Jim Jordan (American politician)
James Daniel Jordan (born February 17, 1964) is an American politician serving as the U.S. Representative for Ohio's 4th congressional district since 2007. A member of the Republican Party, he has been the ranking member of the House Oversight Committee since 2019. Jordan is a founding member of the Freedom Caucus, which he chaired from its establishment in 2015 until 2017. His district is located in the north-central and western portions of the state and includes Lima, Tiffin and Elyria.
|Ranking Member of the House Oversight Committee|
|Assumed office |
January 3, 2019
|Preceded by||Elijah Cummings|
|Member of the U.S. House of Representatives|
from Ohio's 4th district
|Assumed office |
January 3, 2007
|Preceded by||Mike Oxley|
|Member of the Ohio Senate|
from the 12th district
January 3, 2001 – December 31, 2006
|Preceded by||Robert R. Cupp|
|Succeeded by||Keith Faber|
|Member of the Ohio House of Representatives|
from the 85th district
January 3, 1995 – December 31, 2000
|Preceded by||Jim Davis|
|Succeeded by||Derrick Seaver|
James Daniel Jordan
February 17, 1964
Urbana, Ohio, U.S.
|Education||University of Wisconsin–Madison (BS)|
Ohio State University (MA)
Capital University (JD)
In 2019, Jordan’s plan to run for house speaker, a position that would become vacant upon Paul Ryan's retirement, came to an end when Democrats took the majority in the U.S. House of Representatives. After the election, Jordan campaigned for house minority leader, but lost his bid to California Republican Kevin McCarthy in a 159–43 vote.
Early life, education and early careerEdit
A two-time NCAA Division I wrestling champion, Jordan won the 1985 NCAA championship match over future two-time Olympic gold medalist and four-time world champion John Smith. Jordan worked as an assistant wrestling coach at Ohio State University from 1986 to 1994.
Ohio General AssemblyEdit
Jordan was elected to the Ohio General Assembly in November 1994 and served three terms as state representative of the 85th Ohio house district. In 1996, he introduced an amendment to the Welfare Reform Bill that limited the time a healthy person could be on welfare. He created the Income Tax Reduction Fund which required Ohio state revenue surpluses be used to lower the income tax burden on Ohio citizens.
In 2000, Jordan defeated independent candidate Jack Kaffenberger to win a seat in the Ohio senate with 88 percent of the votes. In 2004, Jordan defeated Kaffenberger again, with 79 percent of votes. In May 2006, Jordan won the Republican primary race for the 4th Congressional district of Ohio. He received a 100 percent lifetime rating from the Ohio Taxpayers Association, which endorsed Jordan in his bid for Congress.
Jordan was named Watchdog of the Treasury (1996, 2000, 2004), Outstanding Legislator (2004), Outstanding Freshman Legislator (1996), Friend of the Taxpayer (1997), and Pro-Life Legislator of the Year (1998) by the United Conservatives of Ohio. He received the Defender of Life award from the Ohio Right to Life Society, and the 2001 Leadership in Government Award from the Ohio Roundtable and Freedom Forum. Senate President Bill Harris appointed Jordan chairman of the Senate Judiciary on Criminal Justice Committee.
U.S. House of RepresentativesEdit
Jordan won the Republican primary for the 4th district in 2006 after 26-year incumbent Mike Oxley announced his retirement. Jordan defeated Democrat Rick Siferd in the general election with 60 percent of the votes.
He was reelected in 2008, defeating Democrat Mike Carroll with 65 percent of the votes.
Jordan chaired the Republican Study Committee during the 112th Congress while turning down a position on the Appropriations Committee. Princeton University historian Julian Zelizer wrote that during Obama's presidency "Jordan proved to be a master of the technical side of public policy and understood how to play the legislative game."
During the 114th Congress, Jordan helped found the House Freedom Caucus, a group of conservatives working to "to advance an agenda of limited constitutional government” in Congress. He served as the group's first chairman.
Jordan received a vote for speaker of the 113th Congress from fellow conservative, Tea Party Caucus chairman Tim Huelskamp of Kansas. Jordan received two votes for speaker during the 114th Congress.
- Committee on the Judiciary
- Committee on Oversight and Government Reform (ranking member)
- House Select Committee on the Events Surrounding the 2012 Terrorist Attack in Benghazi
- Freedom Caucus 
- Congressional Constitution Caucus
- Congressional Western Caucus
- U.S.-Japan Caucus
On May 2, 2014, Jordan introduced House Resolution 565 entitled Calling on Attorney General Eric H. Holder, Jr., to appoint a special counsel to investigate the targeting of conservative nonprofit groups by the Internal Revenue Service that passed on May 7, 2014. The resolution asked Holder to appoint a special counsel to investigate the IRS after the agency revealed it had selected political groups applying for tax-exempt status for intensive scrutiny based on their names or political themes.
In March 2017, Jordan criticized the newly introduced American Health Care Act, the Republican replacement bill for the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, calling it an unacceptable form of "Obamacare Lite." On May 4, 2017, he voted to pass a revised version of the legislation.
In a Vanity Fair article published October 30, 2017, John Boehner, former speaker of the U. S. House of Representatives, referred to Jordan as a “legislative terrorist,” saying, "Jordan was a terrorist as a legislator going back to his days in the Ohio house and senate."
According to The Dayton Daily News, Jordan "is known for being one of Congress’ most conservative members."
In Congress, Jordan is among the most conservative Republicans, earning a perfect score from the American Conservative Union. He has voted consistently for anti-abortion legislation and was endorsed by Ohio Right to Life in 2012. During the 112th Congress, he was one of 40 "staunch" members of the Republican Study Committee who frequently voted against Republican party leadership and vocally expressed displeasure with House bills.
Asked by Anderson Cooper in April 2018 whether he had heard President Trump tell a lie, Jordan said "I have not" and "nothing comes to mind." He also said, "I don't know that [Mr. Trump has ever] said something wrong that he needs to apologize for."
While serving in the Ohio senate, Jordan supported the Tax and Expenditure Limitation Amendment, a state constitutional amendment that would require a vote of the people to raise taxes or increase spending over certain limits.
In July 2008, Jordan was the first member of Congress to sign the "No Climate Tax" pledge drafted by the conservative political advocacy group Americans for Prosperity, founded by the Koch brothers.
In Congress, Jordan voted to open the Outer Continental Shelf to oil drilling, prevent the EPA from regulating greenhouse gases, and bar greenhouse gases from Clean Air Act rules. He voted against enforcing limits on carbon dioxide (CO
2) global warming pollution, tax credits for renewable electricity, tax incentives for renewable energy and energy conservation, and curtailing subsidies for oil and gas company exploration.
Jordan is against Planned Parenthood and supports ending Medicaid reimbursements to the organization.
In April 2019, Jordan warned pharmaceutical companies not to comply with a request for information sent by Elijah Cummings, the Democratic chair of the House Oversight Committee, about how pharmaceutical companies set prescription drug prices. Jordan suggested that Cummings would leak cherry-picked information in an attempt to harm the stock prices of pharmaceutical companies.
Trump administration, Special Counsel and FBIEdit
Jordan has been a stalwart supporter of President Donald Trump. In December 2017, Jordan sought to discredit the FBI and Special Counsel Robert Mueller's investigation into Russian interference in the 2016 election. Jordan questioned the impartiality of Mueller, and called on Deputy Attorney General Rod J. Rosenstein to use his authority to disband the Mueller investigation or create a second special counsel to simultaneously investigate Mueller himself. Rosenstein rejected the request, saying that he could not appoint another special counsel as there was not any credible allegation of any potential crime. The New York Times noted that Republicans increasingly criticised Mueller's investigation after it "delivered a series of indictments to high-profile associates of the president and evidence that at least two of them are cooperating with the inquiry". In July 2018, Jordan led efforts to impeach Deputy Attorney General Rod Rosenstein as a way to shut down the Special Counsel's investigation. During a hearing on July 12, 2018, Jordan repeatedly interrupted FBI agent Peter Strzok while Strzok tried to explain that he couldn’t answer specific questions in order to preserve the confidentiality of an ongoing investigation. Jordan's behavior caused committee Democrats to protest his dilatory tactics and to allow Strzok to respond. They also objected to Jordan's exceeding his allowed time for questioning. House Judiciary Committee Chairman, Republican Bob Goodlatte, admonished Jordan for his repeated interruptions of the witness.
In July 2018, Jordan, along with Mark Meadows called on the Department of Justice to "review allegations that Deputy Attorney General Rod Rosenstein threatened to subpoena phone records and documents from a House Intelligence Committee staffer". In their written request, the two wrote that in his use of investigative powers, Rosenstein had retaliated "against rank-and-file (congressional) staff members", therefore abusing his authority. Talking to John Catsimatidis on WNYM, Jordan said he would force a vote on the impeachment of Rosenstein if the DOJ does not deliver documents Congress requested.
In March 2019, Jordan came under criticism from House Judiciary Chairman Jerrold Nadler on the grounds of anti-Semitic messagery on Twitter while urging Nadler to resist calls for presidential impeachment.
During Robert Mueller's testimony to two congressional committees on July 24, 2019, Jordan asked Mueller why he never charged Joseph Mifsud with lying to the FBI while George Papadopoulos was charged for lying about Mifsud. Jordan said: "Mifsud is the guy who told Papadopoulos [about Russian dirt], he was the guy who started it all, yet when the FBI interviews him, he lies three times. You don’t charge him." Mueller responded: "Well I can’t get into it and it’s obvious, I think, that we can’t get into charging decisions."
2013 U.S. government shutdownEdit
Jordan criticized Speaker John Boehner's plan to raise the debt ceiling. In 2010, Jordan was chair of the Republican Study Committee, and during the U.S. government shutdown of 2013, he was still considered its most powerful member. That group was the primary proponent and executor of the Republican Congressional strategy to force a government shutdown, in order to force changes in the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, also known as Obamacare.
U.S. House of Representatives, Ohio 4th District
2008 - defeated Mike Carroll.
2010 - defeated Doug Litt (D) and Donald Kissick (L).
2012 - defeated Jim Slone (D) and Chris Kalla (L).
2014 - defeated Janet Garrett (D).
2016 - defeated Janet Garrett (D).
2018 - defeated Janet Garrett (D).
Ohio State University abuse scandalEdit
Jordan was an assistant wrestling coach with Ohio State University's wrestling program from 1987 to 1995. OSU opened an investigation in April 2018 that looked into allegations of sexual misconduct by the former wrestling team's physician, Richard Strauss — who was the physician during Jordan's tenure as an assistant coach. Dr. Strauss died by suicide in 2005. In early July 2018, at least eight former wrestlers said that Jordan had been aware of, but did not respond to, allegations of sexual misconduct by Strauss. If he had seen abuse at the time, Jordan replied, “I would have done something about it.” Former UFC world champion Mark Coleman said, “He knew as far as I'm concerned.” Former 1980s Ohio State wrestler David Range said teammates spoke of Strauss’ behavior often in the locker room while Jordan was present. A nurse who worked with the team was interviewed on video by Politico and confirmed observing Strauss fondling a team member until the athlete ejaculated. Another Ohio wrestler, Dunyasha Yetts, told Politico he had asked both Jordan and Hellickson to be present for an examination with Strauss, to avoid inappropriate touching by Strauss. That allegation was denied by Jordan’s office. One former wrestler said that he saw Jordan kick a male voyeur out of the wrestlers’ sauna. None of the wrestlers accused Jordan of personal sexual misconduct.
Jordan said that the timing of the allegations were “suspect” and said that one of the many former wrestlers who have gone public had a “vendetta” against Ohio State and Jordan’s family. Jordan’s congressional office released a statement by the wrestling team’s former head coach Russ Hellickson in which both he and Jordan denied knowing about the abuse. However, after Jordan’s denial, a June 2018 video emerged showing Hellickson saying that he had confronted Strauss during the doctor's tenure, for being too “hands on” with the wrestlers and about Strauss showering with them “for an hour”.
After news of the scandal broke, Jordan criticized CNN for “asking for dirt” from his former staffers and interns. Florida Congressman Matt Gaetz suggested the allegations were intended to damage Jordan’s criticism of Special Counsel Robert S. Mueller's investigation of Russian interference in the 2016 United States elections. Speaker Ryan defended Jordan, saying he was "a man of honesty and a man of integrity.”
Former UFC world champion Mark Coleman, who was one of the wrestlers abused by the team physician, said he assumed Jordan must have known about the abuse. On August 9, 2018 he clarified that "At no time did I ever say or have any direct knowledge that Jim Jordan knew of Dr. Richard Strauss’s inappropriate behavior. I have nothing but respect for Jim Jordan as I have known him for more than 30 years and know him to be of impeccable character."
|Election results of Jim Jordan|
|1998||Ohio House of Representatives||General||R||23,763||68.36%||Robert Burns||D||10,999||31.64%|
|2000||Ohio Senate||General||R||99,803||76.94%||Jack Kaffenberger Sr.||D||15,545||11.98%||Debra Mitchell||NL||14,373||11.08%|
|2004||Ohio Senate||General||R||118,193||79.27%||Jack Kaffenberger Sr.||I||30,902||20.73%|
|2006||U.S. House of Representatives||General||R||129,958||59.99%||Richard E. Siferd||D||86,678||40.01%|
|2008||U.S. House of Representatives||General||R||186,154||65.17%||Mike Carroll||D||99,499||34.83%|
|2010||U.S. House of Representatives||General||R||146,029||71.49%||Doug Litt||D||50,533||24.74%||Donald Kissick||L||7,708||3.77%|
|2012||U.S. House of Representatives||General||R||182,643||58.35%||Jim Slone||D||114,214||36.49%||Chris Kalla||L||16,141||5.16%|
|2014||U.S. House of Representatives||General||R||125,907||67.67%||Janet Garrett||D||60,165||32.33%|
|2016||U.S. House of Representatives||General||R||210,227||67.99%||Janet Garrett||D||98,981||32.01%|
|2018||U.S. House of Representatives||General||R||164,640||65.41%||Janet Garrett||D||87,061||34.59%|
- Conservative Ohio Rep. Jim Jordan to run for House speaker, CNN, Sunlen Serfaty and Lauren Fox, July 26, 2018. Retrieved July 27, 2018.
- Snell, Kelsey (November 14, 2018). "After Midterm Losses, House Republicans Elect McCarthy As Top Leader". NPR. Retrieved February 28, 2019.
- "55th NCAA Wrestling Tournament: 1985" (PDF). Wrestlingstats.com. Retrieved November 9, 2012.
- "ohiotaxpayers.com". ohiotaxpayers.com. Archived from the original on October 20, 2006. Retrieved August 23, 2010.CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link)
- "U.S. Congress: November 4, 2008". Sos.state.oh.us. November 4, 2008. Archived from the original on August 11, 2010. Retrieved August 23, 2010.
- "Member List". Republican Study Committee. Retrieved December 21, 2017.
- Sabrina Eaton/The Plain Dealer (December 8, 2010). "Rep. Jim Jordan selected to chair Republican Study Committee". cleveland.com. Retrieved July 17, 2011.
- "Appropriations panel loses its luster – Simmi Aujla and Richard E. Cohen". Politico.Com. Retrieved July 17, 2011.
- Zelizer, Julian. "The Presidency of Barack Obama". Princeton University Press. p. 18. Retrieved January 5, 2019.
- Eaton, Sabrina (January 26, 2015). "Rep. Jim Jordan to co-found new GOP "House Freedom Caucus"". Cleveland Plain Dealer.
- Eaton, Sabrina (February 11, 2015). "It's official: Rep. Jim Jordan now chairs the House Freedom Caucus". Cleveland Plain Dealer.
- Davis, Susan (January 6, 2015). "Boehner re-elected as speaker despite GOP dissenters". USA Today.
- French, Lauren (January 26, 2015). "9 Republicans launch House Freedom Caucus". Politico. Retrieved December 26, 2016.
- "Members". Congressional Constitution Caucus. Retrieved May 8, 2018.
- "Members". Congressional Western Caucus. Retrieved June 27, 2018.
- "Members". U.S. - Japan Caucus. Retrieved December 11, 2018.
- "H.Res. 565 – All Actions". United States Congress. Retrieved May 6, 2014.
- Bedard, Paul (May 2, 2014). "Next: Demand for special counsel to probe IRS scandal, Lois Lerner". The Washington Examiner. Retrieved May 12, 2014.
- Yen, Hope (March 13, 2017). "Republicans brace for downbeat CBO analysis of health bill". CNBC. Retrieved March 13, 2017.
- "How the House voted to pass the GOP health-care bill". Washington Post. Retrieved May 4, 2017.
- "Health care vote puts pressure on dozens of vulnerable GOP reps". USA Today. Retrieved May 4, 2017.
- Nguyen, Tina (October 30, 2017). ""Idiots," "Anarchists," and "Assholes": Boehner Unloads on Republicans". The Hive. Retrieved November 8, 2017.
- "Who is Rep. Jim Jordan's favorite liberal? The answer might surprise you". daytondailynews. Retrieved July 26, 2018.
- "2008 Votes By State Delegation". archive.org. Archived from the original on March 24, 2009. Retrieved January 19, 2015.
- "Ohio Right to Life". Ohiovotesforlife.org. Retrieved November 9, 2012.
- Steinhauer, Jennifer (March 16, 2012). "G.O.P. Freshmen Not as Defiant as Reputation Suggests". New York Times.
- "Cleaning Up the Mortgage Mess". The Wall Street Journal. August 10, 2010. Retrieved November 3, 2010.
- Lardner, Richard (April 28, 2013). "Army says no to more tanks, but Congress insists". Yahoo! News. Associated Press. Retrieved July 13, 2014.
- Savransky, Rebecca (April 17, 2018). "Anderson Cooper confronts GOP lawmaker: You haven't heard the president lie?". TheHill. Retrieved April 17, 2018.
- Cooper, Anderson. "Cooper to lawmaker: Does President Trump lie?" CNN. Video.
- Drewblade, James. "The Blade ~ Toledo Ohio". toledoblade.com. Retrieved August 23, 2010.
- Davenport, Coral and Lipton, Eric "How G.O.P. Leaders Came to View Climate Change as Fake Science", New York Times, June 3, 2017, Retrieved June 3, 2017.
- On the Issues: Jim Jordan on Energy and Oil Retrieved June 3, 2017.
- "A Quick and Easy Guide to the Planned Parenthood Videos". The Federalist. September 29, 2015. Retrieved October 20, 2015.
- "Republicans Are Warning Drug Companies Not To Cooperate With A Congressional Investigation". BuzzFeed News. Retrieved April 24, 2019.
- News, A. B. C. "Cummings accuses Republicans of obstructing drug prices investigation". ABC News. Retrieved July 26, 2019.
- Weixel, Nathaniel (April 5, 2019). "Oversight Republicans accuse Cummings of partisan drug pricing probe". TheHill. Retrieved July 26, 2019.
- Edmondson, Catie (July 6, 2018). "Jim Jordan Is Defiant as Allegations Mount, and Supporters Point to 'Deep State'". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved July 26, 2019.
- Fandos, Nicholas; Savage, Charlie (December 13, 2017). "Justice Dept. Official Defends Mueller as Republicans Try to Discredit Him". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved December 14, 2017.
- Thomsen, Jacqueline (July 13, 2018). "Conservatives moving to impeach Rosenstein soon: report". TheHill. Retrieved July 15, 2018.
- Committee Erupts In Shouting As Jordan Trucks Over FBI Agent’s Answer To His Question, The Hill, Tierney Sneed, July 12, 2018. Retrieved July 18, 2018.
- Brufke, Julie Grace. "Freedom Caucus lawmakers call on DOJ to probe Rosenstein allegations". The Hill. Retrieved July 17, 2018.
- Thomsen, Jacqueline. "Jordan: If Rosenstein doesn't deliver, Meadows and I will force impeachment vote". The Hill. Retrieved July 30, 2018.
- Lafond, Nicole. "Nadler Accuses Jim Jordan Of Anti-Semitism Over '$teyer' Tweet, Jordan Denies". Talking Points Memo. Archived from the original on March 5, 2019. Retrieved March 5, 2019.
- Jordan, Jim [@Jim_Jordan] (March 3, 2019). "C'mon @RepJerryNadler—at least pretend to be serious about fact finding. Nadler feeling the heat big time. Jumps to Tom $teyer's conclusion—impeaching our President—before first document request. What a Kangaroo court" (Tweet). Archived from the original on March 5, 2019 – via Twitter.
- "Republicans confront Mueller with allegations of double standard in Russia probe". Fox News. July 25, 2019.
- "Tea Party Politics: A Look Inside the Republican Suicide Machine". Rolling Stone. Retrieved January 19, 2015.
- "Jim Jordan (R-Ohio)". Washington Post. 29 September 2017.
Career History: ... Assistant wrestling coach at Ohio State University (OSU) (1987–1995) ... After graduating in 1986, Jordan returned to his home state to work as an assistant wrestling coach at OSU for nine years.
- Stankiewicz, Kevin (5 April 2018). "Ohio State investigating allegations of sexual misconduct by former wrestling team doctor". The Lantern. Retrieved 6 July 2018.
- Kesling, Ben; Peterson, Kristina (5 July 2018). "Former Ohio State wrestlers say Rep. Jim Jordan knew of team doctor's alleged misconduct". Wall Street Journal. Archived from the original on 6 July 2018.
Former Ohio State wrestler Mike DiSabato has led a campaign to publicize Dr. Strauss’s alleged wrongdoings for months and only recently began to criticize Mr. Jordan for allegedly ignoring athletes’ concerns.
- Viebeck, Elise; Crites, Alice (9 July 2018). "Representative Jim Jordan returns to Washington as scrutiny over alleged sexual abuse at Ohio State intensifies". Washington Post. Retrieved 9 July 2018.
- Edmonsen, Catie. "Unshaken by Abuse Scandal, Conservatives Are Sticking With Jim Jordan". The New York Times. Retrieved July 27, 2018.
- "Jim Jordan's Accusers". Jordan Scandal. Retrieved July 12, 2018.
- Viebeck, Elise; Crites, Alice. "Rep. Jim Jordan faces new accusation that he must have known about alleged sexual abuse at Ohio State". Washington Post. Archived from the original on 8 July 2018.
David Range ... said Jordan had to have known about alleged sexual misconduct by Richard Strauss ... because it happened regularly to team members and people talked about it.
- "'A cesspool of deviancy': New claims of voyeurism test Jordan denials". Politico. Retrieved 7 July 2018.
- ""It's false": Rep. Jim Jordan slams accusers amid accusations he ignored sexual abuse at Ohio State". Washington Post. Retrieved 7 July 2018.
- "Jim Jordan is accused of turning a blind eye to Ohio State sexual abuse. Now he's attacking the accusers". Vox. Retrieved 6 July 2018.
- Almasy, Steve; Andone, Dakin. "Ohio State team doctor was warned about being 'too hands on' with athletes, former coach says". CNN. Retrieved July 27, 2018.
- "Congressman Jim Jordan blasts CNN for doing actual journalism". Newsweek. 11 July 2018. Retrieved 12 July 2018.
Congressman Jim Jordan blasts CNN for doing actual journalism
- Cite error: The named reference
Strauss3was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
- "Speaker Ryan, Republicans rally around Rep. Jim Jordan amid wrestler abuse allegations". NBC News. Retrieved 11 July 2018.
- Wehrman, Jessica (August 9, 2018). "Ohio State wrestler who accused Jordan of knowing about sex abuse now recants". dispatch.com. Retrieved August 9, 2018.
- CNN, Jean Casarez, Elizabeth Joseph and Jay Croft,. "Ex-Ohio State wrestler clarifies comment about congressman's awareness of abuse". CNN. Retrieved August 10, 2018.
- Eaton, Sabrina (June 5, 2011). "U.S. Rep. Jim Jordan of Ohio gains power among House conservatives". cleveland.com. Retrieved February 28, 2019.
- "Election Results". Ohio Secretary of State. Archived from the original on August 15, 2012. Retrieved February 28, 2014.
- Congressman Jim Jordan official U.S. House site
- Jim Jordan for Congress
- Jim Jordan at Curlie
- Appearances on C-SPAN
- Biography at the Biographical Directory of the United States Congress
- Profile at Vote Smart
- Financial information (federal office) at the Federal Election Commission
- Legislation sponsored at the Library of Congress
|Ohio House of Representatives|
| Member of the Ohio House of Representatives
from the 85th district
Robert R. Cupp
| Member of the Ohio Senate
from the 12th district
|U.S. House of Representatives|
| Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from Ohio's 4th congressional district
| Ranking Member of the House Oversight Committee|
|Party political offices|
| Chair of the Republican Study Committee
|New office|| Chair of the Freedom Caucus
|U.S. order of precedence (ceremonial)|
| United States Representatives by seniority