Jerusalem Day (Hebrew: יום ירושלים, Yom Yerushalayim) is an Israeli national holiday commemorating the reunification of Jerusalem and the establishment of Israeli control over the Old City in the aftermath of the June 1967 Six-Day War. The day is officially marked by state ceremonies and memorial services.
|Official name||Hebrew: יום ירושלים (Yom Yerushalayim)|
|Observed by||State of Israel|
|Significance||The reunification of Jerusalem under Israeli control after the Six-Day War. The first time Jews control the whole of Jerusalem since the Destruction of the Second Holy Temple by the Romans in 70 AD.|
|Begins||Iyar 28 (Hebrew calendar)|
|2020 date||Sunset, 21 May –|
nightfall, 22 May
|2021 date||Sunset, 9 May –|
nightfall, 10 May
|2022 date||Sunset, 28 May –|
nightfall, 29 May
|2023 date||Sunset, 18 May –|
nightfall, 19 May
Under the 1947 United Nations Partition Plan for Palestine, which proposed the establishment of two states in British Mandatory Palestine – a Jewish state and an Arab state – Jerusalem was to be an international city, neither exclusively Arab nor Jewish for a period of ten years, at which point a referendum would be held by Jerusalem residents to determine which country to join. The Jewish leadership accepted the plan, including the internationalization of Jerusalem, but the Arabs rejected the proposal.
On 15 May 1948, the day after Israel declared its independence, it was attacked by its Arab neighbours. Jordan seized East Jerusalem and the Old City. Israeli forces made a concerted attempt to dislodge them, but were unable to do so. By the end of the 1948 Arab–Israeli War Jerusalem was left divided between Israel and Jordan. The Old City and East Jerusalem continued to be occupied by Jordan, and the Jewish residents were forced out. Under Jordanian rule, half of the Old City's 58 synagogues were demolished and the Jewish cemetery on the Mount of Olives was plundered for its tombstones, which were used as paving stones and building materials.
This state of affairs changed in 1967 as a result of the Six-Day War. Before the start of the war, Israel sent a message to King Hussein of Jordan, saying that Israel would not attack Jerusalem or the West Bank as long as the Jordanian front remained quiet. Urged by Egyptian pressure and based on deceptive intelligence reports, Jordan began shelling civilian locations in Israel, to which Israel responded on 6 June by opening the eastern front. The following day, 7 June 1967 (28 Iyar 5727), Israel captured the Old City of Jerusalem.
This morning, the Israel Defense Forces liberated Jerusalem. We have united Jerusalem, the divided capital of Israel. We have returned to the holiest of our holy places, never to part from it again. To our Arab neighbors we extend, also at this hour—and with added emphasis at this hour—our hand in peace. And to our Christian and Muslim fellow citizens, we solemnly promise full religious freedom and rights. We did not come to Jerusalem for the sake of other peoples' holy places, and not to interfere with the adherents of other faiths, but in order to safeguard its entirety, and to live there together with others, in unity.
The war ended with a ceasefire on 11 June 1967.
On 12 May 1968, the government proclaimed a new holiday – Jerusalem Day – to be celebrated on the 28th of Iyar, the Hebrew date on which the divided city of Jerusalem became one. On 23 March 1998, the Knesset passed the Jerusalem Day Law, making the day a national holiday.
In 1977, the government advanced the date of Jerusalem Day by a week to avoid it clashing with Election Day.
The slogan for Jerusalem Day 2007, celebrated on 16 May, marking the 40th anniversary of the reunification of Jerusalem, was "Mashehu Meyuhad leKol Ehad" (Hebrew: משהו מיוחד לכל אחד, 'Something Special for Everyone'), punning on the words meyuhad (מיוחד, 'special') and me'uhad (מאוחד, 'united'). To mark the anniversary, the approach to Jerusalem on Highway 1 was illuminated with decorative blue lighting, which remained in place throughout the year.
In 2017, the golden jubilee of Jerusalem Day was celebrated. During the course of the year many events marking this milestone took place in celebrations of the 50th Jerusalem Day.
Many events were planned throughout the year, marking the jubilee. The main theme of the celebrations is the "Liberation of Jerusalem". The celebrations began during Hanukkah 2016, at an official ceremony held at the City of David National Park in the presence of Minister Miri Regev, who is responsible for the celebrations marking the 50th anniversary.
A logo was created for the jubilee and presented by the minister Miri Regev.
Events During the Jubilee Year
The ceremony was held at the City of David National Park at the event the ancient "Pilgrims' Route", that led from the City of David to the Temple Mount during the Second Temple period, was unveiled. The ceremony was attended by Knesset members, mayors and the three paratroopers that were photographed by David Rubinger at the Western Wall in 1967. At the event, the Minister Miri Regev was quoted by the press as saying, "Mr. President Barack Obama, I am standing here, on Hanukka, on the same road on which my forefathers walked 2,000 years ago ... No resolution in any international forum is as strong as the steadfast stones on this street." Noting several of the 14 countries that participated in the resolution – including New Zealand, Ukraine, Senegal, and Malaysia – the minister added, "no other people in the world has such a connection and link to their land."
- On 2 February 2017, the "14th World Rabbis Conference" was held in Jerusalem, which was marked by "50 years since the Liberation and Unification of Jerusalem"
- On 17 March the Jerusalem Marathon was held, marking the 50th anniversary celebrations.
- On 28 March, the National Bible Contest for Youth was held, marking 50 years since the liberation of Jerusalem
- The Independence Day ceremony this year will mark the Jubilee celebrations.
- Many groups from overseas are made pilgrimages to Jerusalem to honor the jubilee.
Ceremonies and state events celebrating Jerusalem Day 2017
This section needs to be updated.(May 2021)
Many events were planned for the celebration, some are annual events – including the Memorial ceremony for the Ethiopian community on Mount Herzl and the Dance of Flags parade (on Wednesday, 24 May 2017 from 16.30) and the Student Day evening concert (Tuesday, 23 May 2017 19:00). Listed below is a selection focusing on the jubilee year celebrations:
- The Opening Event of the 50th anniversary of the Unification of Jerusalem – The event will be attended by the President of Israel, the Prime Minister, the Speaker of the Knesset, the Mayor and the President of the Supreme Court, with performances by the Israeli musicians.
- White Night – The annual celebration will include a concert marking the 50th anniversary of the city's re-unification, in which leading artists will collaborate with the Jerusalem Symphony Orchestra. Among the participants will be Miri Mesika, David Daor and Kobi Aflalo.
- 50th Anniversary Jerusalem Day at the Tower of David Museum – The museum reception in the presence of the mayor. The project "50 Years 50 Faces" will be launched, reconstructing the history of the city through stories of residents of East and West Jerusalem. Performances by actors in the museum will bring to life significant figures from the city's past.
- State Assembly marking the 50th anniversary of the liberation and unification of Jerusalem – In the presence of the President of the State, the prime minister, ministers, the mayor, the chief of staff, the chief of staff and the bereaved families.
While the day is not widely celebrated outside Israel, and has lost its significance for most secular Israelis, the day is still very much celebrated by Israel's Religious Zionist community with parades and additional prayers in the synagogue.
Religious Zionists recite special holiday prayers with Hallel. Although Rabbi Joseph B. Soloveitchik was reluctant to authorise its inclusion in the liturgy, other scholars, namely Meshulam Roth and others who held positions in the Israeli rabbinate, advocated the reciting of Hallel with its blessings, regarding it as a duty to do so. Today, various communities follow differing practices.
Some Haredim (strictly Orthodox), who do not recognise the religious significance of the State of Israel, do not observe Yom Yerushalayim. Rabbi Moshe Feinstein maintained that adding holidays to the Jewish calendar was itself problematic.
Support and opposition
On Jerusalem Day (1992), the Jerusalem Convention was signed, declaring the State of Israel's loyalty to the city.
On Yom Yerushalayim 5755 (1995) at the Ammunition Hill ceremony, Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin, the chief of staff in the Six-Day War, expressed his allegiance to a unified Jerusalem, in a statement that came in response to the Right's claims that the Oslo plan would divide Jerusalem and build Highway 1 The seam line and between East and West Jerusalem, is in effect a declaration of the government's intention to set the border there.
Some elements of the left and of the Arab public in the State of Israel regard Jerusalem Day as a day marking the conquest of Judea, Samaria and the Gaza Strip, with the power[clarification needed] involved in their opinion. In 2014, the Meretz political party submitted a bill to repeal the Jerusalem Day Law.
There has been controversy pertaining to the celebration of Jerusalem Day. The settlement of Eastern Jerusalem and the claim of Jerusalem as a capital for the State of Israel is controversial among the left wing and the Arab population of Jerusalem. One of the celebrations marking Jerusalem Day is a youth parade with flags known as Dance of Flags, which begins at Gan Sacher, winds through the streets of downtown Jerusalem, threads through the old city and ends with a gathering for a final prayer at the Western Wall.[clarification needed] The parade is controversial, and violent interactions have been reported between Arabs and Israeli youth during the procession.
In May 2015, the Israeli High Court of Justice rejected a petition to prevent the Jerusalem Day parade from marching through the Muslim sector of the city. The justices said, however, that police must arrest parade participants who shout racist and violent epithets such as "Death to the Arabs!" or commit violent acts.
Ethiopian Jews' Memorial Day
A ceremony is held on Yom Yerushalayim to commemorate the Ethiopian Jews who perished on their way to Eretz Israel. In 2004, the Israeli government decided to turn this ceremony into a state ceremony held at the memorial site for Ethiopian Jews who perished on their way to Israel on Mount Herzl.
- "Dates for Jerusalem Day". Hebcal.com by Danny Sadinoff and Michael J. Radwin (CC-BY-3.0). Retrieved 26 August 2018.
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 7 December 2015. Retrieved 29 November 2015.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- Adele Berlin (2011). "Yom Yerushalayim". The Oxford Dictionary of the Jewish Religion. Oxford University Press. p. 803. ISBN 978-0-19-973004-9.
- "Yom Yerushalayim – Jerusalem Day". Jewish Virtual Library. Retrieved 29 September 2016.
- "The Palestinian Academic Society for the Study of International Affairs (PASSIA)". passia.org. Archived from the original on 3 March 2016. Retrieved 29 September 2016.
- "A New Ruin Rising". The Forward. 7 November 2007. Retrieved 29 September 2016.
- Alan M. Dershowitz, The Case for Israel, p.93
- "Prime Minister speech". pmo.gov.il. Retrieved 29 September 2016.
- "Knesset speeches". knesset.gov.il. Retrieved 29 September 2016.
- 40th Anniversary of the Reunification of Jerusalem, Israeli Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 16 May 2007
- "Jerusalem Day". The Knesset.
- "My Jewish Learning: Yom Yerushalayim".
- Gideon Aran (19 May 1988). "Mystic-Messianic Interpretation of Modern Israeli History: The Six Day War as a Key Event in the Development of the Original Religious Culture of Gush Emunim". In Jonathan Frankel; Peter Y. Medding; Ezra Mendelsohn (eds.). Studies in Contemporary Jewry : Volume IV: The Jews and the European Crisis, 1914–1921: Volume IV: The Jews and the European Crisis, 1914–1921. Oxford University Press, USA. p. 269. ISBN 978-0-19-505113-1.
- "Yom Yerushalayim (Jerusalem Day) in Israel". TimeAndDate.com. Retrieved 29 September 2016.
- "Yad Sarah helping wheelchair-bound residents celebrate Jerusalem Day with tour on wheels – Business & Innovation – Jerusalem Post". jpost.com. Retrieved 29 September 2016.
- United Jerusalem: Excitement ahead of 50th anniversary.
- United Jerusalem. Cabinet minister Miri Regev Jubilee logo, with motifs reflecting on King David, the Six Day War and the "Jerusalem of Gold" song written by Naomi Shemer.
- City of David unveils latest groundbreaking archeological discovery to mark Jubilee Year Jerusalem Post
- Thoughts from the Union of Orthodox Rabbis on Jerusalem Day 2017
- Christian Friends of Israel – Jerusalem, 50th Anniversary of the Reunification of Jerusalem Day Public
- City Mouse list of Special Events for Jerusalem Day 2017
- Jerusalem Municipality Archived 29 May 2017 at the Wayback Machine Special events for Jerusalem Day
- Jerusalem Day Celebrating the 50th Anniversary in Jerusalem: A Musical-Theatrical Experience in the Citadel
- "גבעת התחמושת- אתר לאומי Ammunition Hill – Home". facebook.com. Retrieved 28 April 2017.
- Michael Feige (2009). "Space, Place, and Memory in Gush Emunim Ideology". Settling in the Hearts: Jewish Fundamentalism in the Occupied Territories. Wayne State University Press. p. 56. ISBN 978-0-8143-2750-0.
Although part of Israeli secular calendar, it has lost almost all meaning for most Israelis. Attempts to revive the day for the Israeli general public have failed miserably.
- Meron Benvenisti (2007). "Jerusalemites". Son of the Cypresses: Memories, Reflections, and Regrets from a Political Life. University of California Press. pp. 91–92. ISBN 978-0-520-93001-8.
It is an expression of Jewish antagonism and xenophobia, a chance to hold arcane ceremonies of allegiance and to nurture nationalistic and religious myths. As it grows more routine, the day is drowning in a deep yawn of boredom; perhaps it is no coincidence that the only secular groups that celebrate in the streets of Jerusalem – other than religious zealots on parade – are members of the "pioneer" communities, the kibbutzim and moshavim.
- Rabbi Adin Steinsaltz (2011). "Jerusalem Day, Nowadays". Change & Renewal: The Essence of the Jewish Holidays, Festivals & Days of Remembrance. The Toby Press/KorenPub. p. 289. ISBN 978-1-59264-322-6.
At its inception, Jerusalem Day was a glorious day. This feeling was to a great extent bound up with the Six Day War and its outcome, which for a while produced an exalted feeling of release from dread and anxiety to liberation, well-being, and greatness. Over the years, however, the aura of the day has dimmed.
- Eva Etzioni-Halevy (2002). The Divided People: Can Israel's Breakup be Stopped?. Lexington Books. p. 88. ISBN 978-0-7391-0325-8.
In the first years after the 1967 war, and the reunification of Jerusalem, this was a holiday for virtually all parts of the nation. [...] Today, as Jerusalem's symbolic value for many of the secular has been flagging, this transformation has been reflected also in the celebration of this day: fewer and fewer secular people still observe the occasion, and it has turned into a festive day of symbolic significance for the religious.
- Judy Lash Balint (2001). Jerusalem Diaries: In Tense Times. Gefen Publishing House Ltd. p. 176. ISBN 978-965-229-271-1.
Today, the day commemorating the 34th anniversary of the reunification of Jerusalem was observed by a shrinking portion of the population. [...] Yom Yerushalayim was celebrated mainly by the national religious community. This was apparent at events all over the city. [...] Clearly a majority of those taking part were observant. This was the day of the knitted kipa. It seems that secular Israelis ave tired of expressions of nationalism.
- Rabbi Ariel, Yakov. "Hallel on Yom Yerushalayim". yeshiva.co. Retrieved 14 April 2013.
- Marc Angel (1997). Exploring the thought of Rabbi Joseph B. Soloveitchik. KTAV Publishing House, Inc. p. 11. ISBN 978-0-88125-578-2. Retrieved 8 May 2013.
- Should one recite Hallel on Jerusalem Day?, Shlomo Brody, Jerusalem Post, 17 May 2012.
- Jewish Affairs. South African Jewish Board of Deputies. 1998. p. 41. Retrieved 8 May 2013.
Yet the attitude of the Adath, and indeed of all the Strictly Orthodox congregations, towards Israel and Zionism is paradoxical. On the one hand, events like Yom Ha-Atzma’ut, Yom Ha-Zikaron and Yom Yerushalayim are ignored….
- Tzvi Rabinowicz (February 1997). A world apart: the story of the Chasidim in Britain. Vallentine Mitchell. p. 218. ISBN 978-0-85303-261-8. Retrieved 8 May 2013.
Although all Chasidim love Zion, they do not approve Zionism. They do not celebrate Yom Atzmaut (Israel's Independence Day), or Yom Yerushalayim (the annual commemoration of the liberation of Jerusalem).
- Journal of Halacha and Contemporary Society. Yeshiva Rabbi Jacob Joseph School. 1994. p. 61. Retrieved 8 May 2013.
- "Mahzor for Yom HaAtzma'ut". Koren Publishers. Koren Publishers.
- Yishai Friedman, Students Against Jerusalem: "Legitimizing the Occupation," 4 April 2013, NRG
- Jonathan Liss, Meretz demands canceling the definition of Jerusalem Day as a "national holiday," Ha'aretz, 27 May 2014. The text of the bill is on the Knesset website.
- ‘Go to Hell, Leftist’ and Other Jerusalem Day Slogans The Jewish Daily Forward, 29 May 2014
- High Court allows Jerusalem Day parade to march through Muslim Quarter Haaretz, 11 May 2015. "In recent years, the parade has been characterized by numerous acts of racism and violence against Arabs, as well as damage to property at the hands of marchers."
- Ceremony marking the memory of the Ethiopian Jews who perished on their way to Israel, Decision No. 1425 of the 30th Government of Israel, 2004, on the website of the Prime Minister's Office.
- "Paying tribute to Ethiopian Jews who didn't make it – Israel News – Jerusalem Post". jpost.com. Retrieved 29 September 2016.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Yom Yerushalayim.|
- "Overview: Jerusalem Day". Retrieved 27 May 2006.
- Education week 9–13.5 – 43rd Jerusalem Day
- Jerusalem Day on the official Knesset website
- Hebrew broadcast of the conquering of the Old City, from Voice of Israel Radio, 7 June 1967
- Overview: Yom Yerushalayim (Jerusalem Day) in My Jewish Learning website
- "Jerusalem in International Diplomacy" from the Jerusalem Center for Public Affairs