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James Howell Howard (April 8, 1913 – March 18, 1995) was a general in the United States Air Force and the only fighter pilot in the European Theater of Operations in World War II to receive the Medal of Honor — the United States military's highest decoration.[1] CBS commentator Andy Rooney, then a wartime reporter for Stars and Stripes, called Howard's exploits "the greatest fighter pilot story of World War II".[2] In later life, Howard was a successful businessman, author, and airport director.

James H. Howard
Col James H Howard.jpg
Col. James H. Howard in 1945
Born(1913-04-08)April 8, 1913
Canton (now Guangzhou), China
DiedMarch 18, 1995(1995-03-18) (aged 81)
Bay Pines, Florida
Place of burial
AllegianceUnited States
Service/branchUnited States Air Force
United States Army Air Forces
American Volunteer Group
United States Navy
Years of service1938–1941 (USN)
1941–1942 (AVG)
1942–1966 (USAAF/USAF)
RankEnsign (Navy)
Brigadier General (Air Force)
Commands held356th Fighter Squadron
96th Bombardment Wing
Battles/warsWorld War II
AwardsMedal of Honor
Distinguished Flying Cross (2)
Bronze Star
Air Medal (10)


Early lifeEdit

Born on April 8, 1913, in Canton (now Guangzhou), China, where his American parents lived at the time while his ophthalmologist father was teaching eye surgery there, Howard returned with his family to St. Louis, Missouri, in 1927. After graduating from John Burroughs School in St. Louis, he earned a Bachelor of Arts degree from Pomona College in Claremont, California, in 1937, intending to follow his father into medicine.[3] Shortly before graduation, however, Howard decided that the life of a Naval Aviator was more appealing than six years of medical school and internship, and he entered the United States Navy as a naval aviation cadet.

United States Navy ServiceEdit

Howard began his flight training in January 1938 at Naval Air Station Pensacola, earning his wings a year later.[3] In 1939, He was assigned as a U.S. Navy pilot aboard the aircraft carrier USS Enterprise (CV-6), based at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii. In June 1941, he left the Navy to become a P-40 fighter pilot with the American Volunteer Group (AVG), the famous Flying Tigers, in Burma.[3] He flew 56 missions and was credited with shooting down six Japanese airplanes.[1]

United States Army Air ForcesEdit

North American P-51B-5 Mustang (serial 43-6315) Ding Hao!, flown by Major James H. Howard (in cockpit) commander of the 356th Fighter Squadron. Photo taken at RAF Boxted, England, March 1944. He would go on to earn the Medal of Honor, January 1944.

After the Flying Tigers were disbanded on July 4, 1942, Howard returned to the U.S. and was commissioned a captain in the Army Air Forces. In 1943, he was promoted to the rank of major and given command of the 356th Fighter Squadron in the 354th Fighter Group, based in the United Kingdom.

On January 11, 1944, Howard flew his P-51 unaccompanied into some 30 Luftwaffe fighters that were attacking a formation of American B-17 Flying Fortress bombers over Oschersleben, Germany.[4] For more than a half-hour, Howard defended the heavy bombers of the 401st Bomb Group against the swarm of Luftwaffe fighters, repeatedly attacking the enemy and shooting down as many as six.[4] Even after Howard's P-51 ran out of ammunition, he continued to dive on enemy airplanes.[4] The leader of the bomber formation later reported, "For sheer determination and guts, it was the greatest exhibition I've ever seen. It was a case of one lone American against what seemed to be the entire Luftwaffe. He was all over the wing, across and around it. They can't give that boy a big enough award."[3]

The Gen. Howard exhibit, including his Medal of Honor, at St. Petersburg-Clearwater International Airport

The following week, the Army Air Forces held a press conference in London at which Major Howard described the attack to reporters, including the BBC, the Associated Press, CBS reporter Walter Cronkite, and Andy Rooney, then a reporter for Stars and Stripes. The story was a media sensation, prompting articles such as "Mustang Whip" in the Saturday Evening Post, "Fighting at 425 Miles Per Hour" in Popular Science, and "One Man Air Force" in True magazine. "An attack by a single fighter on four or five times his own number wasn't uncommon," wrote a fellow World War II fighter pilot in his postwar memoirs of Howard's performance, "but a deliberate attack by a single fighter against thirty-plus enemy fighters without tactical advantage of height or surprise is rare almost to the point of extinction."[5] The following month, Howard was promoted to lieutenant colonel and in June 1944, he was presented the Medal of Honor by General Carl Spaatz for his January 11 valor.

Air ForceEdit

In early 1945, Howard was promoted to colonel and assigned as base commander of Pinellas Army Airfield (now St. Petersburg-Clearwater International Airport) in Florida. With the establishment of the United States Air Force as a separate service in 1947, then-Colonel Howard was transferred to the Air Force. In 1948, he was promoted to the rank of brigadier general in the U.S. Air Force Reserve, commanding the Air Force Reserve's 96th Bombardment Group.[3]

Later yearsEdit

Roar of the Tiger (1991) by James H. Howard

As a civilian after the war, Howard was Director of Aeronautics for St. Louis, Missouri, managing Lambert Field while maintaining his military status as a brigadier general in the United States Air Force Reserve. He later founded Howard Research, a systems engineering business, which he eventually sold to Control Data Corporation.[3] He married Mary Balles in 1948 in a military wedding ceremony. In later years, they were divorced and Howard then married Florence Buteau.

In the 1970s, Howard retired to Belleair Bluffs in Pinellas County, Florida.[1] In 1991, he wrote an autobiography, Roar of the Tiger, chiefly devoted to his wartime experiences.[3] On January 11, 1994, the 50th anniversary of the Oschlersleben attack, the Board of County Commissioners in Pinellas County proclaimed "General Howard Day" and presented him with a plaque.[6] A permanent exhibit honoring General Howard was also unveiled in the terminal building of the county's St. Petersburg-Clearwater International Airport.[2][7] Another exhibit paying tribute to Howard was subsequently dedicated at his alma mater, the John Burroughs School in St. Louis.

On January 27, 1995, Howard made his last public appearance when he was guest of honor at the annual banquet of the West Central Florida Council of the Boy Scouts of America, in Clearwater, Florida. He died six weeks later at the nearby Bay Pines Veterans Hospital and is buried at Arlington National Cemetery, survived by two sisters.[1]

Military awardsEdit

Grave at Arlington National Cemetery

Howard received the following awards:

   Command pilot
  Medal of Honor
Distinguished Flying Cross with bronze oak leaf cluster
  Bronze Star Medal
Air Medal with one silver and three bronze oak leaf clusters
  Air Medal (second ribbon required for accouterment spacing)
  Air Force Presidential Unit Citation
American Defense Service Medal with bronze service star
  American Campaign Medal
Asiatic-Pacific Campaign Medal with bronze campaign star
European-African-Middle Eastern Campaign Medal with two bronze campaign stars
  World War II Victory Medal
National Defense Service Medal with one service star
Air Force Longevity Service Award with four bronze oak leaf clusters

   Armed Forces Reserve Medal with silver hourglass

   Republic of China War Memorial Medal

Medal of Honor citationEdit

The citation accompanying the Medal of Honor awarded to Lieutenant Colonel James H. Howard on 5 June 1944, by Lieutenant General Carl Spaatz reads:

Howard receiving the Medal of Honor from Lieutenant General Carl Spaatz

For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity above and beyond the call of duty in action with the enemy near Oschersleben, Germany, on 11 January 1944. On that day Col. Howard was the leader of a group of P-51 aircraft providing support for a heavy bomber formation on a long-range mission deep in enemy territory. As Col. Howard's group met the bombers in the target area the bomber force was attacked by numerous enemy fighters. Col. Howard, with his group, at once engaged the enemy and himself destroyed a German ME. 110. As a result of this attack Col. Howard lost contact with his group, and at once returned to the level of the bomber formation. He then saw that the bombers were being heavily attacked by enemy airplanes and that no other friendly fighters were at hand. While Col. Howard could have waited to attempt to assemble his group before engaging the enemy, he chose instead to attack single-handed a formation of more than 30 German airplanes. With utter disregard for his own safety he immediately pressed home determined attacks for some 30 minutes, during which time he destroyed 3 enemy airplanes and probably destroyed and damaged others. Toward the end of this engagement 3 of his guns went out of action and his fuel supply was becoming dangerously low. Despite these handicaps and the almost insuperable odds against him, Col. Howard continued his aggressive action in an attempt to protect the bombers from the numerous fighters. His skill, courage, and intrepidity on this occasion set an example of heroism which will be an inspiration to the U.S. Armed Forces.[8]

See alsoEdit


  This article incorporates public domain material from websites or documents of the United States Army Center of Military History.
  1. ^ a b c d Wolfgang Saxon (1995-03-22). "Gen. James Howard, 81, Dies; Medal Winner in Aerial Combat". The New York Times. Retrieved 2008-05-27.
  2. ^ a b Christina K. Cosdon (1996-11-03). "New exhibit at airport honors hero". The St. Petersburg Times. Retrieved 2008-05-27.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g James H. Howard (1991). Roar of the Tiger. New York: Orion Books. ISBN 978-0-517-57323-5.
  4. ^ a b c Frederick Graham (January 19, 1944). "One-Man Air Force Belittles His Feat" (PDF). The New York Times. Retrieved 2008-05-27.
  5. ^ Richard E. Turner (1983). Big friend, little friend. Mesa, Ariz.: Champlin Fighter Museum Press. ISBN 978-0-912173-00-9.
  6. ^ Roger Clendening II (1994-01-11). "WWII pilot will be honored today". The St. Petersburg Times. Retrieved 2008-05-27.
  7. ^ "Airport Guide – History". St. Petersburg-Clearwater International Airport. 1997. Archived from the original on 2008-06-15. Retrieved 2008-05-27.
  8. ^ "Medal of Honor recipients - World War II". United States Army Center of Military History. 2007-07-16. Retrieved 2008-05-27.

Further readingEdit

External linksEdit