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Japanese dissidence during the early Shōwa period

  (Redirected from Japanese resistance to the Empire of Japan in World War II)

Japanese dissidence during the early Shōwa period in World War II covers individual Japanese opponents to the militarist Empire of Japan before and during WWII.

Contents

Resistance before World War IIEdit

High Treason IncidentEdit

Shūsui Kōtoku, a Japanese anarchist, was critical of imperialism. He would write "Imperialism: The Specter of the Twentieth Century" in 1901.[1] In 1911, 12 people, including Shusui Kotoku, were executed for their involvement in the High Treason Incident, a failed plot to assassinate Emperor Meiji.[2] Also executed for involvement with the plot was Kanno Suga, an anarcho-feminist, and former common-law wife of Shusui.

Fumiko Kaneko and Park YeolEdit

Fumiko Kaneko was a Japanese anarchist who lived in Japanese occupied Korea. She, along with a Korean anarchist, Park Yeol, were accused of attempting to procure bombs from a Korean independence group in Shanghai.[3] Both of them were charged with plotting to assassinate members of the Japanese imperial family.[4]

 
A photograph of the Heimin-sha (Commoners' Society), who published the Heimin Shimbun

The Commoners' NewspaperEdit

The Heimin Shimbun (Commoners' Newspaper) was a socialist newspaper which served as the leading anti-war vehicle during the Russo-Japanese War. It was a weekly mouthpiece of the socialist Heimin-sha (Society of Commoners) The chief writers were Kotoku Shusui and Sakai Toshihiko. When the Heimin decried the high taxes caused by the war, Sakai was sentenced to two months in jail. When the paper published the Communist Manifesto, Kotoku was given five months in prison, and the paper was shut down.[5]

The Buddhist Anarcho-SocialistEdit

Uchiyama Gudō was a Sōtō Zen Buddhist priest and anarcho-socialist. He was one of a few Buddhist leaders who spoke out against Japanese Imperialism. Gudō was an outspoken advocate for redistributive land reform, overturning the Meiji emperor system, encouraging conscripts to desert en masse, and advancing democratic rights for all. He criticized Zen leaders who claimed that low social position was justified by karma and who sold abbotships to the highest bidder.[6]

After government persecution pushed the socialist and anti-war movements in Japan underground, Gudō visited Kōtoku Shūsui in Tokyo in 1908. He purchased equipment that would be used to set up a secret press in his temple. Gudō used the printing equipment to turn out popular socialist tracts and pamphlets as well as to publish some of his own work.[7] Uchiyama was executed, along with Kotoku, for their involvement with the attempted assassination of Emperor Meiji.[8] Uchiyama's priesthood was revoked when he was convicted, but it was restored in 1993 by the Soto Zen sect.[9]

Attempted assassination of HirohitoEdit

Daisuke Nanba, a Japanese student and communist, attempted to assassinate the Prince Regent Hirohito in 1924. Daisuke was outraged by the slaughter of Koreans and anarchists in the aftermath of the Great Kantō Earthquake in late 1923.[10] The dead included his partner, anarchist Sakae Ōsugi, feminist Noe Itō, and Ōsugi's six-year-old nephew, who were murdered by Masahiko Amakasu, the future head of the Manchukuo Film Association, a film production company based in the Japanese puppet state of Manchukuo. This event was known as the Amakasu incident.[11] Nanba was found guilty by the Supreme Court of Japan and hanged in November 1924.[12]

Osaka IncidentEdit

Hideko Fukuda was considered the "Joan of Arc" of the Freedom and People's Rights Movement in Japan during the 1880s.[13] She was also an editor of Sekai fujin (Women of the World), a socialist women's paper that Shūsui Kōtoku contributed articles to. In 1885, Fukuda was arrested for her involvement in the Osaka incident, a failed plan to supply explosives to Korean independence movements. This plan was designed to destabilize Korea and force a confrontation between China and Japan, leading to a revocation of the treaties between the two. Before the plan was able to be implemented, the police arrested the conspirators and confiscated the weapons before they could leave Japan for Korea.[14] Other participants in the plan included Oi Kentaro, another major figure of the Freedom and People's Rights Movement.[15]

Japanese political refugees in early 1900s AmericaEdit

The American West Coast, which had a large Japanese population, was a haven for Japanese political dissidents in the early 1900s. Many were refugees from the "Freedom and People's Rights Movement." San Francisco, and Oakland in particular, were teeming with such people. In 1907, an open letter addressed to "Mutsuhito, Emperor of Japan from Anarchists-Terrorists" was posted at the Consulate General of Japan in San Francisco. As Mutsuhito was the personal name of Emperor Meiji, and it was considered rude to call the emperor by his personal name, this was quite an insult. The letter began with, "We demand the implementation of the principle of assassination." The letter also claimed that the emperor was not a god. The letter concluded with, "Hey you, miserable Mutsuhito. Bombs are all around you, about to explode. Farewell to you." This incident changed the Japanese government's attitude of leftist movements. [16]

Japanese resistance during the rise of militarismEdit

 
Ikuo Oyama, member of the banned Labour-Farmer Party

Ikuo OyamaEdit

Ikuo Oyama was a member of the left leaning Labour-Farmer Party, which advocated universal suffrage, minimum wages, and women's rights. Yamamoto Senji, a colleague of his, was assassinated on February 29, on the same day as he had presented testimony in the Diet regarding torture of prisoners. The Labour-Farmer Party was banned in 1928 due to accusations of having links to communism. Oyama fled Japan in 1933 to the United States as a result. He got a job at Northwestern University at its library and political science department. During his exile, he worked closely with the U.S. Government against the Empire of Japan. Oyama happily shook hands with Zhou En-lai, who fought the Japanese in the Second Sino-Japanese War. Oyama was given a Stalin Award prize on December 20, 1951. However, his colleagues begged him not to accept the award for fear that he would become a Soviet puppet. Some of his oldest friends abandoned him when he accepted it.

Modern girlsEdit

Modern girls (モダンガール, modan gāru) were Japanese women who adhered to Westernized fashions and lifestyles in the 1920s. They were the equivalent of America's flappers.[16]

This period was characterized by the emergence of young working class women with access to consumer goods and the money to buy those consumer goods. Modern girls were depicted as living in cities, being financially and emotionally independent, choosing their own suitors, and being apathetic towards politics.[17] Thus, the modern girl was a symbol of Westernization. However, after a military coup in 1931, extreme Japanese nationalism and the Great Depression prompted a return to the 19th-century ideal of good wife, wise mother.

The Salon de thé FrançoisEdit

 
Cover page of first issue of the anti-fascist Doyōbi newspaper, July 7, 1936

The Salon de thé François was a western-style café established in Kyoto on 1934 by Shoichi Tateno, who participated in labour movements, and anti-war movements.[18] The cafe was a secret source of funds for the then banned Japanese Communist Party.[19] The anti-fascist newspaper Doyōbi was edited and distributed from the café.[20]

The Takigawa IncidentEdit

In March 1933, the Japanese parliament attempted to control various education groups and circles. The Interior Ministry banned two textbooks on criminal laws written by Takigawa Yukitoki of Kyoto Imperial University. The following month, Konishi Shigenao, president of Kyoto University, was requested to dismiss Professor Takigawa. Konishi rejected the request, but due to pressure from the military and nationalist groups, Takigawa was fired from the university. This led to all 39 faculty members of Kyoto Imperial University's law faculty resigning. Furthermore, students boycotted classes and communist sympathizers organized protests. The Ministry of Education was able to suppress the movement by firing Konishi. In addition to this attempt by the Japanese government to control educational institutions, During the term of the education minister, Ichirō Hatoyama, a number of elementary school teachers were also dismissed for having what were considered dangerous thoughts".[21]

The Thought PoliceEdit

Before World War II, the government of Imperial Japan had established the Tokubetsu Kōtō Keisatsu, or "Tokkō", in 1911. Its targets were communists, socialists, anarchists, Korean nationalists, religious groups, and pacifists.[22] The Peace Preservation Law of 1925 (Chian-ijihō) was passed in Japan with the aim of criminalizing any acts that threatened the kokutai.[23] Upon the release of the corpse of the proletarian writer, Takiji Kobayashi, it showed visible signs of torture, but the authorities claimed he had died of a heart attack. Takiji's friends demanded an autopsy of his corpse, but no university would help.[24] The Tonarigumi (隣組, "Neighborhood Association") were also used as informants for the Tokko.[25]

Japanese resistance during World War IIEdit

Japanese working with Chinese resistanceEdit

 
Kaji Wataru

Kaji Wataru was a Japanese proletarian writer who lived in Shanghai. His wife, Yuki Ikeda, suffered through torture at the hands of the Imperial Japanese. She fled Japan when she was very young, working as a ballroom dancer in Shanghai to earn a living. They were friends with Chinese cultural leader Kuo Mo-jo. Kaji and Yuki would escape Shanghai when the Japanese invaded the city. Kaji, along with his wife, were involved with the re-education of captured Japanese soldiers for the Kuomintang in Chongqing during the Second Sino-Japanese War.[26]

His relationship with Chiang Kai-shek was troubled due to his anticommunism.[27] Kaji would work with the Office of Strategic Services in the later stages of the war.[28]

Sanzō Nosaka, a founder of the Japanese Communist Party, worked with the Chinese Communists in Yan'an during the Second Sino-Japanese war. He was in charge of the re-education of captured Japanese troops. Japanese Intelligence in China were desperate to eliminate him, but they always failed in their attempts. Sanzo went by the name "Susumu Okano" during the war.[29] Today, Sanzō Nosaka is considered a disgraced figure to the Japanese Communist Party when it was discovered that he falsely accused Kenzō Yamamoto, a Japanese communist, for spying for Japan.[30] Joseph Stalin executed Yamamoto in 1939.[31]

Sato Takeo was a Japanese doctor who was a member of Norman Bethune's medical team in the Second-Sino Japanese War. Norman's team was responsible for giving medical care to soldiers of the Chinese Eighth Route Army.[32]

Japanese working with the United StatesEdit

Taro Yashima (real name Jun Atsushi Iwamatsu), an issei artist who was thrown into a Japanese prison without trial along with his wife, Mitsu, for protesting militarism in Japan. The prison was of deplorable conditions. The authorities demanded false confessions, and those who gave them were set free. He and his wife, who was pregnant at the time, refused to do so.

They came to America to study art in 1939, leaving behind their son, Makoto Iwamatsu, who would grow up to be a prolific actor in America, with relatives. When WWII broke out, Jun joined the Office of Strategic Services as a painter. He would adopt the pseudonym Taro Yashima, to protect his son who was still in Japan. Jun would use his pseudonym when he wrote children's books, such as Crow Boy, after the war.[33]

Eitaro Ishigaki was an issei painter who immigrated to America from Taiji, Wakayama, in Japan. In the outbreak of the Second Sino-Japanese War, and the Pacific War, he painted anti-war, and anti-fascism artwork.[34]

His painting Man on the Horse (1932) depicted a plain-clothed Chinese guerrilla confronting the Japanese army, heavily equipped with airplanes and warships. It became the cover of New Masses, an American communist journal. Flight (1937) was a painting that depicted two Chinese women escaping Japanese bombing, running with three children past one man lying dead on the ground.[35] During the war, he worked for the United States Office of War Information along with his wife, Ayako.[36]

Yasuo Kuniyoshi was an issei anti-fascist painter based in New York. In 1942, he raised funds for the United China Relief to provide humanitarian aid to China when it was still at war with Japan.[37] Time magazine ran an article featuring Yasuo Kuniyoshi, George Grosz, a German anti-Nazi painter, and Jon Corbino, an Italian painter, standing behind large unflattering caricatures of Hirohito, Hitler, and Mussolini.[38] Yasuo Kuniyoshi showed opposition to Tsuguharu Foujita's art show at the Kennedy Galleries. During WWII, Tsuguharu Foujita painted propaganda artwork for the Empire of Japan. Yasuo called Foujita a fascist, imperialist, and expansionist.[39] Yasuo Kuniyoshi would work for the Office of War Information during WWII, creating artwork that depicted atrocities committed by the Empire of Japan, even though he was himself labeled an "enemy alien" in the aftermath of Pearl Harbor.[40]

Japanese working with the BritishEdit

Oka Shigeki was an issei journalist for the Yorozu Choho, and a friend of Toshihiko Sakai. Oka would welcome Kotoku when he arrived in Oakland.[41] He was a member of the Seakai Rodo Domeikai (World Labour League).[42] In 1943, the British Army hired Shigeki Oka to print propaganda materials in Calcutta, such as the Gunjin Shimbun (Soldier News).[43]

The SOAS, University of London in London was used by the British Army to train soldiers in Japanese. The teachers were usually Japanese citizens who had stayed in Britain during the war, as well as Canadian Nisei. When Bletchley Park, Government Code and Cypher School (GC&CS), was concerned about the slow pace of the (SOAS), started their own Japanese-language courses at Bedford in February 1942. The courses were directed by Royal Army cryptographer, Col. John Tilstman, and retired Royal Navy officer, Capt. Oswald Tuck.[44]

The Buddhist Taisen DeshimaruEdit

Taisen Deshimaru was a Japanese Sōtō Zen Buddhist, and a follower of the Soto Master Kodo Sawaki. Following the attack on Pearl Harbor, his Master predicted that Japan would lose the war. When Taisen departed from his Master, Kodo said, "Our homeland will be destroyed, our people annihilate ... and this may be the last time we see one another. Nevertheless, love all mankind regardless of race or creed."

Taisen was sent to Japanese-controlled Indonesia to direct a copper mine. He found himself on the island of Bangka. Deshimaru taught the practice of zazen to the Chinese, Indonesian and European inhabitants. However, he was saddened by the inhabitants suffering at the hands of his own people. Deshimaru actively took up the Bangka people's cause. He was thrown into prison, and sentenced to execution as a resistance fighter. While in prison, he went through malaria, intense heat, flies, filth, and lack of food and water.

Directly before the mass execution was to take place, word arrived from the highest military authorities in Japan, and Deshimaru, along with all those awaiting execution with him, was set free. Deshimaru set sail to Billiton, where he was to direct a Dutch-captured copper mine. Deshimaru's ship was sunk by American airplanes. He was eventually rescued by a Japanese PT boat.

When the war was finally over, Deshimaru was taken prisoner by the Americans and incarcerated in a prisoner-of-war camp in Singapore. After his release from a POW camp, he founded the Association Zen Internationale in 1970.[45]

The Sorge spy ringEdit

 
Hotsumi Ozaki

Richard Sorge was a soviet military intelligence officer who conducted surveillance in both Germany and Japan, working under the identity of a Japanese correspondent for the German newspaper Frankfurter Zeitung. He arrived in Yokohama in 1933 and recruited two journalists: Asahi Shimbun journalist Hotsumi Ozaki, who wanted successful communist revolutions in both China and Japan[46]; and Yotoku Miyagi in 1932 who translated Japanese newspaper articles and reports into English and created a diverse network of informants.

In 1941, he relayed to the Soviet Union that Prime minister Konoe Fumimaro had decided against an immediate attack on the Soviets, choosing instead to keep forces in French Indochina (Vietnam). This information allowed the Soviet Union to reallocate tanks and troops to the western front without fear of Japanese attacks. Later that year, both Sorge and Ozaki were discovered to be guilty of treason (espionage) and were executed three years later in 1944.[47]

Pacifist resistanceEdit

 
Kagawa Toyohiko, Christian pacifist

Pacifism was one of the many ideologies targeted by the Tokko. Pacifists such as George Ohsawa, the founder of the Macrobiotic diet, was thrown in jail for his anti-war activities in January 1945. While in prison, he suffered through harsh treatment. When he was finally released, one month after the bombing of Hiroshima, he was gaunt, crippled, and 80% blind.[48] Toyohiko Kagawa, a Christian pacifist, was arrested in 1940 for apologizing to the Republic of China for Japan's occupation of China.[49]

A Diary of DarknessEdit

Kiyosawa Kiyoshi was an American-educated commentator on politics and foreign affairs who lived in a time when Japanese militarists rose to power. He wrote a diary as notes for a history of the war, but it soon became a refuge for him to criticize the Japanese government. Opinions he had to repress publicly. It chronicles growing bureaucratic control over everything from the press to people's clothing. Kiyosawa showed scorn on Tojo and Koiso. He laments the rise of hysterical propaganda and relates his own and his friends' struggles to avoid arrest. He also recorded the increasing poverty, crime, and disorder. He traces the gradual disintegration of Japan's war effort and the looming certainty of defeat. His diary was published under the name A Diary of Darkness: The Wartime Diary of Kiyosawa Kiyoshi, in 1948. It is today regarded as a classic.[50]

Nisei involvement in Japanese resistanceEdit

Karl Yoneda was a nisei born in Glendale, California. Before World War II, he went to Japan to protest the Japanese invasion of China with Japanese militants. Toward the end of 1938 he was involved with protests of war cargo heading to Japan along with Chinese and Japanese militants.[51] He would join the United States Military Intelligence Service in the war.[52]

Koji Ariyoshi was a nisei sergeant in the U.S. Army during WWII, and an opponent of Japanese militarism. He was a member of the United States Dixie Mission, where he met Sanzo Nosaka and Mao Zedong.[53] During the war, he also met with Kaji Wataru in Chongqing, hearing about him when he was in Burma.[54] Koji Ariyoshi would form the Hawaii-China People's Friendship Association in 1972.[55]

Sōka Kyōiku Gakkai resistanceEdit

Makiguchi, as did Nichiren, attributed the political troubles Japan was experiencing to supposedly false religious doctrines that held sway. His religious beliefs motivated him to take a stand against the government, earning him a reputation as a political dissident.[56]:14–15 He regarded Nichiren Buddhism as religious motivation for "active engagement to promote social good, even if it led to defiance of state authority".[57] The organization soon attracted the attention of the authorities.

In 1943, the group was instrumental in forcing Nichiren Shōshū to refuse a government-sponsored mandate to merge with Nichiren Shū, per the Religious Organizations Law which had been established in 1939.[58] As the war progressed, the government had ordered that a talisman from the Shinto shrine should be placed in every home and temple. While the Nichiren Shōshū priesthood had been prepared to accept the placing of a talisman inside its head temple, Makiguchi and the Gakkai leadership had openly refused.[58] During his prison interrogation by the Special Higher Police, Makiguchi claimed that his group had destroyed at least 500 of these amulets, a seditious act in those days.[59]

In 1942, a monthly magazine published by Makiguchi called Kachi Sōzō (価値創造, "Creating values") was shut down by the government, after only nine issues. Makiguchi, Toda, and 19 other leaders of the Soka Kyoiku Gakkai were arrested on July 6, 1943, on charges of breaking the Peace Preservation Law and lèse-majesté: for "denying the Emperor's divinity" and "slandering" the Ise Grand Shrine.

With its leadership decimated, the Soka Kyoiku Gakkai disbanded.[60][61] During interrogation, Makiguchi had insisted that "The emperor is an ordinary man ... the emperor makes mistakes like anyone else".[62]:40–41 The treatment in prison was harsh, and within a year, all but Makiguchi, Toda, and one more director had recanted and been released.[60] On November 18, 1944, Makiguchi died of malnutrition in prison, at the age of 73.

The details of Makiguchi's indictment and subsequent interrogation were covered in July, August, and October (1943) classified monthly bulletins of the Special Higher Police.[63] However, some historians have differing interpretations about Makiguchi's resistance to the government. Ramseyer postulated in 1965 that Makiguchi attracted the attention of the government's Special Police due to the aggressive propagation efforts of some of his followers.[60][64] Other scholars, examining both Makiguchi's indictment and his interrogation records, point to his consistent opposition to the existing government.[65][66][67]

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

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  2. ^ "High Treason Incident 1910". Acadamia. Retrieved 14 January 2014.
  3. ^ Treacherous Women of Imperial Japan: Patriarchal Fictions, Patricidal Fantasies By Helene Bowen Raddeker Page 7
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  6. ^ Victoria, Brian (1998). Zen at War. Weatherhill page 40, 44,46,43
  7. ^ Victoria, Brian (1998). Zen at War. Weatherhill. page 43
  8. ^ Victoria, Brian (1998). Zen at War. Weatherhill. Page 45
  9. ^ Victoria, Brian (1998). Zen at War. Weatherhill. page 47
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  16. ^ The Modern Girl Around the World: Consumption, Modernity, and Globalization, Edited by Alys Eve Weinbaum, Lynn M. Thomas, Priti Ramamurthy, Uta G. Poiger, Modeleine Yue Dong, and Tani E. Barlow, p. 1.
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  22. ^ The Allied Occupation of JapanBy 栄治·竹前 Page 296
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  27. ^ Imperial Eclipse: Japan's Strategic Thinking about Continental Asia before ...By Yukiko Koshiro page 100 chapter 3
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  29. ^ From Kona to Yenan: The Political Memoirs of Koji Ariyoshi By Koji Ariyoshi Chapter 12 Re-Education And Sanzo Nosaka Page 123-124
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  32. ^ Ienaga, Saburo. Pacific War, 1931–1945. p. 218
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  34. ^ "Retrospective" (PDF). Momaw. Retrieved 14 January 2014.
  35. ^ Race, Ethnicity and Migration in Modern Japan: Imagined and imaginary minorities Page 333
  36. ^ The Cultural Front: The Labouring of American Culture in the Twentieth Century by Michael Denning page 145
  37. ^ Becoming American?: Asian Identity Negotiated Through the Art of Yasuo KuniyoshiBy Shi-Pu Wang page 18
  38. ^ http://www.uhpress.hawaii.edu/books/wangBecomingIntro.pdf
  39. ^ Glory in a Line: A Life of Foujita--the Artist Caught Between EastBy Phyllis Birnbaum page 276
  40. ^ "Exhibitions: The Artistic Journey of Yasuo Kuniyoshi". Americanart.si.edu. Retrieved 2014-01-16.
  41. ^ Kōtoku Shūsui, Portrait of a Japanese Radical By F. G. Notehelfer Page 121
  42. ^ The Origins of Socialist Thought in Japan By John Crump Page 195
  43. ^ Nisei linguists: Japanese Americans in the Military Intelligence Service, by James C. McNaughton, page 289
  44. ^ Nisei Linguists: Japanese Americans in the Military Intelligence Service. Page 160–161.
  45. ^ "Buddhist Masters and Their Organisations: Taisen Deshimaru Roshi". www.buddhanet.net.
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  52. ^ Notable American Women: A Biographical Dictionary, Volume 5By Edward T. James, Janet Wilson James, Paul S. Boyer, Radcliffe Institute for Advanced Study page 705
  53. ^ From Kona to Yenan: The Political Memoirs of Koji Ariyoshi by Koji Ariyoshi. Chapter 12 Re-Education and Sanzo Nosaka. Page 123-124
  54. ^ From Kona to Yenan: The Political Memoirs of Koji AriyoshiBy Koji Ariyoshi page 104
  55. ^ https://scholarspace.manoa.hawaii.edu/bitstream/handle/10125/8343/us-china%20peop%20friendship%20a.pdf?sequence=1
  56. ^ Hammond, Phillip E.; Machacek, David W. (1999). Soka Gakkai in America: accommodation and conversion (Reprinted. ed.). Oxford [u.a.]: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0198293897.
  57. ^ Watanabe, Takesato. "The Movement and the Japanese Media". In Machacek and Wilson, eds. Global Citizens, p. 221. OUP. ISBN 0199240396.
  58. ^ a b Kisala, Robert (2004). "Soka Gakkai: Searching for the Mainstream". In Lewis, James R.; Aagaard Petersen, Jesper. Controversial New Religions. Oxford University Press. pp. 139–152.
  59. ^ Strand, p. 33
  60. ^ a b c Robert L. Ramseyer. "The Soka Gakkai". "The neighbor complained to the police, who arrested Jinno and a director of the Soka Kyoiku Gakkai named Arimura." In Beardsley, Richard K., editor, Studies in Japanese culture I. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1965. p. 156
  61. ^ Laderman, Gary; León, Luis, eds. (2003). Religion and American cultures. Santa Barbara, Calif. [u.a.]: ABC- CLIO. p. 61. ISBN 978-1-57607-238-7.
  62. ^ Seager, Richard Hughes (2006). Encountering the Dharma: Daisaku Ikeda, Soka Gakkai, and the Globalization of Buddhist Humanism. Berkeley [u.a.]: Univ. of California Press. ISBN 978-0-520-24577-8.
  63. ^ http://www.tmakiguchi.org/religiousreformer/asreligiousreformer/detainmentinterrogation.html
  64. ^ Thomas, Jolyon Baraka (2014). Japan's Preoccupation with Religious Freedom (Ph.D.). Princeton University. p. 281.
  65. ^ English, Fenwick W. (2015). Poliner Shapiro, Joan, ed. The Transformational Leader as a Thought Criminal. Routledge. pp. 37–41. ISBN 9781135037802. |first1= missing |last1= in Editors list (help)
  66. ^ Miyata, Koichi (2002). "Critical Comments on Brian Victoria's "Engaged Buddhism: A Skeleton in the Closet?"". Journal of Global Buddhism. 3: 79–85. Victoria quotes a reference by Makiguchi to ‘praying’ to the emperor. He could hardly, however, have been more distorting in selecting the passage he quoted, deliberately excluding the following extract, in bold: ‘The august virtue of His Majesty the Emperor is manifested in the security and happiness of the people, through the organs of his civil and military officials. Should these be deficient in some way, the people can petition him through the Diet or other bodies. In light of this, who is there, apart, from His Majesty, the Emperor himself, to whom we should reverently pray?’ (‘Pray’ is Victoria's translation; ‘beseech’ is probably more accurate in this context.)
  67. ^ Bethel, Dayle M. (2003). "Two Views of Tsunesaburo Makiguchi's Attitude toward Japanese Militarism and Education". The Journal of Oriental Studies. 12: 208.