Jewellery design is the art or profession of designing and creating jewellery. It is one of civilization's earliest forms of decoration, dating back at least 7,000 years to the oldest-known human societies in Indus Valley Civilization, Mesopotamia and Egypt. The art has taken many forms throughout the centuries, from the simple beadwork of ancient times to the sophisticated metalworking and gem-cutting known in the modern day.[1]

Rendering of a jewellery design before going to the jeweller's bench

Before an article of jewellery is created, design concepts are rendered followed by detailed technical drawings generated by a jewellery designer, a professional who is trained in the architectural and functional knowledge of materials, fabrication techniques, composition, wearability and market trends.

Traditional hand-drawing and drafting methods are still utilized in designing jewellery, particularly at the conceptual stage. However, a shift is taking place to computer-aided design programs. Whereas the traditionally hand-illustrated jewel is typically translated into wax or metal directly by a skilled craftsman, a CAD model is generally used as the basis for a CNC cut or 3D printed 'wax' pattern to be used in the rubber molding or lost wax casting processes.[2]

Once conceptual/ideation is complete, the design is rendered and fabricated using the necessary materials for proper adaptation to the function of the object. For example, 24K gold was used in ancient jewellery design because it was more accessible than silver as source material. Before the 1st century many civilizations also incorporated beads into jewellery. Once the discovery of gemstones and gem cutting became more readily available, the art of jewellery ornamentation and design shifted. The earliest documented gemstone cut was done by Theophilus Presbyter (c. 1070–1125), who practiced and developed many applied arts and was a known goldsmith. Later, during the 14th century, medieval lapidary technology evolved to include cabochons and cameos.[3]

Early jewellery design commissions were often constituted by nobility or the church to honor an event or as wearable ornamentation. Within the structure of early methods, enameling and repoussé became standard methods for creating ornamental wares to demonstrate wealth, position, or power. These early techniques created a specific complex design element that later would forge the Baroque movement in jewellery design.[1]

Traditionally, jewels were seen as sacred and precious; however, beginning in the 1900s, jewellery has started to be objectified. Additionally, no one trend can be seen as the history of jewellery design for this time period. Throughout the 20th century jewellery design underwent drastic and continual style changes: Art Nouveau (1900–1918), Art Deco (1919–1929), International Style & organicism (1929–1946), New Look & Pop (1947–1967), Globalization, Materialism, and Minimalism.[3] Jewellery design trends are highly affected by the economic and social states of the time. The boundaries of styles and trends tend to blur together and the clear stylistic divisions of the past are harder to see during the 20th century.[citation needed]

Early jewelry design edit

After the 14th century, gemstone cutting technology evolved into ring surface treatment and carving.[4][5][6] At the time, many techniques were controlled by jewelry design committees made up of nobility, and design was combined with social class. Some churches, royal families, and noble families used special design techniques such as badges and jewelry, as well as special methods of gemstone composition. All of these are used to demonstrate wealth, status and entitlement.

Most of these jewelry design styles are related to the art, architecture, and decorative styles of the time. For example, the Baroque jewelry design movement emerged later, and the evolution of the genre also changed significantly.[7][8]

From 1714 to 1830, it was popular to create jewelry with natural elements, green and purple gemstones, and it was called the Georgia period.[9][10] In the following Early Victorian period, animalistic motifs and multi-colored metal patterns were added. In the mid-Victorian period, five-color jewelry combined with shells, tassels, mosaics, and other techniques became popular.[11][12] And because of Prince Albert's death, the material coal jade (Gagat) became widely popular in jewelry design at the time.

Jewelry design styles such as chicken heart necklaces, bracelets and brooches also became popular in the 1880s.[13][14] Then, in the late Victorian period, diamonds became the protagonist, and bird, insect, and animal themes were added to the diamond elements one after another. Jewelry of this period also began to use springs to make some special moving mechanisms.

References edit

  1. ^ a b Tait, Hugh (2008). 7000 Years of Jewelry. ISBN 978-1-55407-395-5.
  2. ^ "Jewellery Designing". Retrieved 21 July 2015.
  3. ^ a b Cappellieri, Alba (2010). Twentieth-century Jewelry: From Art Nouveau to Contemporary Design in Europe and the United States. ISBN 978-88-6130-532-8.
  4. ^ "How does cutting diamonds in different shapes evolve with the time in the diamond industry?". Retrieved 2024-05-20.
  5. ^ "Gemstone cutting: Crafting Brilliance from Rough". Retrieved 2024-05-20.
  6. ^ "A Guide to Gem Cutting Styles". Retrieved 2024-05-20.
  7. ^ "Baroque Jewelry". Retrieved 2024-05-20.
  8. ^ "History and Evolution of Jewellery Design: From Ancient Times to Modern Day". Retrieved 2024-05-20.
  9. ^ "Georgian Jewelry: 1714-1837". Retrieved 2024-05-20.
  10. ^ "Geschichte des Schmuckdesigns seit dem Mittelalter". Retrieved 2024-05-20.
  11. ^ "A Guide to Mid-Victorian Grand Period Jewelry". Retrieved 2024-05-20.
  12. ^ "Victorian Era Jewellery: Mouring Jewellery, Women's Accessories". Retrieved 2024-05-20.
  13. ^ "Aesthetic Period: 1885-1901". Retrieved 2024-05-20.
  14. ^ "Victorian Jewelry : The Aesthetic Period (1885-1901)". Retrieved 2024-05-20.