Jarabulus (Arabic: جَرَابُلُس / ALA-LC: Jarābulus, Aleppo dialect: Jrāblos; Turkish: Cerablus) is a Syrian city administratively belonging to Aleppo Governorate, under the de-facto control of the Syrian Opposition. Jarabulus lies on the western bank of the river Euphrates. In the 2004 census, the city had a population of 11,570. The population has increased significantly during the Syrian civil war.
Syrian Interim Government
|Elevation||367 m (1,204 ft)|
|Time zone||UTC+2 (EET)|
|• Summer (DST)||UTC+3 (EEST)|
In the Bronze and Iron Ages, the archaeological site lying just north of Jarabulus (half of which is now in Turkey) was called "Karkemish", in Greek and Roman times the ancient name of the city was "Europos" (Εὐρωπός), which must have been at the origin of the modern form of the toponym Jerabis.
The original 18th century form of the toponym seems to have been "Djerabis", later found however as "Djeraboolos" or "Djerablus", probably deriving from Hierapolis (modern-day Manbij, to the South-West).
Following the outbreak of the Syrian civil war, the Syrian opposition took it over, along with its border post with Turkey on July 20, 2012. However from early July 2013 the town was controlled by the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant. By January 2014, rebels mainly from the al-Tawhid Brigade engaged in clashes with ISIL and seized the town, but ISIL was able to recapture it within hours.
An article published by The Guardian said that attempts by the People's Protection Units (YPG) to capture Jarabulus were prevented by President Recep Tayyip Erdoğan, who, according to media reports, had threatened in 2015 to attack the YPG using Turkish Armed Forces if they moved against Jarabulus. This threat secured ISIL control of the town.
Operation Euphrates ShieldEdit
On 24 August 2016 around 4:00 AM (local time), Turkey-backed rebels and the Turkish Land Forces launched a military operation into Syria. The operation was supported by the Turkish Air Force along with US-led coalition aircraft in an attempt to clear a passage for the troops. By 24 August, Jarabulus and neighboring towns were captured by the Syrian National Army. The SNA, backed by Turkish tanks, then connected Jarablus to al-Rai to push ISIL forces away from the Turkish border.
On 6 September 2016, the Karkamış-based council of Jarabulus that had been constituted 2 years prior, accused Turkey of attempting to replace them with a newly formed council consisting of pro-Turkish Turkmen separatists. The Sultan Murad Division denied the accusations and accused the local council of being PYD "collaborators", although it did confirm forming a "council of elders" in the city. Harakat Nour al-Din al-Zenki's political leader Yasser Ibrahim al-Yusuf, son of the perpetrator of the Aleppo Artillery School massacre, also said that the city would be governed by a newly formed council.[better source needed] The head of the Syrian Interim Government based in Turkey, Jawad Abu Hatab, has met with the Jarabulus local council on the same day.[better source needed]
On 22 January 2017, 450 members of a police force trained and equipped by Turkey were deployed in Jarabulus. The Jarabulus police is headed by defected Syrian Army brigadier general Abdel Razaq Aslan.
Following the capture of Jarabulus by the Turkish Armed Forces from the Islamic State, children returned to school, but are learning Turkish as a foreign language instead of French. In October 2018, the Gaziantep University opened a vocational school in Jarabulus.
After the Turkish operation in August and September 2016, Turkish authorities planned the building of a three-kilometre (1.9-mile) cable from Karkamış to Jarabulus in order to restore electricity in the city, with two kilometres (1.2 miles) being in Syrian territory. The electricity and potable water will be provided for free to the residents of Jarabulus.
On 26 September, following the visits of Turkish officials from Gaziantep Municipality including its mayor, Jarabulus was connected to the Turkish electrical power grid. A former school in Jarabulus was turned into a hospital and started servicing and was seen with an official Turkish sign reading "Turkish Ministry of Health - Jarablus Hospital" with a flag of Turkey.
Jarabulus has a hot-summer Mediterranean climate (Köppen climate classification Csa), with influences of a continental climate during winter, hot dry summers, and cool wet and occasionally snowy winters. The average high temperature in January is 7.8 °C (46.0 °F) and the average high temperature in August is 38.1 °C (100.6 °F). The snow falls usually in January, February or December.
|Climate data for Jarabulus|
|Average high °C (°F)||8.0
|Average low °C (°F)||−1.2
|Average precipitation mm (inches)||71
|Average rainy days||12||8||6||4||4||1||0||0||1||3||5||10||54|
|Average snowy days||2.0||1.0||0||0||0||0||0||0||0||0||0||1.5||4.5|
|Average relative humidity (%)||75||67||60||56||42||40||35||35||44||47||55||74||53|
|Source: Weather Online, Weather Base, BBC Weather and My Weather 2|
- "2004 Census Data for Nahiya Jarabulus" (in Arabic). Syrian Central Bureau of Statistics. Also available in English: UN OCHA. "2004 Census Data". Humanitarian Data Exchange.
- "ARGUMENTS ON SAFE HAVENS IN SYRIA: RISKS, OPPORTUNITIES AND SCENARIOS FOR TURKEY" (PDF). ORSAM. CENTER FOR MIDDLE EASTERN STRATEGIC STUDIES. Archived from the original (PDF) on April 2012.
- Khalifa, Mustafa. "The impossible partition of Syria" (PDF). Thematic Studies. Arab Reform Initiative. Archived from the original (PDF) on December 27, 2013. Retrieved 27 December 2013.
- The Islamic State of Iraq and ash-Sham Expands Into Rural Northern Syria Joshualandis.com, 18 July 2013
- The secret jihadi smuggling route through Turkey CNN, 5 November 2013
- "Syrian rebels push Qaeda affiliate from northwest stronghold". Chicago Tribune (Reuters). 17 January 2014. Archived from the original on 18 January 2014.
- Graeber, David (18 November 2015). "Turkey could cut off Islamic State's supply lines. So why doesn't it?". The Guardian.
- Post, Washington (24 August 2016). "Syrian rebels backed by Turkish tanks capture key border stronghold from ISIL". National Post.
- "Jarablus and the local council". Yalla Souriya. 6 September 2016.
- "Free Syria Army withdraws from Jarablus bases, cites disagreements with separatists". Al-Masdar News. 6 September 2016. Archived from the original on 28 September 2020. Retrieved 8 September 2016.
- Postings, Robert (2018-02-07). "Free Syria Police: Creating Security and Stability". International Review. Retrieved 2019-11-03.
- Ashawi, Khalil (2017-01-24). "Hundreds of police trained by Turkey start work in northern Syria". Reuters. Retrieved 2020-05-03.
- "Turkey helps rebuild the liberated Syrian border town of Jarabulus". France 24. 2017-12-15. Retrieved 2019-11-03.
- "Erdogan approves 3 Turkish university campuses for northern Syria". www.rudaw.net. Retrieved 2019-11-03.
- "Turkey sends power lines into Syrian town cleared of IS". Middle East Eye. 8 September 2016.
- "Cerablus'ta atıl okul binası hastaneye dönüştürüldü". Anadolu Agency. 26 September 2016. Retrieved 27 September 2016.