James Fowler (architect)

James Fowler JP, FRIBA, (11 December 1828, Lichfield – 10 October 1892, Louth) known as 'Fowler of Louth',[1] is best known as a Victorian English church architect and associated with the restoration and renovation of churches. However, he was also the architect of a wide variety of other buildings. A listing of his work compiled in 1991 traced over 210 buildings that he designed or restored. He is known to be the architect for 24 new churches and his work also included 40 vicarages or rectories, 13 schools, four almshouses, a Savings Bank, a convalescent home and hospital as well as country houses and estate housing. Most of Fowler’s work was in Lincolnshire and particularly around Louth, but it also included work in the East Riding of Yorkshire, Nottinghamshire, Staffordshire, Suffolk, London, Sussex and even Devon.[2]

James Fowler
James Fowler memorial - geograph.org.uk - 860338.jpg
James Fowler memorial, Louth Church
Born11 December 1828
Died10 October 1892
NationalityEnglish
OccupationArchitect

Career and architectural practiceEdit

Fowler was born in Lichfield. He was a pupil of Lichfield architect Joseph Potter junior.[3] At Louth he was initially in partnership with Joseph Maughan, a surveyor and lithographer in Grimsby. The partnership lasted from 1851 until June 1859.[4].On dissolution it was agreed that the Surveying Department will hereafter be conducted by Mr. Maughan, and the Architectural Department by Mr. Fowler, at their usual places of business in both towns (Grimsby and Louth).[5] Fowler had probably continued the practice of Charles John Carter, a Louth architect and surveyor, who had died in 1851. Fowler was elected FRIBA in 1864. Amongst his pupils was Ernest William Farebrother, an architect who worked in Grimsby.[6] He was a Surveyor for the Diocese of Lincoln between 1871 and 1886, and was for five terms the mayor of Louth.[7] The Grimsby architect John James Cresswell worked as an articled assistant and then principal assistant to Fowler between 1877-84.[8]

WorksEdit

Domestic buildingsEdit

HousesEdit

 
Riversmead, Louth by Fowler 1862
 
Lorne House, Queen Street (geograph 4699394)
  • Dalby – Dalby Hall (1856)[9]
  • Louth. Riversmead (1862). An example of a town house by Fowler. Contrasting polychrome brickwork with banding and decorative voussiors. Typical gothic arched entrance.
  • Market Rasen – Grammar School, Headmaster's House (1863)[10]
  • Langton-by-Partney – Langton Hall (1869)[11]
  • StamfordBrowne's Hospital (1870)[12]
  • Stamford – Warden's House (ca. 1870)[13]
  • Trinity Estates, West Retford. In the 1870s Fowler laid out housing for the Trinity Hospital in Reford. An example of his designs is Lorne House, Queen Street.

Rectories and VicaragesEdit

AlmshousesEdit

 
Bedehouses, Louth
 
Holy Trinity Hospital, West Retford,1872. (geograph 5306266)
  • Louth – Orme Almshouses (1885)[27]
  • Louth, Bedehouses Gospelgate. Almshouses on Gospelgate, founded in 1551 and sometimes referred to as King Edward VI's Hospital or Our Lady Bede House as the land formerly belonged to the Guild of St. Mary. The current Grade II listed neo-Tudor building by Fowler in 1868-69.
  • Fotherby – Allenby Almshouses (1869)[28]
  • Holy Trinity Hospital, West Retford. In 1832–4 the present Hospital was built to the design of Edward Blore. In 1872, Fowler (who had earlier worked on West Retford Church) was commissioned to design a new chapel and audit room. This was added to the centre of the building and at the ground floor, reusing the former common room and converting the space into a chapel. He also added the clock tower. The Hospital is Listed Grade II.[29]

SchoolsEdit

 
King Edward VI Grammar School, Louth 1868
 
De Aston Grammar School, Market Rasen 1861-3
  • Caistor – Caistor Primary School and School House (1859–60)[30]
  • East Ravendale – School[31]
  • Louth – parts of Edward VI Grammar School (1866)[27]
  • Market Rasen – De Aston School (1862), red brick headmaster's house with associated school buildings.[32]

Public buildingsEdit

  • Grimsby – Town Hall (1861–63). Constructed to designs by Bellamy and Hardy of Lincoln and the London architect John Giles. Fowler acted as superintending architect during construction.[33]
  • Horncastle High Street – Corn Exchange by Maugham and Fowler (1855).[34] Erected in 1856 at a cost of about £3500, was a handsome edifice of brick with stone facings, and included a newsroom, a mechanics' institute with a library, and a hall for assemblies, concerts, and lectures. It was later converted into the Victory Cinema.

ShopsEdit

 
Spar 15 Market place, Louth, Lincolnshire
  • 15 Market Place, Louth.c.1865. Venetian Gothic Revival derived style with polychrome decorated brick facade. Formerly the International Stores and now Spar.[35]

ChurchesEdit

New or completely rebuilt churches, arranged by date of constructionEdit

 
St.Martin's church, East Ravendale, Lincs.
 
Interior, St Stephens church, Hatton
  • London, Kenley, All Saints (1870–72)
  • Newington, St Mary (1886)[44]
  • Temple Bruer, St John (1874)[45]
  • Spridlington, St Hilary (1875). Erected in 1875 to replace an earlier church, which was dedicated to St Hilary and St Albinus, so named as there were originally two churches in the village; St Hilary and St Albinus. The present church was built in memory of the Rector, Rev H F Hutton, who was incumbent for thirty-two years.[46]
  • Moorhouses, St Laurence (1875)[47]
  • Alford Cemetery Chapel and curator's lodge (1881). Fowler was architect and Mr. Henry Kidd of Alford the builder, completed October 8, 1881 at a cost of £785. The buildings are joined by a Gothic archway for carriages. The floor is laid with Minton's ornamental tiles, the interior walls are of red brick to the moulded string course, and mixture above, with Gothic panelled arches. There is a bell turret with a bell of 75lb weight.[48][49]
  • Sutton-in-Ashfield, St Michael and All Angels', Nottinghamshire (1887)[50] (chancel only)
 
St. Swithin's church, Lincoln

Renovated and partially rebuilt churchesEdit

 
St.Julian's church, Benniworth, Lincs. - geograph.org.uk - 73382
 
St Mary's church Fotherby - geograph.org.uk - 96899
 
Great Carlton Church, Lincolnshire 01
 
St.John the Baptist's church, Great Carlton, Lincs. - geograph.org.uk - 108075

DevonEdit

LondonEdit

NottinghamshireEdit

WiltshireEdit

YorkshireEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Kaye, David; Scorer, Sam; Fowler of Louth: The Life and Works of James Fowler, Louth Architect, 1828–1892; Louth Naturalists' Antiquarian and Literary Society (1992); ISBN 0-9520117-0-0
  2. ^ “Kaye and Scorer” (1991), pp. 78-80
  3. ^ Colvin, H; A Biographical Dictionary of English Architects, 1600–1840; Yale University Press, revised 3rd edition (1995), ISBN 978-0-300-07207-5
  4. ^ "Kaye and Scorer", pg.78
  5. ^ Lincolnshire Chronicle - Friday 01 July 1859 4
  6. ^ Dictionary of British Architect, pg 631.
  7. ^ “Kaye and Scorer” (1991), pg.16
  8. ^ "Kaye and Scorer", 1992, pg 5.
  9. ^ Historic England. "Dalby Hall (1063662)". National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 12 August 2011.
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  11. ^ "Antram" (1989)
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  29. ^ Geograph
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  49. ^ "Alford Burial Board tenders for Cemetery chapel and lodge". Stamford Mercury. 21 January 1881.
  50. ^ "Opening of a New Church at Sutton-in-Ashfield". Nottingham Evening Post. England. 29 September 1887. Retrieved 31 March 2019 – via British Newspaper Archive.
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  53. ^ Historic England. "St Alkmund (1063375)". National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 12 August 2011.
  54. ^ Historic England. "St Cuthbert (1063378)". National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 12 August 2011.
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  59. ^ Historic England. "St John the Evangelist (1204608)". National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 12 August 2011.
  60. ^ Historic England. "St Nicholas (1165350)". National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 13 August 2011.
  61. ^ Historic England. "St Lawrence and Bishop Edward King (1359689)". National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 12 August 2011.
  62. ^ Historic England. "St Peter (1103729)". National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 14 August 2011.
  63. ^ Historic England. "St Helen (1063178)". National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 12 August 2011.
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  67. ^ Historic England. "St Radegund (1063350)". National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 13 August 2011.
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  109. ^ Historic England. "St Margaret (1147090)". National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 12 August 2011.
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  111. ^ Historic England. "St Lawrence (1227786)". National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 14 August 2011.
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  113. ^ Historic England. "All Saints (1146810)". National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 12 August 2011.
  114. ^ Historic England. "St Martin (1359965)". National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 12 August 2011.
  115. ^ Historic England. "All Saints (1161283)". National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 12 August 2011.
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  117. ^ Historic England. "St Faith (1062675)". National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 12 August 2011.
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  121. ^ Historic England. "All Saints (1358795)". National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 14 August 2011.
  122. ^ Historic England. "Church of St John the Baptist (1370125)". National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 12 August 2011.
  123. ^ Historic England. "St Matthew (1045621)". National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 14 August 2011.
  124. ^ Historic England. "St Patrick (1248182)". National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 12 August 2011.
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  129. ^ Historic England. "St Agatha (1150665)". National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 14 August 2011.
  130. ^ Pevsner, Nikolaus; The Buildings of England. Yorkshire: York and the East Riding p. 241; Penguin (1972); reprinted 1975, Pevsner Architectural Guides. ISBN 0-14-071043-4
  131. ^ Pevsner, Nikolaus; The Buildings of England. Yorkshire West Riding, Penguin (1959); reprinted 1967, Pevsner Architectural Guides, pp. 372, 643. ISBN 0300096623
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  133. ^ Historic England. "All Saints (1083824)". National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 12 August 2011.

Further readingEdit

  • Antram N (revised), Pevsner N & Harris J, (1989), The Buildings of England: Lincolnshire, Yale University Press. ISBN 0-300-09620-8
  • Brodie (Antonia (ed), (2001) Directory of British Architects, 1834–1914: 2 Vols, British Architectural Library, Royal Institute of British Architects, ISBN 0-8264-5513-1
  • Kaye D. and Scorer S. (with Introduction and Gazetteer by David Robinson), Fowler of Louth: The Life and Works of James Fowler, Louth Architect 1828-1892, Louth Museum 1992. ISBN 0-9520117-0-0
  • Jenkins, Simon; England's Thousand Best Churches p. 387; Penguin (2000); ISBN 0-14-029795-2
  • Gurnham, Richard; History of Lincoln p. 177; Phillimore & Co Ltd (2009); ISBN 1-86077-551-9

External linksEdit