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Janet Ann Napolitano (/nəpɒlɪˈtæn/;[1] born November 29, 1957) is an American politician, lawyer, and university administrator who served as the 21st Governor of Arizona from 2003 to 2009 and as the United States Secretary of Homeland Security from 2009 to 2013, under President Barack Obama. She has been president of the University of California system since September 2013, shortly after she resigned as Secretary of Homeland Security.

Janet Napolitano
Janet Napolitano official portrait.jpg
20th President of the
University of California
Assumed office
September 30, 2013
Preceded byMark Yudof
3rd U.S. Secretary of Homeland Security
In office
January 21, 2009 – September 6, 2013
PresidentBarack Obama
DeputyJane Holl Lute
Rand Beers (Acting)
Preceded byMichael Chertoff
Succeeded byJeh Johnson
Chair of the
National Governors Association
In office
August 7, 2006 – July 23, 2007
Preceded byMike Huckabee
Succeeded byTim Pawlenty
21st Governor of Arizona
In office
January 6, 2003 – January 21, 2009
Preceded byJane Dee Hull
Succeeded byJan Brewer
23rd Attorney General of Arizona
In office
January 4, 1999 – January 6, 2003
GovernorJane Dee Hull
Preceded byGrant Woods
Succeeded byTerry Goddard
United States Attorney for the
District of Arizona
In office
November 19, 1993 – November 1, 1997
PresidentBill Clinton
Preceded byLinda Akers
Succeeded byJose de Jesus Rivera
Personal details
Born
Janet Ann Napolitano

(1957-11-29) November 29, 1957 (age 61)
New York City, New York, U.S.
Political partyDemocratic
EducationSanta Clara University (BA)
University of Virginia (JD)
Signature

Prior to her election as governor, she served as Attorney General of Arizona from 1999 to 2003. She was the first woman and the 23rd person to serve in that office. Napolitano is the 1977 Truman Scholar from New Mexico.

She has been the first woman to serve in several offices, including Attorney General of Arizona, Secretary of Homeland Security, and president of the University of California.

Forbes ranked her as the world's ninth most powerful woman in 2012.[2] In 2008, she was cited by The New York Times to be among the women most likely to become the first female President of the United States.[3] Some political commentators had suggested a possible candidacy in the 2016 election.[4][5] She was elected to the American Philosophical Society in 2018.[6]

Contents

Early lifeEdit

Janet Napolitano was born on November 29, 1957, in New York City, the daughter of Jane Marie (née Winer) and Leonard Michael Napolitano, who was the dean of the University of New Mexico School of Medicine.[7] Her father was of Italian descent and her mother had German and Austrian ancestry.[7][8] Napolitano is a Methodist.[9] She is the oldest of three children; she has a younger brother and sister. She was raised in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania,[10] and Albuquerque, New Mexico, where she graduated from Sandia High School in Albuquerque in 1975 and was voted Most Likely to Succeed.[11]

Napolitano attended Santa Clara University in Santa Clara, California, where she graduated Phi Beta Kappa,[12] won a Truman Scholarship, and studied political science.[10][11] She was named valedictorian of her graduating class.[11] After graduation, she went to work as an analyst for the United States Senate Committee on the Budget.[11] In 1978, she studied for a term at the London School of Economics as part of Santa Clara's exchange programme through IES Abroad.[citation needed] She then received her Juris Doctor (J.D.) from the University of Virginia School of Law.[11] After law school she served as a law clerk for Judge Mary M. Schroeder of the United States Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit, and then joined Schroeder's former firm, Lewis and Roca located in Phoenix.[11] Napolitano was named a partner of the firm in 1989.[10]

Early Political CareerEdit

In 1991, while a partner at Lewis and Roca LLP, Napolitano served as an attorney for Anita Hill.[11][13] Anita Hill testified in the U.S. Senate that then U.S. Supreme Court nominee Clarence Thomas had sexually harassed her ten years earlier when she was his subordinate at the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission.[14]

In 1993, Napolitano was appointed by President Bill Clinton as United States Attorney for the District of Arizona.[11] As U.S. Attorney, she was involved in the investigation of Michael Fortier of Kingman, Arizona, in connection with the Oklahoma City bombing. She ran for and won the position of Arizona Attorney General in 1998. During her tenure as attorney general, she focused on consumer protection issues and improving general law enforcement.

While still serving as attorney general, she spoke at the 2000 Democratic National Convention just three weeks after having a mastectomy. Napolitano recalls that the pain was so unbearable that she could not stand up. "Work and family helped me focus on other things while I battled the cancer," says Napolitano. "I am very grateful for all the support I had from family, friends and Arizonans."[15]

Governor of ArizonaEdit

 
Napolitano speaks during the second day of the 2008 Democratic National Convention in Denver, Colorado.

In 2002, Napolitano narrowly won the gubernatorial election with 46 percent of the vote, succeeding Republican Jane Dee Hull and defeating her Republican opponent, former congressman Matt Salmon, who received 45 percent of the vote. She was Arizona's third female governor and the first woman in the United States to be elected governor to succeed another elected female governor.[16] She was also the first Democrat popularly elected to the governorship since Bruce Babbitt left office in 1987, and the first female governor of Arizona to be elected outright.

She spoke at the 2004 Democratic Convention,[17] after some initially considered her to be a possible running mate for presidential candidate Sen. John Kerry in the 2004 presidential election but Kerry selected Senator John Edwards instead. In November 2005, Time magazine named her one of the five best governors in the U.S.[18]

As Governor, Napolitano set records for total number of vetoes issued. In 2005, she set a single-session record of 58 vetoes, breaking Jane Dee Hull's 2001 record of 28.[19][20] This was followed in June 2006, less than four years into her term, when she issued her 115th veto and set the all-time record for vetoes by an Arizona governor. The previous record of 114 vetoes was set by Bruce Babbitt during his nine years in office.[20][21] By the time she left office, the governor had issued 180 vetoes.[22]

Napolitano successfully steered to passage the creation of voluntary full-day kindergarten, where Arizona had previously only funded half-day programs.[23] Continuing her focus on education, Napolitano created a literacy program and acquired funding for an increase in teacher salaries.[24] She spearheaded significant investments in higher education, including funding a Phoenix campus for the University of Arizona College of Medicine,[25] while building the state's rainy day fund to more than $650 million, which at the time was the most ever.[26] Napolitano also played a leading role in securing the Super Bowl in Glendale, Arizona, expanding the number of teams in the Cactus League and investing heavily in tourism and economic development initiatives. She was also one of the first governors to call for the National Guard at the border after declaring a state emergency related to border security.[27]

In November 2006, Napolitano won the gubernatorial election, defeating the Republican challenger, Len Munsil, by a nearly 2:1 ratio, becoming the first woman to be re-elected to that office and the first gubernatorial candidate in state history to win every county and every legislative district in Arizona. Arizona's constitution provides a two-consecutive-term limit for its governors,[28] meaning Napolitano would have been barred from seeking a third term in office in 2010.

In January 2006, she won the Woodrow Wilson Award for Public Service. She was a member of the Democratic Governors Association Executive Committee. She has also served previously as chair of the Western Governors Association, and the National Governors Association. She served as NGA Chair from 2006 to 2007,[10] and was the first female governor and first governor of Arizona to serve in that position.

Secretary of Homeland SecurityEdit

 
Napolitano announcing a border security task force.

In February 2006, Napolitano was named by The White House Project as one of "8 in '08", a group of eight female politicians who could possibly run for president in 2008.[29] On January 11, 2008, Napolitano endorsed then Illinois Senator Barack Obama as the Democratic nominee for president.[30] On November 5, 2008, Napolitano was named to the advisory board of the Obama-Biden Transition Project.[31] On December 1, 2008, Barack Obama introduced Napolitano as his nominee for United States Secretary of Homeland Security.[32][33] On January 20, 2009, Napolitano was confirmed, becoming the first woman appointed Secretary in the relatively new department, and the fourth person to hold the position overall (including one acting secretary). Arizona Secretary of State Jan Brewer became governor of Arizona, as the state does not have a lieutenant governor.

 
Napolitano discussing security at a Super Bowl XLIV press conference. The Super Bowl is designated as a National Special Security Event by Homeland Security.

In March 2009, Napolitano told the German news site Der Spiegel that while she presumes there is always a threat from terrorism: "I referred to 'man-caused' disasters. That is perhaps only a nuance, but it demonstrates that we want to move away from the politics of fear toward a policy of being prepared for all risks that can occur."[34] In April 2009, Napolitano, in an interview defending her plans to tighten the Canada–US border, incorrectly implied that September 11 attack perpetrators entered the United States from Canada, a claim which had previously been made by multiple politicians based upon erroneous news reports in the days after the attack. Although Napolitano clarified she misunderstood the question and was referring to other individuals who had planned attacks and entered through Canada, some Canadian diplomats and leaders were displeased at what they saw as the persistence of a myth.[35]

In response to criticism, she later said, "Nonetheless, to the extent that terrorists have come into our country or suspected or known terrorists have entered our country across a border, it's been across the Canadian border. There are real issues there." Though there has only been one publicly reported case, that of Ahmed Ressam, an Algerian citizen who was in Canada illegally.[36]

H1N1 FluEdit

As Secretary, Napolitano was a central leader in the federal response to the H1N1 “Swine Flu.”[37]  Rather than closing schools and businesses, which would have led to wide-scale disruption, Napolitano advanced a strategy of proactive education for prevention. This included a basic virus-prevention education program.[38] Ultimately, through these programs, the flu did not spread as widely as some health officials had predicted.[39]

Right-Wing Extremism MemoEdit

Napolitano was the subject of controversy after the release of a Department of Homeland Security threat assessment report that was seen as derogatory towards armed forces veterans. The report focused on potential threats from the radical right.[40] Rightwing [sic] Extremism: Current Economic and Political Climate Fueling Resurgence in Radicalization and Recruitment[41] was made public in April 2009. The report suggested several factors, including the election of the first black or mixed race president in Barack Obama, perceived future gun control measures, illegal immigration, the economic downturn beginning in 2008, abortion controversy, and disgruntled military veterans' possible vulnerability to recruitment efforts by extremist groups as potential risk factors regarding right-wing extremism recruitment.[42]

Napolitano made multiple apologies for any offense veterans groups had taken at the reference to veterans in the assessment, and promised to meet with those groups to discuss the issue.[41] The Department of Homeland Security admitted a "breakdown in an internal process" by ignoring objections by the Office of Civil Rights and Civil Liberties to an unnamed portion of the document.[43]

While the American Legion reportedly criticized the assessment, Glen M. Gardner Jr., the national commander of the 2.2 million-member Veterans of Foreign Wars, defended it generally, saying it "should have been worded differently" but served a vital purpose. "A government that does not assess internal and external security threats would be negligent of a critical public responsibility", he said in a statement.[40]

Reaction to Northwest Airlines Flight 253Edit

Napolitano was criticized[44] for stating in an interview with CNN's Candy Crowley that "the system worked" with regard to an attempted terrorist attack on Northwest Airlines Flight 253 approaching Detroit on Christmas Day 2009. She later went on NBC's Today Show with host Matt Lauer and admitted that the security system had indeed failed.[45]

This is Napolitano's later-criticized statement to Crowley:

What we are focused on is making sure that the air environment remains safe, that people are confident when they travel. And one thing I'd like to point out is that the system worked. Everybody played an important role here. The passengers and crew of the flight took appropriate action. Within literally an hour to 90 minutes of the incident occurring, all 128 flights in the air had been notified to take some special measures in light of what had occurred on the Northwest Airlines flight. We instituted new measures on the ground and at screening areas, both here in the United States and in Europe, where this flight originated. So the whole process of making sure that we respond properly, correctly and effectively went very smoothly.[46]

In her interview with Lauer, Napolitano said that her earlier statement was "taken out of context" and maintained "air travel is safe", but admitted, "our system did not work in this instance" and no one "is happy or satisfied with that".[45] Lauer then asked her whether the system failed up until the moment the bomber had tried to blow up the plane, and Napolitano answered, "It did [fail]."[45]

In response to the NW253 bomb attempt, Napolitano instituted emergency enhanced pat-down screening until airport security technology could be deployed that could detect non-metallic explosives, called AIT's. Once AIT's were deployed, the enhanced pat-downs were only used selectively on passengers who triggered an alarm when passing through the detection equipment.[47]

TSA Pre-Check and Global EntryEdit

To ease the burden of airport security on the traveling public, Napolitano created the now widely used and popular program, TSA Pre Check, that expedites travelers though security screening when they provide background information about themselves to the TSA.[48] TSA Pre-Check reduces the number of unknown passengers arriving at security screening lines in airports. She also expanded the CBP trusted traveler program, Global Entry, to include more American travelers and some from verified partners abroad.[49]

Secure CommunitiesEdit

Secure Communities, or SComm, is a deportation program managed by U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement, a subdivision of Homeland Security. Napolitano came under scrutiny for contradicting herself publicly on whether the program is voluntary or mandatory for local jurisdictions to join. On September 7, 2010, Napolitano said in a letter to Congresswoman Zoe Lofgren that jurisdictions that wished to withdraw from the program could do so. Yet an October 2010 Washington Post article quoted an anonymous senior ICE official asserting: "Secure Communities is not based on state or local cooperation in federal law enforcement ... State and local law enforcement agencies are going to continue to fingerprint people and those fingerprints are forwarded to FBI for criminal checks. ICE will take immigration action appropriately."[50]

At a press conference days later, Napolitano modified her position: "What my letter said was that we would work with them on the implementation in terms of timing and the like ... But we do not view this as an opt-in, opt-out program."[51] She did not provide legal justification. Meanwhile, in Arlington, Virginia, the Board of Supervisors unanimously passed a resolution to opt out of SComm.[52] A subordinate DHS employee David Venturella stated at a policy conference: "Have we created some of the confusion out there? Absolutely we have."[53]

Border SecurityEdit

Under Napolitano's leadership, the DHS invested heavily in border security and border security technology.[54] These investments included a border security supplemental passed by Congress to fund an increase in technology and infrastructure along the southern border with Mexico. This technology was used to replace Boeing's SBI Net program with off-the-shelf capability selected by operators.[55]  SBI Net had been widely criticized as expensive and dysfunctional when Napolitano canceled it.[56]

Printer Bomb AttemptEdit

Janet Napolitano issued a ban for toner and ink cartridges weighing more than one pound on passenger flights, in response to the October 2010 Yemen bomb plot.[57]

Walmart–DHS PartnershipEdit

On December 6, 2010, Walmart announced it was partnering with the DHS.[58] The partnership included a video message from Napolitano on TV screens in Walmart stores playing a "public service announcement" to ask customers to report suspicious activity to a Wal-Mart manager. The rationale is that national security begins at home. Napolitano "compares the undertaking to the Cold War fight against communists."[59]

Tucson MemorialEdit

 
Napolitano stands next to Mark Kelly, husband of shooting survivor Gabrielle Giffords, at the memorial event.

On January 12, 2011, along with President Barack Obama, Napolitano was one of many speakers selected to express sympathies to the community of Tucson, the State of Arizona, and the rest of the nation in a televised memorial for the 2011 Tucson shooting.

Discrimination LawsuitEdit

In July 2012, Napolitano was accused of allowing discrimination against male staffers within the Department of Homeland Security.[60][61] The federal discrimination lawsuit, filed in the United States District Court for the District of Columbia, was filled by James Hayes Jr. who is presently a special agent of Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) in New York City.[62] The suit alleged that Dora Schriro and Suzanne Barr mistreated male staffers and promotions were given to women who were friends of Napolitano, and when the abuse was reported to the Equal Employment Opportunity office, that Napolitano launched a series of misconduct investigations against the reporting party, Hayes.[63] This allegation was never proven. The spokesperson for ICE stated that he would not comment on "unfounded claims".[64]

Suzanne Barr, who was one of Napolitano's first appointments after she became secretary in 2009, went on leave after Hayes filed his lawsuit and then resigned on September 1, 2012. She called the allegations in the lawsuit "unfounded."[65] In November 2012, Hayes' attorney in Maryland, Morris Fischer, said the "parties have come to an agreement in principal" to settle the case for $175,000. In addition to the money, "a formal settlement agreement will be executed within the next several days" that will include other conditions, including Hayes keeping his job.[66]

Napolitano was sued by an Immigration and Customs Enforcement agent who claims he was pulled from his post interviewing suspicious travelers at JFK Airport after making a series of employment-discrimination complaints.[67]

DACA and Comprehensive Immigration ReformEdit

Napolitano had long been an advocate for Comprehensive Immigration Reform dating back to her terms as governor of Arizona.[68] In 2012, in an effort to provide relief for the so-called DREAM Act population, Napolitano used prosecutorial discretion to create Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals (DACA).[69] The program deferred removal proceedings against DREAMers, thereby providing them with legal status to be in the United States without fear of deportation. DREAMer populations are young people who were brought to the U.S. by their parents as minors.[70]

DACA was announced by President Obama in a Rose Garden ceremony shortly after its creation and was criticized by some members of Congress as an abuse of executive authority.[71]  Napolitano's successor, Jeh Johnson, later attempted to expand the program to include parents of DREAMers, but that expansion was subsequently overturned in courts.[72] DACA, however, remains in place and has never been found unconstitutional by a U.S. court.[73]

University of CaliforniaEdit

Napolitano announced she would leave her post as Secretary of Homeland Security at the end of August 2013 to become president of the University of California.[74][75] The first woman to lead the University of California,[76] she was appointed the 20th president by the University of California Board of Regents on July 18, 2013, and began her tenure as president on September 30, 2013.[77]

Among her first acts as president was the allocation of more support for UC's undocumented students, and expanded efforts to diversify the ranks of UC graduate students and post-doctoral researchers.[78]

She also initiated an ambitious, ongoing plan for the ten campus system to achieve carbon neutrality by 2025, saying that she felt that it was a 'moral imperative' for UC to find solutions to global climate change. In seeking to reduce UC's carbon footprint to zero, Napolitano authorized the university to register as an Electric Service Provider, allowing it to supply energy directly to some of its campuses and medical centers from an 80-megawatt solar farm in Fresno.[79] In 2017, Napolitano was awarded the Pat Brown Award from the California Council for Environmental and Economic Balance for her environmental leadership.[80]

As a long-time public official who was once a Truman Scholar, Napolitano has used her tenure as university president to encourage more students to pursue public interest careers. Undergraduate students with demonstrated need can now apply for fellowships that offset costs related to public service internships in Sacramento and Washington D.C. She has also created a Public Interest Law Fellowship to encourage law students to pursue public interest legal careers. The President's Public Service Law Fellowship program awards $4.5 million annually to promising law students at UC Berkeley, UC Davis, UC Irvine and UCLA to make postgraduate work and summer positions more accessible for students who want to pursue public interest legal careers but might otherwise, out of financial need, seek private sector jobs.[81]

Napolitano has led efforts to combat sexual violence and harassment at the University of California through improvements to the system's policies and procedures. On March 7, 2014 Napolitano wrote a letter to the UC community announcing a new presidential policy prohibiting sexual harassment and violence and providing support for victims and training for faculty, staff and students.[82] She also created a system-wide Title IX office and appointed the first system-wide Title IX coordinator in January 2017 to lead these efforts.[83]

During Napolitano's time as president of UC, tuition for undergraduates has held steady, with one tuition increase of $282 in 2017.[84]

 
Napolitano campaigning for Hillary Clinton in Phoenix, Arizona on October 30, 2016.

In April 2016, Napolitano placed Linda Katehi, the chancellor of UC Davis, on administrative leave following revelations that UC Davis attempted to suppress web searches relating to the UC Davis pepper-spray incident, as well as charges of nepotism and allegation of misuse of student funds.[85]

As part of her Global Food Initiative, which was launched in 2014, Napolitano committed $3.3 million to help students at the University of California access nutritious food. It was the nation's most comprehensive, systematic plan to tackle the problem of food insecurity.[86]

On April 25, 2017 the California State Auditor issued a report that Janet Napolitano and her University of California Office of the President secretly failed to disclose $175 million and engaged in misleading budget practices[87] After a subsequent investigation, the University of California took disciplinary action against Napolitano, issuing a public admonishment.[88] According to the independent report by retired State Supreme Justice Carlos R. Moreno, Napolitano approved a plan that pressured the ten UC campuses to change their survey responses about Napolitano's administration from negative responses to positive ones.[88][89][90]

On September 8, 2017 the University of California and Janet Napolitano filed a lawsuit against the United States Federal Government in response to President Trump's decision to ultimately end the Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals or DACA,[91] making her the first former Secretary of Homeland Security to sue the agency she once led over a policy that she created.[92]

On October 26, 2017 the University of California announced the establishment of the National Center for Free Speech and Civic Engagement. Chaired by Napolitano, the center is devoted to research, education and advocacy on issues of free speech and civic engagement.[93]

Speculation on Other AppointmentsEdit

She had also been discussed as a contender for appointment to the U.S. Supreme Court.[94][95][96]

In September 2014, when Attorney General Eric Holder announced his intention to step down, Napolitano was speculated as being a potential candidate as the next United States Attorney General.[97] Instead Loretta Lynch was Holder's replacement.[98]

Personal lifeEdit

Napolitano is an avid basketball fan and regularly plays tennis and softball.[99] Whitewater rafting and hiking are among her hobbies. She has hiked in Arizona's Superstition Mountains, New Mexico's Sandia Mountains, and the Himalayas, and has climbed Mount Kilimanjaro.[100]

Napolitano has never married or had children; as a result, some of her political opponents speculated about her sexual orientation. This included some campaign activity in 2002 when "vote gay" fliers were posted next to her campaign signs. Despite the claims, Napolitano stated on record that she is "just a straight, single workaholic".[101]

Cancer diagnosisEdit

Napolitano has been undergoing cancer-related treatment since August 2016.[102] On January 17, 2017, Napolitano was hospitalized in Oakland due to complications from the cancer treatment.[103][104] She was released from the hospital on January 23, 2017.[105]

Electoral historyEdit

Arizona gubernatorial election 2002
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Democratic Janet Napolitano 499,284 46.2 +0.9
Republican Matt Salmon 478,935 45.3
Independent Richard D. Mahoney 84,947 6.9
Libertarian Barry Hess 20,356 1.7
Democratic gain from Republican Swing
Arizona gubernatorial election 2006
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Democratic Janet Napolitano (incumbent) 959,830 62.6 +16.4
Republican Len Munsil 543,528 35.4
Libertarian Barry Hess 30,268 2.0
Democratic hold Swing

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

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  15. ^ Danielle D'Adamo, "Janet Napolitano: Getting to Know AZ's Governor"
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  52. ^ Shankar Vedantam. "Reversals by Imm Officials Are Sewing Mistrust." Washington Post. November 22, 2010.
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