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Japanese House of Councillors national proportional representation block

The Japanese National Proportional Representation Block, known in Japan as the House of Councillors proportional district (参議院比例区, Sangiin hirei-ku) is an electoral district for the House of Councillors, the upper house of the National Diet of Japan. It consists of the whole nation and elects 50 members per election, 100 in total (fully effective after the 2022 regular election), by D'Hondt method proportional representation (PR).

National Proportional Representation
Parliamentary constituency
for the Japanese House of Councillors
House of Representives Japan Proportional Blocks.svg
PrefecturesHokkaidō, Aomori, Iwate, Miyagi, Akita, Yamagata, Fukushima, Ibaraki, Tochigi, Gunma, Saitama, Chiba, Tōkyō, Kanagawa, Niigata, Toyama, Ishikawa, Fukui, Yamanashi, Nagano, Gifu, Shizuoka, Aichi, Mie, Shiga, Kyōto, Ōsaka, Hyōgo, Nara, Wakayama, Tottori, Shimane, Okayama, Hiroshima, Yamaguchi, Tokushima, Kagawa, Ehime, Kōchi, Fukuoka, Saga, Nagasaki, Kumamoto, Ōita, Miyazaki, Kagoshima, Okinawa
Population127,313,275 (est. 2018)
Current constituency
Created1983
Number of members96

Proportional voting was introduced to Japan in the 1983 House of Concillors election. The proportional district replaced the previous nationwide district (全国区, zenkoku-ku) which elected 100 members of the House of Councillors (50 per election) by single non-transferable vote, i.e. votes were for individuals not parties as in the prefectural districts. Initially, the proportional representation block also elected 50 members, but was reduced to 48 members in the 2001 election, bringing the total of proportional members down to 96 in 2004.

From 1983 to 1998, the vote in the proportional district of the House of Councillors had to be for a party, lists were closed. Since the 2001 election there is the option to cast a preference vote for a single candidate instead, the vote then counts for both the party in the allocation of proportional seats to party lists, as well as the candidate in the ordering of party lists. From 2001 to 2016, the system was a most open list system: The ranking of candidates on a party list strictly followed the number of preference votes. This ranking also applies to the runner-up replacements in case of vacancies.

In the 2019 election, the proportional district is enlarged to 50 members; and the proportional election system is modified to no longer be fully open: In a so-called tokutei-waku (特定枠, literally "special frame") parties may now choose to prioritize certain proportional candidates, such protected candidates can no longer be elected personally, but always come first in the allocation of proportional seats.[1][2]

Unlike elections to the House of Representatives, where a proportional segment was introduced in 1996, a simultaneous dual candidacy in both the majoritarian and the proportional election is not allowed in the House of Councillors.

Summary of results for major partiesEdit

Ruling parties at the time of the election are bolded.

Proportional results in regular House of Councillors elections[3][4]
Regular election LDP JSP (–1996)/
SDP (1996–)
JCP ["Old"] Kōmeitō (–1994)/
Kōmei (1994–1998)/
["New"] Kōmeitō (1998–)
DSP (–1994)/
NFP (1994–97)/
LP (1998–2003)/
PLP (2012–16)/
LP (2016–2019)/
DPFP (2018–)
["Old"] DPJ (1996–98)/
["New"] DPJ (1998–2016)/
DP (2016–2018)/
CDP (2017–)
Notable others
(short-term major parties, minor ruling parties, ...)
Class of
1983/89/...
Class of
1986/92/...
Vote Seats Vote Seats Vote Seats Vote Seats Vote Seats Vote Seats Party Vote Seats Party Vote Seats
13th (1983) 35.3% 19 16.3% 9 8.9% 7 15.7% 8 8.4% 4 Salary 4.3% 2
14th (1986) 38.6% 22 17.2% 9 9.5% 4 13.0% 7 6.9% 3 NLC 2.4% 1
15th (1989) 27.3% 15 35.1% 20 7.0% 4 10.9% 6 4.9% 2 RENGO SNTV/FPTP only
16th (1992) 33.0% 19 17.6% 10 7.8% 4 14.8% 8 5.0% 3 JNP 8.0% 4 RENGO SNTV/FPTP only
17th (1995) 27.3% 15 16.9% 9 9.5% 5 30.8% 18 NPH 3.6% 2
18th (1998) 25.2% 14 7.8% 4 14.6% 8 13.8% 7 9.3% 5 21.7% 12
19th (2001) 38.6% 20 6.6% 3 7.9% 4 15.0% 8 7.7% 4 16.4% 8 CP 2.3% 1
20th (2004) 30.6% 15 5.5% 3 8.0% 4 15.7% 8 38.6% 19
21st (2007) 28.1% 14 4.5% 2 7.5% 3 13.2% 7 39.5% 20 NPN 3.0% 1 PNP 2.2% 1
22nd (2010) 24.1% 12 3.9% 2 6.1% 3 13.1% 6 31.6% 16 YP 13.6% 7 PNP 1.7% 0
23rd (2013) 34.7% 18 2.4% 1 9.7% 5 14.2% 7 1.8% 0 13.4% 7 JRP 11.9% 6 YP 8.9% 4
24th (2016) 35.9% 19 2.7% 1 10.7% 5 13.5% 7 1.9% 1 21.0% 11 ORP 9.2% 4
25th (2019)[5] 35.4% 19 2.1% 1 9.0 % 4 13.1% 7 7.0% 3 15.8% 8 JRP 9.8% 5 ReiShin 4.6% 2

Recent resultsEdit

The total (party+preference) proportional votes, vote shares and allocated seats for each party are in the top row. Below are all elected candidates with number of preference votes in bold, and runner-up plus losing incumbents if any. "..." indicates higher-ranking losing non-incumbents. For parties without any seat, the top two candidates are listed with their personal votes.

2019Edit

Proportional representation results in the 2019 regular election[5]
Party LDP CDP Komeito Ishin JCP DPFP ReiShin SDP N-Koku Euthanasia HRP L'Ulivo Labour
Candidates 33 22 17 14 26 14 9 4 4 1 3 4 4
Votes/share
(party+individual)
17,712,373.119 35.37 7,917,720.945 15.81 6,536,336.451 13.05 4,907,844.388 9.80 4,483,411.183 8.95 3,481,078.400 6.95 2,280,252.750 4.55 1,046,011.520 2.09 987,885.326 1.97 269,052.000 0.54 202,278.772 0.40 167,897.997 0.34 80,055.927 0.16
Seats 19 8 7 5 4 3 2 1 1 0 0 0 0
Winners,
runners-up,
...losing incumbents/
individual votes
Tōru Miki (protected 1.) Makiko Kishi 157,849.000 Kanae Yamamoto 594,288.947 Muneo Suzuki 220,742.675 Akira Koike 158,621.000 Mami Tamura 260,324.000 Yasuhiko Funago (protected 1.) Tadatomo Yoshida 149,287.000 Takashi Tachibana 130,233.367 Hidemitsu Sano 63,611.000 Ryōko Shaku 30,356.000 Atsuhiko Kurokawa 12,246.000 Keiko Itō (protected)
Yasushi Miura (protected 2.) Shun’ichi Mizuoka 148,309.000 Hiroshi Yamamoto 471,759.555 Kunihiko Muroi 87,188.000 Yoshiki Yamashita 48,932.480 Tetsuji Isozaki 258,507.000 Eiko Kimura (protected 2.) Mio Nakamura 98,681.520 Satoshi Hamada 9,308.959 ... ... ...
Yoshifumi Tsuge 600,189.903 Masahito Ozawa 144,751.000 Kaneshige Wakamatsu 342,356.000 Satoshi Umemura 58,269.522 Satoshi Inoue 42,982.440 Yoshifumi Hamano 256,928.785 Tarō Yamamoto 991,756.597 ... ...
Tarō Yamada 540,077.960 Saori Yoshikawa 143,472.000 Yoshihiro Kawano 328,659.000 Takumi Shibata 53,938.000 Tomoko Kami 34,696.013 Toshio Ishigami 192,586.679 ...
Masamune Wada 288,080.000 Takashi Moriya 104,339.413 Hideki Niizuma 281,832.000 Hirofumi Yanagase 53,086.000 Sōhei Nihi 33,360.000 ...
Masahisa Satō 237,432.095 Ryūhei Kawada 94,702.000 Daisaku Hiraki 183,869.000 Takeshi Fujimaki 51,619.511 ... Kusuo Ōshima 87,740.000
Nobuaki Satō 232,548.956 Taiga Ishikawa 73,799.000 Hiroaki Shiota 15,178.000 Kazuyuki Yamaguchi 42,231.776 ...
Seiko Hashimoto 225,617.000 Genki Sudō 73,787.000 Jirō Takahashi 7,577.000 ...
Toshio Yamada 217,619.597 Sayaka Ichii 50,415.298 ... ...
Haruko Arimura 206,221.000 ... ...
Shōji Miyamoto 202,122.000 Yukihisa Fujita 28,919.215
Masahiro Ishida 189,893.000 ...
Tsuneo Kitamura 178,210.000
Akiko Honda 159,596.151
Seiichi Etō 154,578.000
Takashi Hanyūda 152,807.948
Masao Miyazaki 137,502.000
Akiko Santō 133,645.785
Masaaki Akaike 131,727.208
Natsumi Higa 114,596.000
...
Yoshio Kimura 92,419.856

Note: These are full official results including decimals stemming from fractional votes; in the proportional district, they occur very often due to the high number of candidates and thus potential ambiguities. Elsewhere, election results are sometimes edited to contain no decimals; even then, whole numbers do not always represent whole votes, but may contain whole fractions of larger numbers of ambiguous votes.

2016Edit

National block results in the 2016 House of Councillors election[6][7][8][9][10][11][12][13][14][15][16]
Liberal Democratic Party: 20,114,788 votes (35.9%), 19 seats Democratic Party: 11,751,015 votes (21.0%), 11 seats Kōmeitō: 7,572,960 votes (13.5%), 7 seats Japanese Communist Party: 6,016,195 votes (10.7%), 4 seats Osaka Ishin no Kai: 5,153,584 votes (13.0%), 4 seats Social Democratic Party: 1,536,239 votes (3.4%), 1 seat People's Life Party: 1,067,301 votes (4.7%), 1 seat Party for Japanese Kokoro: 734,024 votes (1.3%), 0 seats No Party to Support: 647,071 votes (1.1%), 0 seats New Renaissance Party: 580,653 votes (1.0%), 0 seats Angry Voice of the Citizens: 466,706 votes (0.8%), 0 seats Happiness Realization Party: 366,815 votes (0.6%), 0 seats
Masayuki Tokushige 521,060
Shigeharu Aoyama 481,890
Satsuki Katayama 393,382
Satoshi Nakanishi 392,433
Eriko Imai 319,359
Toshiyuki Adachi 293,735
Eriko Yamatani 249,844
Shin'ya Fujiki 236,119
Hanako Jimi 210,562
Kanehiko Shindō 182,467
Emiko Takagai 177,810
Hiroshi Yamada 149,833
Toshiyuki Fujii 142,132
Masashi Adachi 139,110
Takashi Uto 137,993
Katsumi Ogawa 130,101
Yoshifumi Miyajima 122,833
Toshiei Mizuochi 114,485
Shūkō Sonoda 101,154
Isao Takeuchi 87,578
...
Tsuneo Horiuchi 84,597
Masao Kobayashi 270,285
Makoto Hamaguchi 266,623
Wakako Yata 215,823
Yoshifu Arita 205,884
Nakanori Kawai 196,023
Shōji Nanba 191,823
Takashi Esaki 184,187
Masayoshi Nataniya 176,683
Michihiro Ishibashi 171,486
Kenzō Fujisue 143,188
Shinkun Haku 138,813
Kaoru Tashiro 113,571
...
Naoki Tanaka 86,596
Takumi Shibata 73,166
...
Takeshi Maeda 59,853
Jirō Ono 46,213
Masami Nishimura 38,899
Hiroaki Nagasawa 942,266
Kōzō Akino 612,068
Shin'ichi Yokoyama 606,889
Seishi Kumano 605,223
Masaaki Taniai 478,174
Masayoshi Hamada 388,477
Masaru Miyazaki 18,571
Shinji Takeuchi 7,489
Tadayoshi Ichida 77,348
Tomoko Tamura 49,113
Mikishi Daimon 33,078
Tomo Iwabuchi 31,099
Ryōsuke Takeda 23,938
Tomoko Okuda 23,680
Toranosuke Katayama 194,902
Yoshimi Watanabe 143,343
Mitsuko Ishii 68,147
Akira Ishii 50,073
Tsuyoshi Gibu 43,679
Mizuho Fukushima 254,956
Tadatomo Yoshida 153,197
Ai Aoki 109,050
Yumiko Himei 16,116
Akira Nakayama 77,884
Shingo Nishimura 42,296
Hidemitsu Sano 31,334
Akiko Hondō 18,035
Tarō Yamada 291,188
Hiroyuki Arai 63,757
Kobayashi Takashi 78,272
Yoriko Madoka 20,496
Hiroko Nanami 31,717
Ryōko Shaku 28,579

2013Edit

National block results in the 2013 House of Councillors election[17][18][19][20][21][22][23][24][25][26][27][28]
Liberal Democratic Party: 18,460,404 votes (34.7%), 18 seats Kōmeitō: 7,568,080 votes (14.2%), 7 seats Democratic Party of Japan: 7,268,653 votes (13.4%), 7 seats Japan Restoration Party: 6,355,299 votes (11.9%), 6 seat Japanese Communist Party: 5,154,055 votes (9.7%), 5 seats Your Party: 4,755,160 votes (8.9%), 4 seats Social Democratic Party: 1,255,235 votes (2.4%), 1 seat People's Life Party: 492,040 votes (4.7%), 0 seat New Party Daichi: 273,356 votes (1.3%), 0 seats Greens Japan: 246,020 votes (1.1%), 0 seats Green Wind: 218,685 votes (1.0%), 0 seats Happiness Realization Party: 109,342 votes (0.4%), 0 seats
Yoshifumi Tsuge 429,002
Toshio Yamada 338,485
Masahisa Satō 326,541
Midori Ishii 294,148
Seiko Hashimoto 279,952
Takashi Hanyūda 249,818
Nobuaki Satō 215,506
Masaaki Akaike 208,319
Akiko Santō 205,779
Seiichi Etō 204,404
Masahiro Ishida 201,109
Haruko Arimura 191,343
Shūji Miyamoto 178,480
Kazuya Maruyama 153,303
Tsuneo Kitamura 142,613
Miki Watanabe 104,176
Yoshio Kimura 98,979
Fusae Ōta 77,173
Masaru Wakasa 76,829
Kanae Yamamoto 996,959
Daisaku Hiraki 770,682
Yoshihiro Kawano 703,637
Hiroshi Yamamoto 592,814
Kaneshige Wakamatsu 577,951
Yūichirō Uozumi 540,817
Hideki Niizuma 26,044
Nobuo Kawashima 7,737
Tetsuji Isozaki 271,553
Yoshifumi Hamano 235,917
Kumiko Aihara 235,636
Kusuo Ōshima 191,167
Mieko Kamimoto 176,248
Saori Yoshikawa 167,437
Toshio Ishigami 152,121
Takanori Kawai 138,830
Hajime Ishii 123,355
...
Toshiharu Todoroki 103,996
Marutei Tsurunen 82,858
...
Yoshikazu Tarui 13,178
Antonio Inoki 356,605
Kyōko Nakayama 306,341
Mitsuo Gima 40,484
Takeshi Fujimaki 33,237
Masashi Nakano 32,926
Kunihiko Muroi 32,107
Hirokazu Tsuchida 28,616
Akira Koike 134,325
Yoshiki Yamashita 129,149
Tomoko Kami 68,729
Satoshi Inoue 50,874
Kōhei Nihi 39,768
Yūko Yamamoto 36,580
Ryūhei Kawada 117,389
Kazuyuki Yamaguchi 75,000
Michitarō Watanabe 50,253
Yoshiyuki Inoue 47,756
Jun'ichi Kawai 39,425
Seiji Mataichi 156,1555
Hiroji Yamashiro 112,641
Kenji Yamaoka 56,372
Yukiko Miyake 38,766
Muneo Suzuki 62,902
Kenkō Matsuki 38,721
Yohei Miyake 178,970
Nao Suguro 9,109
Kuniko Tanioka 51,367
Masahiko Yamada 44,231
Yanai Hisshou 17,010
TOKMA 16,797

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Sōmushō, News on the electoral system, October 24, 2018: 参議院議員選挙制度の改正について, retrieved May 16, 2019.
  2. ^ NHK kaisetsu blog archive, July 19, 2018: 「参院定数6増 比例特定枠導入~選挙制度改革行方は」(時論公論), retrieved May 16, 2019.
  3. ^ For 1983–2004 elections: Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications (domestically: Ministry of general affairs, Sōmushō), otatistics office (tōkei-kyoku): Long-term statistics, Chapter 27: Public servants and elections, 27-13: 参議院議員通常選挙の党派別当選者数及び得票数 (Number of elected members and votes by party in regular elections of members of the House of Councillors) (excel)
  4. ^ For more recent elections: MIC, autonomy and administration office (jichi-gyōsei-kyoku), elections department (senkyo-ka): election-related statistics and results, Regular elections of members of the House of Councillors
  5. ^ a b Sōmushō: 第25回参議院議員通常選挙結果調, pp. 37–41, retrieved September 18, 2019.
  6. ^ Yomiuri Online, 2016 election results: proportional election, LDP
  7. ^ Yomiuri Online, 2016 election results: proportional election, DP
  8. ^ Yomiuri Online, 2016 election results: proportional election, Kōmeitō
  9. ^ Yomiuri Online, 2016 election results: proportional election, JCP
  10. ^ Yomiuri Online, 2016 election results: proportional election, Ōsaka ishin no kai
  11. ^ Yomiuri Online, 2016 election results: proportional election, Seikatsu no tō
  12. ^ Yomiuri Online, 2016 election results: proportional election, Nippon no kokoro o taisetsu ni suru tō
  13. ^ Yomiuri Online, 2016 election results: proportional election, Shiji seitō nashi
  14. ^ Yomiuri Online, 2016 election results: proportional election, Shintō kaikaku
  15. ^ Yomiuri Online, 2016 election results: proportional election, Kokumin ikari no koe
  16. ^ Yomiuri Online, 2016 election results: proportional election, Kōfukujitsugentō
  17. ^ Yomiuri Online, 2013 election results: proportional election, Jiyūminshutō
  18. ^ Yomiuri Online, 2013 election results: proportional election, Kōmeitō
  19. ^ Yomiuri Online, 2013 election results: proportional election, Minshutō
  20. ^ Yomiuri Online, 2013 election results: proportional election, Nippon Ishin no Kai
  21. ^ Yomiuri Online, 2013 election results: proportional election, Nihon Kyōsantō
  22. ^ Yomiuri Online, 2013 election results: proportional election, Minna no Tō
  23. ^ Yomiuri Online, 2013 election results: proportional election, Shakaiminshutō
  24. ^ Yomiuri Online, 2013 election results: proportional election, Seikatsu no Tō
  25. ^ Yomiuri Online, 2013 election results: proportional election, Shintō Daichi
  26. ^ Yomiuri Online, 2013 election results: proportional election, Midori no Tō Greens Japan
  27. ^ Yomiuri Online, 2013 election results: proportional election, Midori no Kaze
  28. ^ Yomiuri Online, 2013 election results: proportional election, Kōfukujitsugentō