Jerome "Jerry" Mouse is a fictional character and one of the two titular main protagonists (the other being Tom Cat) in Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer's series of Tom and Jerry theatrical animated short films. Created by William Hanna and Joseph Barbera, Jerry is a brown mute anthropomorphic house mouse, who first appeared as a mouse named Jinx in the 1940 MGM animated short Puss Gets the Boot. Hanna gave the mouse's original name as "Jinx", while Barbera claimed the mouse went unnamed in his first appearance.
|Tom and Jerry character|
|Created by||William Hanna|
|Designed by||Harvey Eisenberg (1940–1953)|
Richard Bickenbach (1953–1958)
William Hanna (1940–1958, 2014–present)
Sara Berner (1943–1945)
Harry E. Lang (1944–1946)
Paul Frees (1951, 1956)
Daws Butler (1957)
Allen Swift (1961–1962)
Gene Deitch (1961–1962)
Mel Blanc (1963–1967, 2021)
Terence Monk (1964)
June Foray (1965–1967, 2021)
Chuck Jones (1965–1967)
Abe Levitow (1966–1967)
Dale McKennon (1967)
John Stephenson (1975)
Lou Scheimer (1980)
Frank Welker (1990–1993, 2001, 2021)
Dana Hill (1992)
Alan Marriott (2000–2002)
Marc Silk (2002)
Dee Bradley Baker (2005)
Spike Brandt (2005–2017)
Sam Vincent (2006–2008)
Rich Danhakl (2014–2021)
André Sogliuzzo (2021)
|Full name||Jerome Mouse|
Tom and Jerry cartoonsEdit
The name "Jerry" was chosen by Geraint Rowlands, who submitted "Tom and Jerry" as potential names for the duo after an important Loews Inc. distributor in Texas asked for follow-ups to Puss Gets the Boot. While the idea of a cat-and-mouse duo was considered shopworn by the 1940s, Hanna and Barbera decided to expand upon the standard expected cat and mouse relationship. Instead of being a "cowering victim" of Tom, he took delight in besting, and even torturing, his feline frenemy (even if Tom is just following orders or is even just minding his own business and is antagonized by Jerry). Hanna and Barbera considered Tom and Jerry "the best of enemies", whose rivalry hid an unspoken amount of mutual caring and respect for one another. Jerry is also mute like Tom as well.
In later Tom and Jerry cartoons, Jerry acquired a young ward: a small grey mouse called "Tuffy" or "Nibbles" depending upon the cartoon, who was left on Jerry's doorstep as a foundling baby in the 1946 short The Milky Waif. Jerry and Tuffy were also featured together in a sub-series of Tom and Jerry cartoons set in 17th century France which featured the characters as musketeers. The first of these shorts, The Two Mouseketeers, won the 1951 Academy Award for Best Short Subject: Cartoons.
Hanna and Barbera served as writer/directors of the Tom and Jerry cartoons until 1956, when they also became the producers. Fourteen Tom and Jerry cartoons between 1940 and 1954 were nominated for the Academy Award for Best Short Subject: Cartoons, with seven of the shorts winning that award.:32 MGM shut down its animation department in 1957, but new Tom and Jerry cartoons were produced by Gene Deitch and later Chuck Jones during the 1960s. Jerry would also appear in later Tom and Jerry productions made for television, a series of direct-to-video features, and Tom and Jerry: The Movie, a 1992 theatrical film. Later productions eschewed much of the violence the 1940s and 1950s shorts were known for, and in several of the television shows Jerry was given a red bowtie and a kinder disposition in Tom & Jerry Kids. 
Tom and Jerry aren't always enemies; they have been known to team up on occasion. The first Tom and Jerry short/film that Jerry was in is Puss Gets the Boot, and the last is The Karate Guard, the 163rd Tom and Jerry film. Jerry has been on the Tom and Jerry film series from 1940 to present.
On his own, Jerry Mouse appears in a fantasy sequence in the 1945 Gene Kelly MGM musical film Anchors Aweigh. Jerry appears as the ruler of a kingdom where music is banned because he feels he lacks talent, and Kelly persuades the mouse into performing a song-and-dance number with him. Kelly and MGM had originally wanted Walt Disney's Mickey Mouse as Kelly's dance partner for the sequence, but Disney was unwilling to license the character.
Hanna and Barbera achieved the effect of Kelly dancing with Jerry by rotoscoping: live-action plates of Kelly dancing alone were shot first, and the action traced frame by frame so that Jerry's movements would match. The success of the animated segment of Anchors Aweigh, which was noted as "stealing the show" in contemporary trade reviews, led to two more live-action/animated projects for Hanna and Barbera and MGM: an underwater ballet sequence featuring both Tom and Jerry in Esther Williams' 1953 film Dangerous When Wet, and the "Sinbad the Sailor" sequence of Kelly's 1956 film Invitation to the Dance.
Tom & Jerry KidsEdit
In 1990, this version of Jerry wears a red bowtie, and has a tuft of hair on his head. He often taunts Tom (as a kitten) any chance he gets. Sometimes, in a few episodes, he is friends with/allies of Tom.
- William Hanna: Vocal effects in the Hanna-Barbera era (1940–1958) shorts and speaking in The Lonesome Mouse and Part-Time Pal, Tom and Jerry: Shiver Me Whiskers (archival recordings from classic shorts), The Tom and Jerry Show (2014 TV series) (archival recordings from classic shorts), Tom & Jerry (2021 film) (archival recordings from classic shorts) and Tom and Jerry Special Shorts (2021 series) (archival recordings from classic shorts)
- Sara Berner: Baby Puss vocal effects, speaking in The Zoot Cat, speaking and singing voice for Jerry in Anchors Aweigh, screaming in The Tom and Jerry Show (2014 TV series) episode "Pranks for Nothing" (archive recording from Baby Puss)
- Harry E. Lang: excited screaming in The Million Dollar Cat (reused from The Alley Cat), happy screaming in Springtime for Thomas (reused from The Alley Cat) and The Tom and Jerry Show (2014 TV series) (archival recordings from classic shorts)
- Lillian Randolph (voice of Mammy Two Shoes): when Jerry and Tuffy disguise to fool Tom in the 1946 short: The Milky Waif
- Paul Frees: speaking in His Mouse Friday and Blue Cat Blues
- Daws Butler: speaking in Mucho Mouse
- Allen Swift: vocal effects in the Gene Deitch era (1961-1962) shorts
- Gene Deitch: vocal effects in the Gene Deitch era (1961–1962) shorts
- Mel Blanc: vocal effects in the Chuck Jones era (1963–1967) shorts and Tom & Jerry (2021 film)
- Terence Monk: singing in The Cat Above and the Mouse Below
- June Foray: vocal effects in the Chuck Jones era (1965–1967) shorts, Boomerang UK and Ireland bumper (archival recording from I'm Just Wild About Jerry) and Tom & Jerry (2021 film)
- Chuck Jones: vocal effects in the Chuck Jones era (1965–1967) shorts
- Walker Edmiston: Mattel Tom and Jerry Talking Hand Puppet
- Abe Levitow: vocal effects in the Chuck Jones era (1966–1967) shorts
- Dale McKennon: singing in Cat and Dupli-cat
- John Stephenson: The Tom and Jerry Show (1975 TV series)
- Lou Scheimer: The Tom and Jerry Comedy Show
- Frank Welker: vocal effects in Tom & Jerry Kids, Tom and Jerry: The Magic Ring and Tom & Jerry (2021 film)
- Dana Hill: speaking, non-speaking and singing in Tom and Jerry: The Movie
- Jeff Bergman: Cartoon Network Latin America bumper
- Alan Marriott: Tom and Jerry in Fists of Furry and Tom and Jerry in War of the Whiskers
- Marc Silk: Tom and Jerry in War of the Whiskers (as Monster Jerry)
- Dee Bradley Baker: Tom and Jerry: Blast Off to Mars and Tom and Jerry: The Fast and the Furry
- Spike Brandt: The Karate Guard, Tom and Jerry: A Nutcracker Tale, Tom and Jerry Meet Sherlock Holmes, Tom and Jerry and the Wizard of Oz, Tom and Jerry: Robin Hood and His Merry Mouse, Tom and Jerry's Giant Adventure, Tom and Jerry: The Lost Dragon, Tom and Jerry: Spy Quest, Tom and Jerry: Back to Oz, and Tom and Jerry: Willy Wonka and the Chocolate Factory
- Samuel Vincent: Tom and Jerry Tales
- Rich Danhakl: The Tom and Jerry Show (2014 TV series)
- Rick Zieff: speaking in Spike's voice in The Tom and Jerry Show (2014 TV series) episode "Cat-astrophic Failure"
- André Sogliuzzo: Tom & Jerry (2021 film)
Jerry has had a number of voice actors over the years. Ever since his debut in Puss Gets the Boot his vocal effects were provided by co-creator William Hanna during the Hanna-Barbera era. Sara Berner also did vocal effects for Jerry in the short Baby Puss (1943) and voiced him in the short The Zoot Cat (1944), as well as Anchors Aweigh (1945) in a dance sequence with him and Gene Kelly. Harry E. Lang did Jerry's excited screams in The Million Dollar Cat (1944) and Springtime for Thomas (1946). A sequence in the short The Milky Waif (1946) features Jerry and Nibbles disguising themselves as a pair of black people, in which the former is voiced by Lillian Randolph (same voice as Mammy Two Shoes). Paul Frees did Jerry's speaking voice in the shorts His Mouse Friday (1951) and Blue Cat Blues (1956). Daws Butler did Jerry's voice in the short Mucho Mouse (1957). When the MGM cartoon studio shut down in 1957 and Gene Deitch and European animation studio Rembrandt Studio took over, he and Allen Swift did Jerry's voice during the 1961–62 era. During the Chuck Jones era in 1963–1967, his voice was provided by Mel Blanc, June Foray, Chuck Jones and Abe Levitow. Terence Monk did his voice in the short The Cat Above and the Mouse Below (1964) and Dale McKennon did Jerry's singing voice in Cat and Dupli-cat (1967). In The Tom and Jerry Show (1975), Jerry was voiced by John Stephenson. Lou Scheimer voiced him in The Tom and Jerry Comedy Show (1980–1982). Frank Welker voiced him in Tom and Jerry Kids (1990–1993) and Tom and Jerry: The Magic Ring (2002). Dana Hill voiced Jerry in Tom and Jerry: The Movie (1992).
Other voice actors include Jeff Bergman in a Cartoon Network Latin America bumper, Alan Marriott in Tom and Jerry in Fists of Furry (2000) and Tom and Jerry in War of the Whiskers (2002), Marc Silk in Tom and Jerry in War of the Whiskers (2002; as Monster Jerry), Dee Bradley Baker in Tom and Jerry: Blast Off to Mars (2005) and Tom and Jerry: The Fast and the Furry (2005), Spike Brandt in The Karate Guard (2005), Tom and Jerry: A Nutcracker Tale (2007), Tom and Jerry Meet Sherlock Holmes (2010), Tom and Jerry and the Wizard of Oz (2011), Tom and Jerry: Robin Hood and His Merry Mouse (2012), Tom and Jerry's Giant Adventure (2013), Tom and Jerry: The Lost Dragon (2014), Tom and Jerry: Spy Quest (2015), Tom and Jerry Back to Oz (2016), and Tom and Jerry: Willy Wonka and the Chocolate Factory (2017), Sam Vincent in Tom and Jerry Tales (2006-2008). In The Tom and Jerry Show (2014 TV series), Jerry's vocal effects are provided by the show's sound designer Rich Danhakl and archival recordings of William Hanna and Harry E. Lang from the original theatrical shorts. In Tom & Jerry (2021 film), his voice was provided by André Sogliuzzo, Frank Welker and archived recordings of William Hanna, Mel Blanc and June Foray.
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- Hanna, William (2000). A Cast of Friends. Da Capo Press. pp. 39–46. ISBN 978-0-306-80917-0.
- Hanna, William (2000). A Cast of Friends. Da Capo Press. p. 20. ISBN 978-0-7864-0728-6.
- Barbera, Joe (1994). My Life in 'Toons: From Flatbush to Bedrock in Under a Century. Atlanta, GA: Turner Publishing. p. 96. ISBN 978-1-57036-042-8.
- Maltin, Leonard (1987) . Of Mice and Magic: A History of American Animated Cartoons. New York: Plume. pp. 303–304. ISBN 978-0-452-25993-5.
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- Maltin, Leonard (1987) . Of Mice and Magic: A History of American Animated Cartoons. New York: Plume. pp. 306–309. ISBN 978-0-452-25993-5.
- Albin Krebbs (February 3, 1996). "Gene Kelly, Dancer of Vigor and Grace, Dies". NY Times. Retrieved 2010-05-13.
- Hanna, William (2000). A Cast of Friends. Da Capo Press. pp. 61–64. ISBN 978-0-306-80917-0.
- Barbera, Joe (1994). My Life in 'Toons: From Flatbush to Bedrock in Under a Century. Atlanta, GA: Turner Publishing. pp. 97–98. ISBN 978-1-57036-042-8.
- Webb, Graham (2000). The animated film encyclopedia: a complete guide to American shorts, features and sequences 1900-197. McFarland. pp. 45–50. ISBN 978-0-306-80917-0.
- Grimes, William (April 27, 2010). "Allen Swift, Voice Actor for Radio and TV, Dies at 86". The New York Times.
- "Tom & Jerry – The Gene Deitch Collection". Retrieved 2020-10-24.
- "Boomerang Nordic Animated Indents 2010". YouTube. Retrieved February 27, 2021.
- "Vintage 1965 Talking Pull String Tom and Jerry Hand Puppet by Mattel". YouTube. Retrieved February 2, 2021.
- McBride, Joseph (October 2, 1992), "Review of Tom and Jerry: The Movie", Variety, 42: 34–56
- "Voice of Jerry Mouse in Cartoon Network". Behind The Voice Actors. Retrieved 2020-11-15.
- "André Sogliuzzo on Twitter: "Though he doesn't say much, I am proud to announce I was able to voice in some small way, Jerry: The second most iconic mouse in all of animation! Now wreaking havoc in Tom & Jerry on HBO Max!"". Twitter. Retrieved March 21, 2021.
- Hill, Jim. "Storyboards reveal what Marvin Acme's funeral in "Who Framed Roger Rabbit" would have looked like". jimhillmedia.com. Retrieved 3 August 2019.