Jean de Lattre de Tassigny
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Jean Joseph Marie Gabriel de Lattre de Tassigny, GCB, MC (French: [ʒɑ̃ də latʁ də tasiɲi]; 2 February 1889 – 11 January 1952) was a notable French military commander during World War I and even more so in World War II and the First Indochina War. Jean de Lattre de Tassigny was posthumously promoted to Marshal of France.
| Jean de Lattre de Tassigny
Général de Lattre in 1946
|Birth name||Jean Joseph Marie Gabriel de Lattre de Tassigny|
|Nickname(s)||Le Roi Jean ("King John")|
|Born||2 February 1889
|Died||11 January 1952 (aged 62)
Free French Forces
|Years of service||1911–1952|
|Rank||Marshal of France (posthumous)
|Battles/wars||World War I
World War II
First Indochina War
|Awards||Grand Cross of the Legion of Honor|
|Relations||Bernard de Lattre de Tassigny|
An officer during World War I, he was engaged notably in combat on various fronts, including Verdun while being wounded five consecutive times and endured the war finishing with 8 citations, the Légion d'honneur and the Military Cross.
At the debut of World War II, from May to June 1940, the youngest Général of France led his division during the Battle of France, making front at the battles of Rethel, Champagne-Ardenne, and Loire and carried on till the Armistice of 22 June 1940.
During the Vichy Regime, he remained in the Armistice Army, where he occupied command posts at the regional echelons, then as commander-in-chief of troops in Tunisia. Commander of the 16th Militay Division at Montpellier, during the invasion of the free zone by the Germans, following the disembarking of Allied forces in North Africa, on 11 November 1942, he was arrested for having refused the orders not to fight and, the only active général to do so, he commanded his troops to oppose the invaders. Nevertheless, he managed to escape and rallied Free France at end of 1943.
Following his rallying to Charles de Gaulle, he was one of the grand commander-in-chiefs of the Liberation Army from 1943 to 1945 who illustrated his leadership at the head of the Army which following the disembarking of 15 August 1944, led the successful campaign battles including Rhin et Danube. He was the only French general of World War II to command large numbers of American troops, when the US XXI Corps was attached to his First Army during the battle of the Colmar Pocket.
Commander-in-Chief of French Forces in Germany in 1945, then Inspector Général of the French Army (French: Inspection générale des armées,) and General Headquarters of National Defence (French: Chef d'État-Major général de la Défense nationale) in 1947, he was the vice-president of the superior war council. From 1948 to 1950 with Field Marshal Montgomery, he was the first commander-in-chief of Ground Forces in Western Europe.
In 1951, he was the High Commissioner, commander-in-chief in Indochina and commander-in-chief of the French Far East Expeditionary Corps, winning several battles against the Viet Cong though his only son was killed, then illness forced him to return to Paris where he died of cancer in 1952.
He was elevated to the dignity of Marshal of France posthumously in 1952 during his national funeral.
From 1898 to 1904, he prepared for the French Naval School (French: École navale) and Saint-Cyr, where he was received accordingly in 1908. He was a candidate in Saint-Cyr from 1909 to 1911 in the "Mauritanie" promotion where he ranked 5th in his class. Then, he entered the cavalry school at Saumur.
World War IEdit
In 1912, he was a sous-lieutenant assigned to the 12th Dragoon Regiment (French: 12e Régiment de Dragons). He was wounded for the first time on 11 August 1914, by a shrapnel munition blast during a reconnaissance mission. On 14 September, he was wounded again from a lance coming from an Uhlan while leading the charge of his dragoon platoon. Weakened by his wound, he was saved from captivity by an officer of the 5th Hussard Regiment (French: 5e Régiment de Hussards).
In 1915, he was promoted to captain in the 93rd Infantry Division (French: 93e Régiment d'Infanterie) and engaged in the Battle of Verdun for 16 months enduring 5 wounds, for which he received 8 citations, the Légion d'honneur (20 December 1914) and the Military Cross. Consequently, he was then assigned to the 2nd bureau of general staff headquarters of the 21st Infantry Division (French: 21e division d'infanterie (France)).
In 1919, he was assigned to the Franco-American section at Bordeaux, then to the 49th Infantry Regiment (French: 49e Régiment d'Infanterie) at Bayonne. From 1921 to 1926, he was posted in Morocco and took part in various battles, where he was wounded, received three citations and was promoted to the rank of Chef de battaillon (major).
From 1927 to 1929, he took further courses at the War College, where he was awarded the ceremonial promotion of chief of the graduation class. In 1928, he was assigned to the 5th Infantry Regiment (French: 5e Régiment d'Infanterie).
In 1931, he was assigned to the bureau of the Chief of the Defence Staff (French: l'État-Major de l'Armée), post ranked as a Lieutenant-Colonel, he was assigned to the general headquarters staff of général Maxime Weygand. During this tenure, he was tasked mainly with following foreign international policies, internal politics and the challenges of complex military budgets initiatives. With the retirement of Weygand who had reached the age limit, he was carefully maintained in the general headquarters staff of général Alphonse Joseph Georges. In 1935, he was promoted to colonel and regimental commander of the 151st Infantry Regiment (French: 151e Régiment d'Infanterie). Between 1937 and 1938, he pursued courses at the centre for higher military studies and became in 1938, the headquarters staff chief of the military governor of Strasbourg.
World War IIEdit
Battle of FranceEdit
Promoted to Brigadier General on 22 March 1939, the youngest général of France, he was subsequently assigned as chief of the general headquarters staff of the 5th Army (French: 5e Armée), on 3 September 1939. In January 1940, he took command of the 14th Infantry Division (French: 14e Division d'Infanterie) making front confronting at Rethel and where his division resisted an entire month, repelling three times assaults in front of Aisne, continued to battle until Champagne-Ardenne, at Mourmelon, then unfolded leading delay combats on the Marne, Yvonne, Loire and Nevers. The division conserved military cohesion and unity in the middle of chaos and debacles. a German officer said that the French resistance was similar to the Battle of Verdun.
Army of VichyEdit
Following the Armistice of 22 June 1940, he remained in the Army of Vichy and from July 1940 to September 1941, he was the adjutant to the général commanding the 13th Military Division at Clermont-Ferrand and military commander of Puy-de-Dôme. During these profound complex times, de Lattre was instrumental in mustering cohesion, confidence and discipline. During this time he believed that the regime of Marshal Philippe Pétain defended the national interest and applied accordingly subsequent related directives. Interested in the youth, he enacted several field schools and a military instruction centres – built up by Alsatians and soldiers – with the purpose of producing quality officers and chiefs (French: produire des chefs) for an army apt for team work and to spread this experience across the board of the armistice army. Promoted général de division, he was the commander-in-chief of troops in the protectorate of Tunisia where he enacted another military instruction centre. Following the four-month deployment, from late September 1941 to 2 February 1942, he was recalled to France and was reassigned on 1 January 1942 after a dispute with his superior Alphonse Juin. Returning to France de Lattre took charge of the 16th Military Division, based in Montpellier. Following the Allied landings in French North Africa on 8 November 1942, Germany occupied southern France and disbanded the Vichy Army. As part of the occupation, de Lattre was arrested and imprisoned for several months, but he succeeded in escaping to London in September 1943 and joined the Free French. From there, he took command of the newly formed French Army B in summer 1944.
Rallying to de GaulleEdit
After managing his escape, he travelled to London and then Algiers, where he was promoted to the rank of général d'armée on 11 November 1943, by Charles de Gaulle. In December 1943, he commanded Army B which would become the French 1st Army on 25 September 1944, constituted of an amalgam realised on 31 July 1943, forming Free French Forces, the Army of Africa (French: Armée d'Afrique (France)) and volunteers. Loyal to his principles, he enacted a cadre training centre in Algiers. This army liberated the island of Elba on 17 and 19 June 1944.
As commander of Army B, he assisted in the preparations of Operation Dragoon with Allied Forces, who were linked to Operation Overlord, in Normandy. The expected forces were placed under the command of General Alexander Patch and had seven divisions of de Lattre (almost 256,000 men) and three US divisions, Special Forces and Airborne Forces of the US 7th Army.
With the US 6th and 7th Corps, de Lattre and his commanders, mainly générals Antoine Béthouart, Edgard de Larminat (replaced on 31 August 1944, by Joseph de Goislard de Monsabert) disembarked in Provence on 15 August 1944 and took part with French Forces of the Interior, F.F.I to the battles of Toulon on 27 August and Marseille on 29 August. The taking of these two sea ports augmented the capacity of receiving personnel and materials in relation to the Normandy front and brought forth a decisive advantage for the following series of combat engagement events at the Western Front.
The armies ascended to the Vallée du Rhône and liberated Saint-Étienne on 2 September, Lyon on 3 September and Mâcon, Chalon-sur-Saône, Beaune and Autun on 8 September.
By incorporating some of the French Forces of the Interior, de Lattre managed to notably increase his effective unit formations of 137,000 men to almost 400,000 men. From September 1944, the French Liberation Army (French: Armée Française de la Libération,) was an amalgam of the Armistice Army, the Free French Forces and the French Forces of the Interior (French: heureux amalgame de l'armée d'armistice, de la France libre et des Forces françaises de l'intérieur). His amalgam, in the straight lining formation of Army B, followed the formation in the French 1st Army with forces issued from the French Resistance and proved to be a success.
Battle of the BulgeEdit
After it completed the junction with the 2nd Armored Division, 2e D.B coming from Normandie, to Montbard, Aisey-sur-Seine and Nord-sur-Seine, near Dijon on 12 September 1944, the 1st Army participated from the beginning of October in the Battle of the Vosges (1944–1945) with the US 7th Army, took Montbéliard and Héricourt (Haute-Saône) on 17 November, then Gérardmer and reached the Rhine on 19 November, before all the Allied Forces. Then, the division liberated Mulhouse on 24 November and Belfort on 25 November.
The Battle of the Bulge (16 December 1944 – 30 January 1945) briefly halted the advance of the Allies and suggested a doubtful fate for Alsace and Strasbourg. For de Gaulle, the idea of relinquishing Alsace was not a feasible option, especially since Strasbourg had just been liberated by the 2nd Armored Division, 2e D.B of Philippe Leclerc de Hauteclocque on 23 November. de Lattre mainly shared the field with American, General Jacob L. Devers, commanding the US 6th Army Group, which had included the 1st Army since 1944. In the meantime, on 31 December, the Allies already encountered another counter-attack on Sarreguemines, Bitche and since Colmar, the French First Army responded to defend Strasbourg. The 1st Army maintained positions around the city despite heavy losses.
Following his request for reinforcement on 19 January 1945, General Devers placed 4 US divisions of the XXI American Corps of general Frank W. Milburn under the orders of général de Lattre making of him the only French general of World War II to command United States units. The army of de Lattre participated then on 20 January in the reduction of the Colmar Pocket. The city was liberated on 9 February 1945.
De Lattre had reached the Rhine in the previous autumn, in November 1944, and the 1st Army crossed the Siegfried Line during the Battle of the Palatine on 19 March. 1945. On 31 March 1945, the French Army crossed the Rhine at Speyer and Germersheim and advanced through the Black Forest and to Karlsruhe and Stuttgart while enduring heavy combat losses. The army of de Lattre advanced on Sigmaringen, taken by the French on 22 April, and then Ulm on the Danube on 24 April; it reached the Swiss border at Basel. The campaign called Rhin et Danube was completed in Austria after the army engaged the German 25th Army in Bregenz, Austria, and advance through to Bludenz and Landeck.
On 8 May 1945, de Lattre was in Berlin at the general headquarters staff of Marshal Zhukov.
From 31 March 1945, to 27 May 1947, de Lattre was the commander-in-chief of French Forces in Germany. On 17 June 1945, he welcomed the Normandie-Niemen squadron back to France. Between December 1945 and March 1947, he was the Inspector Général of the French Army (French: Inspection Générale des Armées,) and General Headquarters of National Defence (French: Chef d'État-Major général de la Défense nationale), vice-president of the superior war council while being maintained as inspector general of the Army and then inspector general of the Armed Forces. From October 1948 to December 1950, with Field Marshal Montgomery, he was the first commander-in-chief of Western Union Defence Organisation ground forces in Western Europe. He bickered considerably with Montgomery while in the post.
From October to November 1947, he led a diplomatic and economic mission to South America where he held numerous talks with presidents from Argentina, Chile, Uruguay, and Brazil and high-ranking ministers in the respective countries including French communities. He also engaged in several related conferences.
From 1950 to September 1951, he commanded French troops in French Indochina during the First Indochina War. He was highly regarded by both his French subordinates and Viet Minh adversaries and has been described as the "Gallic version of [United States General Douglas] MacArthur – handsome, stylish, sometimes charming, yet egocentric to the point of megalomania" and "brilliant and vain" and "flamboyant". After de Lattre's arrival in Vietnam, Viet Minh General Giap proclaimed that his army would face "an adversary worthy of its steel".
De Lattre's arrival raised the morale of French troops significantly and inspired his forces to inflict heavy defeats on the Viet Minh. He won three major victories at Vinh Yen, Mao khé and Yen Cu Ha and defended successfully the north of the country against the Viet Minh.
At the Battle of Vinh Yen in January 1951, he defeated 2 Viet Minh divisions, with a total of 20,000 men under Giap by personally taking charge of the outnumbered French forces, flying in reinforcements and mustering every available aircraft to bomb the massive Vietminh formatio. Giap retreated after three fierce days of combat that killed 6,000 and wounded 8,000. De Lattre had anticipated Giap's attacks and had reinforced French defences with hundreds of cement blockhouses and new airfields.
In March 1951, at the Battle of Mao Khe near the port of Haiphong, de Lattre again defeated Giap, who had underestimated de Lattre's army's ability to deploy naval guns and to move reinforcements aboard assault boats on deep estuaries and canals.
However, de Lattre's only son, Bernard de Lattre de Tassigny, was killed in action during the war at the Battle for Nam Dinh, in late May 1951. He had obeyed his father to hold, at all costs, the town against three Viet Minh divisions. Three weeks of battle caused a victory that halted Giap's initiative in the Red River Delta.
On 20 September 1951, de Lattre spoke at the Pentagon to request American aid and warned of the danger of the spread of communism throughout Southeast Asia if northern Vietnam fell completely to the Viet Minh. However, the United States was preoccupied with the Korean War. The US sent de Lattre some transport planes and trucks and other equipment: a "significant contribution" but "scarcely enough to turn the tide for France" in Vietnam.
In 1951, illness forced de Lattre de Tassigny to return to Paris, where he later died of cancer. After his return to France, his successors, Raoul Salan and Henri Navarre, did not enjoy the same amount of success as de Lattre.
Marshal of FranceEdit
He was elevated to the dignity of Marshal of France by French President Vincent Auriol, on the day of his funeral procession, on 15 January 1952 at Notre Dame de Paris, Les Invalides in presence of Charles de Gaulle, Dwight David Eisenhower and Bernard Montgomery.
The dignity of the Marshal of France had not been bestowed since it was given to the victors of World War I; after de Tassigny, three générals were raised to this dignity: Alphonse Juin (1888–1967) (to next of kin), Philippe Leclerc de Hauteclocque (1902–1947) (posthumous), Pierre Kœnig (1898–1970) (posthumous).
He was buried in a state funeral lasting five days in what Life magazine described as the "biggest military funeral France had seen since the death of Marshal Foch in 1929". His body was conveyed through the streets of Paris in a series of funeral processions, with the coffin lying in state at four separate locations: his home, the chapel at Les Invalides, the Arc de Triomphe and before Notre Dame. Those marching in the funeral processions, following the gun carriage on which the coffin, covered with the French flag, was carried, included members of the French cabinet, judges, bishops and Western military leaders. The pallbearers included other Allied generals of World War II, such as Bernard Montgomery and Dwight Eisenhower.
The route included the Rue de Rivoli and the Champs-Élysées. The processions went from the Arc de Triomphe to Notre Dame and then from Notre Dame to Les Invalides. The stage of the journey from the Arc de Triomphe to Notre Dame took place in the evening, and cavalrymen from the Garde républicaine flanked the coffin on horseback bearing flaming torches.
Walking behind the soldiers marching in the funeral processions was the lone figure of the Marshal's widow, Simonne de Lattre de Tassigny, who was dressed in black and prayed as she walked. Thousands of people lined the funeral route, forming crowds that were ten-deep. The pageantry included the tolling of bells, and flags being flown at half-mast
The final stage of the funeral was a journey of 400 km to his birthplace of Mouilleron-en-Pareds, in western France. In attendance there was his 97-year-old father, Roger de Lattre. Aged and blind, he was the last of the de Lattres and ran his hands over the ceremonial accoutrements on the coffin, which included the posthumously-awarded marshal's baton and his son's képi.
Then, the coffin was lowered into the ground and the Marshal was laid to rest beside his only son, Bernard, who had been killed fighting under his father's command in Indochina about eight months earlier.
De Lattre was awarded the following awards and decorations:
- Companion of the Liberation (decree 20 November 1944)
- Médaille Militaire
- Croix de guerre 1914–1918 (3 palmes, 2 étoiles vermeil, 3 étoiles bronze)
- Croix de guerre 1939–1945 (8 palmes)
- Croix de guerre des Théatres d'Opérations Exterieures (3 palmes)
- Médaille des Evadés
- Gold Medal of Honor of Physical Education
- Gold Medal of Public Health
- Military Cross (UK)
- Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the Bath (UK)
- Distinguished Service Medal (US)
- Legion of Merit (US)
- Order of Suvorov, 1st class (USSR)
- Grand Officer of the Order of Leopold (Belgium)
- Croix de Guerre (Belgium)
- Grand Cross of the Order of the White Lion (Czechoslovakia)
- Czechoslovak War Cross (Czechoslovakia)
- Grand Cross of the Order of St Olav (Norway)
- Knight Grand Cross of the Order of Orange-Nassau (Netherlands)
- Commander's Cross of the Virtuti Militari (Poland)
- Cross of Grunwald, 1st class (Poland)
- Grand Cross of the Order of the Dannebrog (Denmark)
- Commander of the Brazilian Order of Merit
- Grand Cross of the Order of the Liberator General San Martin (Argentina)
- Order of Military Merit, white (Cuba)
- Medal of Military Merit (Mexico)
- Grand Cross of Order of Military Merit (Chile)
- Grand Cross of the Royal Order of Cambodia
- Grand Cross of the Order of the Million Elephants and the White Parasol (Laos)
- Sherefian Merit Medal (Morocco)
- Grand Cross of the Order of Ouissam Alaouite (Morocco)
- Grand Cross of the Order of Blood (Tunisia)
- Grand Cross of the Order of the Black Star (Benin)
Many memorials have been erected to his memory, including a stele erected in the countryside near Manziat, l'Aigle.
An annual military service, involving serving soldiers, veteran associations, and ceremonial carriage of the Marshal's baton, takes place at the graves of his family in his birthplace, Mouilleron-en-Pareds.
The 1951–1953 promotion of de l'École spéciale militaire de Saint-Cyr Coëtquidan bears his name.
Various institutions, squares, boulevards, avenues and streets bear his name:
- A garrison at Metz
- A public school at la Roche-sur-Yon
- A regional establishment for adapted formations at Opme (in Romagnat); an old cadres institution constructed by him from 1940 to 1941
- The Sports Complex de Lattre at Aubagne
- A Metro station in Paris
- A bridge on the Rhône in Lyon
- A bridge on the Rhône at Vienne
- A bridge on the Seine between Croissy-sur-Seine and Bougival
- A bridge on the Seine at Melun
- A bridge on the Seine at Châtillon-sur-Seine
- A former bridge on the Han River in Da Nang (Tourane), Vietnam built in 1951
- A dock at Saint-Dié-des-Vosges, as well as Bourges, at Sedan, at Manosque et at Sète
- a square in the 16th arrondissement of Paris; and squares in other cities and towns: Angers, Argentan, Auterive (Haute-Garonne), Besançon, Bizanos, Brive-la-Gaillarde, Brest, Carcassonne, Cavanac, Châteaumeillant, Chevilly-Larue, Colmar, Courcelles-Chaussy, Crémieu, Espéraza, Flers (Orne), Floing, Foulayronnes, Gagny, Gonesse, Hautmont, Jarny, La Crau, Lattes, Lavelanet, Le Thillot, Levallois-Perret, Les Herbiers, Libourne, Longwy, Maisons-Laffitte, Mantes-la-Jolie, Mollau, Montmorency (Val-d'Oise, Moulins, Mourenx, Nice, Pontarlier, Reims, Remiremont, Rethel, Roanne, Rouen, Saint-Andiol, Saint-Brevin-les-Pins, Saint-Maximin-la-Sainte-Baume, Sainte-Flaive-des-Loups, Sarlat-la-Canéda, Schiltigheim, Sélestat, Strasbourg, Thann, Trouville-sur-Mer, Vanves, Vétraz-Monthoux, Violaines, Vitry-le-François, Voiron
- Several boulevards: In the cities of Fontenay-le-Comte, Château-d'Olonne, Chaumont, Chenôve, Dijon, Évry, Haguenau, Narbonne, Rodez, Saint-Gilles-Croix-de-Vie, Suresnes
- Several avenues: In the cities of d'Aix-en-Provence, Amiens, Angoulême, Arras, Aulnay-sous-Bois, Bois-Colombes, Boissy-Saint-Léger, Bondy, Boulogne-Billancourt, Bordeaux, Cachan, Caen, Charenton-le-Pont, Choisy-le-Roi, Compiègne, Coulommiers (Seine-et-Marne), Créteil, Fécamp, Fontenay-sous-Bois, La Celle-Saint-Cloud, Le Pecq, Limoges, Marseille, Metz, Meudon, Moissac, Montereau-Fault-Yonne, Mont-Saint-Aignan, Montesson, Nancy, Niort, Orsay, Le Pont-de-Beauvoisin (Isère), Pontoise, Provins, Saint-Cloud, Saint-Denis, Saint-Rémy-de-Provence, Sannois, Savigny-sur-Orge, Senlis, Tarascon, Thiais, Toulouse, Troyes, Villecresnes, Villiers-sur-Marne
- Several streets: at Alfortville, Blanquefort (Gironde)|Blanquefort, Calais, Cambrai, Chalon-sur-Saône, Chambon-sur-Cisse, Chelles, Clermont-Ferrand, Clichy, Corbeil-Essonnes, Ermont, Élancourt, Le Chesnay, Le Havre, Laon, Lille, Louviers, Maisons-Alfort, Massy (Essonne), Nantes, Neuilly-sur-Marne, Neuilly-sur-Seine, Plivot, Pont-de-Vaux, Rueil-Malmaison, Saint-Germain-en-Laye, Sainte-Geneviève-des-Bois (Essonne), Sartrouville, Sens, Sucy-en-Brie, La Turballe, Versailles
- A grand alley at La Rochelle
- A roundabout at La Ciotat
- A square at Asnières
- A military garrison at Novo Selo in Kosovo since 2002
Marshal of France Jean de Lattre de Tassigny
- Lost Battalion (Europe, World War II)
- Marching Regiment of the Foreign Legion
- List of French paratrooper units
- Non-US recipients of US gallantry awards
- Pierre Segretain
- Rémy Raffalli
- Pierre Paul Jeanpierre
- Paul Arnaud de Foïard
- Hélie de Saint Marc
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Jean de Lattre de Tassigny.|
- Obituary: Simonne de Lattre de Tassigny, Douglas Johnson, The Guardian, Thursday 12 June 2003
- Clayton 1992, pp. 66–67.
- Karnow, Stanley. Vietnam: A History. New York: Viking Press; 1983. pp163, 185–6, 336.
- Karnow, Stanley. Vietnam: A History. New York: Viking Press; 1983. p185
- Karnow, Stanley. Vietnam: A History. New York: Viking Press; 1983. p163, 186, 695
- Karnow, Stanley. Vietnam: A History. New York: Viking Press; 1983.p186
- Karnow, Stanley. Vietnam: A History. New York: Viking Press; 1983. p186
- Karnow, Stanley. Vietnam: A History. New York: Viking Press; 1983.p187
- Karnow, Stanley. Vietnam: A History. New York: Viking Press; 1983. p187
- Destiny is too hard, Life 28 January 1952, page 20
- "Jean de Lattre de Tassigny". Biographies des Compagnons de la Libération. Museee de L'Ordre de la Libération. Retrieved 11 July 2015.
- "Diário Oficial da União (DOU) • 29/10/1947 • Seção 1 • Pg. 3". JusBrasil. Retrieved 11 July 2015.
- Les manifestations – Mouilleron en Pared : Cerémonie de Lattre, le site de l'Union Nationale des Combattants de Vendée. Retrieved 17 January 2010
- "TOURANE – PONT MARÉCHAL-DE-LATTRE-DE-TASSIGNY (PUBLICITÉ DANS UNE REVUE DE 1953) – Trước 1975 là cầu Trịnh Minh Thế, tại Đà Nẵng". Flickr. Retrieved 22 September 2017.