe-Wittenberg once its line of Ascanian dukes died out. When this happened in November 1422, however, Emperor Sigismund was on poorer terms with the Hohenzollerns and was only willing to compensate John with a monetary payment.

John began participating in governmental affairs in Brandenburg in 1424. Frustrated by disputes with the feudal nobility, Frederick I retired to his castle at Cadolzburg in Franconia in 1425, granting the regency of Brandenburg to John at a Landtag in Rathenow on January 13, 1426, while retaining the electoral dignity for himself.

John was poorly received by the populace of Brandenburg, as his administration was incompetent, leading to unrest in the countryside. Rather than governing, John was more interested in artificially creating gold through alchemy, thereby receiving the cognomen "the Alchemist". In 1433, a revised version of the alchemical treatise Buch der heiligen Dreifaltigkeit of Ulmannus was prepared for John. Realizing the danger Brandenburg was in, Frederick I granted John Franconian lands in Brandenburg-Kulmbach on June 7, 1437, territory rich with mines that furnished materials for the Alchemist's hobby. The governance of Brandenburg passed to Frederick I's second-oldest son, Frederick II.

After the death of Frederick I in 1440, John inherited all of Brandenburg-Kulmbach, including the castle of Plassenburg in Kulmbach. In his later years, he allowed Christopher of Bavaria to administer his possessions in the Upper Palatinate until Christopher's death in 1448. John ruled as Margrave of Brandenburg-Kulmbach until abdicating in 1457, which allowed him to dedicate himself toward studying alchemy and the environs of Franconia. He died in Castle Scharfeneck near Baiersdorf in 1464.

Family and children edit

John of Brandenburg-Kulmbach and Barbara of Saxe-Wittenberg had four children:

Ancestors edit

References edit

John, Margrave of Brandenburg-Kulmbach
Born: 1406 Died: 16 November 1464
Preceded by Margrave of Brandenburg
Succeeded by
Margrave of Brandenburg-Kulmbach
Succeeded by