James Carroll Booker III (December 17, 1939 – November 8, 1983) was a New Orleans rhythm and blues keyboardist born in New Orleans, Louisiana, United States. Booker's unique style combined rhythm and blues with jazz standards. Musician Dr. John described Booker as "the best black, gay, one-eyed junkie piano genius New Orleans has ever produced." Flamboyant in personality, he was known as "the Black Liberace".
Booker in 1978
|Birth name||James Carroll Booker III|
December 17, 1939|
New Orleans, Louisiana, United States
November 8, 1983 (aged 43)|
|Genres||Rhythm and blues, jazz|
|Instruments||Piano, electric piano, Hammond B3 organ, vocals|
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Booker was the son and grandson of Baptist ministers, both of whom played the piano. He spent most of his childhood on the Mississippi Gulf Coast, where his father was a church pastor. Booker received a saxophone as a gift from his mother, but he was more interested in the keyboard. He played the organ in his father's churches.
After returning to New Orleans in his early adolescence, Booker attended the Xavier Academy Preparatory School. He learned some elements of his keyboard style from Tuts Washington and Edward Frank. Booker was highly skilled in classical music and played music by Bach and Chopin, among other composers. He also mastered and memorized solos by Erroll Garner and Liberace. His performances combined elements of stride, blues, gospel and Latin piano styles.
1954 to 1976: Recording and touringEdit
Booker made his recording debut in 1954 on the Imperial Records label, with "Doin' the Hambone" and "Thinkin' 'Bout My Baby." This led to some session work with Fats Domino, Smiley Lewis, and Lloyd Price.
In 1958, Arthur Rubinstein performed a concert in New Orleans. Afterwards, eighteen-year-old Booker was introduced to the concert pianist and played several tunes for him. Rubinstein was astonished, saying "I could never play that ... never at that tempo" (The Times-Picayune, 1958). During this period, Booker also became known for his flamboyant personality among his peers.
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After recording a few other singles, he enrolled as an undergraduate in Southern University's music department. In 1960, Booker's "Gonzo" reached number 43 on the United States (U.S.) record chart of Billboard magazine and number 3 on the R&B record chart. Following "Gonzo", Booker released some moderately successful singles. In the 1960s, he started using illicit drugs, and in 1970 served a brief sentence in Angola Prison for drug possession. At the time, Professor Longhair and Ray Charles were among his important musical influences.
As Booker became more familiar to law enforcement in New Orleans due to his illicit drug use, he formed a relationship with District Attorney Harry Connick Sr., who was occasionally Booker's legal counsel. Connick would discuss law with Booker during his visits to the Connick home and made an arrangement with the musician whereby a prison sentence would be nullified in exchange for piano lessons for Connick Sr.'s son Harry Connick Jr.
In 1973 Booker recorded The Lost Paramount Tapes at Paramount Studios in Hollywood, California, U.S. with members of the Dr. John band, which included John Boudreaux on drums, Jessie Hill on percussion, Alvin Robinson on guitar and vocals, Richard "Didymus" Washington on percussion, David Lastie on sax, and David L. Johnson on bass guitar. The album was produced by former Dr. John band member David L. Johnson and by singer/songwriter Daniel Moore. The master tapes disappeared from the Paramount Recording Studios library, but a copy of the mixes that were made around the time of the recordings was discovered in 1992, which resulted in a CD release on DJM Records.
Booker then played organ in Dr. John's Bonnaroo Revue touring band in 1974, and also appeared as a sideman on albums by Ringo Starr, John Mayall, The Doobie Brothers, Labelle and Maria Muldaur throughout this period.
Booker's performance at the 1975 New Orleans Jazz and Heritage Festival earned him a recording contract with Island Records. His album with Island, Junco Partner, was produced by Joe Boyd, who had previously recorded Booker on sessions for the Muldaurs' records. In January 1976, Booker joined the Jerry Garcia Band; however, following two Palo Alto, California, concerts that involved Garcia "backing up ... Booker on most numbers," Booker was replaced by Grateful Dead pianist Keith Godchaux.
1976 to 1978: Success in EuropeEdit
Booker recorded a number of albums while touring Europe in 1977, including New Orleans Piano Wizard: Live!, which was recorded at his performance at the "Boogie Woogie and Ragtime Piano Contest" in Zurich, Switzerland—the album won the Grand Prix du Disque. He also played at the Nice and Montreux Jazz Festivals in 1978 and recorded a session for the BBC during this time. Fourteen years later, a recording entitled Let's Make A Better World!—made in Leipzig during this period—became the last record to be produced in the former East Germany.
In a 2013 interview, filmmaker Lily Keber, who directed a documentary on Booker, provided her perspective on Booker's warm reception in European nations such as Germany and France:
Well, the racism wasn't there, the homophobia wasn't there—as much. Even the drug use was a little more tolerated. But really I think that Booker felt he was being taken seriously in Europe, and it made him think of himself differently and improved the quality of his music. He needed the energy of the audience to feed off.
Keber further explained that Europeans refer to jazz as "the art of the twentieth century" and suggests that the "classical tradition" that is present in the continent led to a greater understanding of Booker among audiences. Keber states that Booker was "concert-hall worthy" to European jazz lovers.
1978 to 1983: Return to the U.S.Edit
From 1978 to 1982, Booker was the house pianist at the Maple Leaf Bar in the Carrollton neighborhood of uptown New Orleans. Recordings during this time, made by John Parsons, were released as Spiders on the Keys and Resurrection of the Bayou Maharajah. Following his success in Europe, Booker was forced to adjust to a lower level of public recognition, as he performed in cafes and bars. Keber believes this shift was "devastating" to Booker, as he was aware of his own talent.
Booker's last commercial recording, made in 1982, was entitled Classified and, according to producer Scott Billington, was completed in four hours. By this time, Booker's physical and mental condition had deteriorated. Furthermore, Booker was subject to the social stigma that affected people who used illicit drugs and who experienced mental health issues during this era of American history.
At the end of October 1983, filmmaker Jim Gabour captured Booker's final concert performance for a series on the New Orleans music scene. The series, entitled Music City, was broadcast on Cox Cable and included footage from the Maple Leaf Bar in New Orleans and a six-and-a-half-minute improvisation called "Seagram's Jam."
Booker died aged 43 on November 8, 1983, while seated in a wheelchair in the emergency room at New Orleans' Charity Hospital, waiting to receive medical attention. The cause of death, as cited in the Orleans Parish Coroner's Death Certificate, was renal failure related to chronic abuse of heroin and alcohol.
Booker's death was mourned by music lovers and numerous admirers have emerged in the time since. Harry Connick Jr., Henry Butler, and Dr. John, among others, recorded songs with titles and musical styles referencing Booker. Connick Jr. explained his mentor's piano-playing style in an interview: "Nothing was harder than that. It's insane. It's insanity." and called him "the greatest ever."
Transcriptions by Joshua Paxton (with Tom McDermott and Andy Fielding) of Booker's playing are available in The James Booker Collection and New Orleans Piano Legends, both published by the Hal Leonard Corporation. Paxton explained the significance of Booker in a 2013 interview:
From a musician’s perspective or piano player’s perspective, he matters because he figured out how to do things no one had ever done before, at least in a rhythm-and-blues context.... Basically he figured out ways to do a lot of stuff at the same time and make the piano sound like an entire band. It’s Ray Charles on the level of Chopin. It’s all the soul, all the groove, and all the technique in the universe packed into one unbelievable player ... I can now say with certainty that it’s a pianistic experience unlike any other. He invented an entirely new way of playing blues and roots-based music on the piano, and it was mind-blowingly brilliant and beautiful.
The influential New Orleans musician, composer, and producer Allen Toussaint also praised Booker, applying the term "genius" to him:
There are some instances in his playing that are very unusual and highly complex, but the groove is never sacrificed. Within all the romping and stomping in his music, there were complexities in it that, if one tried to emulate it, what you heard and what excited you on the surface was supported by some extreme technical acrobatics finger-wise that made his music extraordinary as far as I’m concerned. And most of all, it always felt wonderful ... He was an extraordinary musician, both soul wise and groove wise ... He was just an amazing musician.
Booker's vocal ability is also a subject that has been covered since his death. New Orleans pianist Tom McDermott, who has also studied the work of Booker, stated that he is "so moved" by Booker's vocals, as "you could feel the desperation in a way that few singers could impart." McDermott believes that Booker skillful combination of vocal virtuosity with a magnificent emotional power superseded the singing of Frank Sinatra.
Patchwork: A Tribute to James Booker is a 2003 release consisting of a compilation of his songs, performed by various pianists. Released in 2007, Manchester '77 consists of a live performance recorded in October 1977 at The Lake Side Hotel, Belle Vue, Manchester, UK, with the Norman Beaker Band in support for two songs. In late 2013, Rounder Records announced the forthcoming release of a double-CD deluxe version of Classified, Booker's final studio recordings.
Writing for PopMatters in 2014, George de Stefano said: "And then there’s James Booker, whose stature in New Orleans musical history can be gauged by the various nicknames bestowed on the gifted, troubled, openly gay musician: the Bayou Maharajah (the title of a new documentary film about the pianist), the Piano Pope, the Ivory Emperor, the Piano Prince of New Orleans. Booker himself coined at least one of these monikers—the Bronze Liberace."
Bayou Maharajah: The Tragic Genius of James BookerEdit
A feature-length documentary about Booker Bayou Maharajah: The Tragic Genius of James Booker, directed by Keber, premiered at the SXSW festival on March 14, 2013. Keber raised funds on the Kickstarter website to complete the film, as she needed to cover licensing costs to include all of the "concert footage, home movie, funky photo and unreleased audio" that she uncovered across the U.S. and Europe. Between December 2012 and January 2013, the Kickstarter campaign received US$18,323 from 271 backers—Keber's goal was US$15,000—who responded to the director's motivation: "After so many years of simmering in obscurity, it's time for James Booker to be introduced to the world!"
The film documents Booker's life, from his Baptist upbringing through to his solitary death at the Charity Hospital. In addition to coverage of Booker's significant influence upon Connick and his collaborations with prominent artists, Keber also documents the musician's heroin use and the deterioration in his mental health. In its review of the documentary, All About Jazz refers to Booker as a "jazz genius". Worldwide distribution of the film was undertaken by Cadiz music on August 6, 2016. As of September 1, 2016 the film is available for streaming on Amazon.com and Netflix. The DVD release is to be expected this fall (2016) in Europe and North America.
Keber's film was shown in May 2013—in the "Golden Rock Documentary" category—at the Little Rock Film Festival that is held annually on the banks of the Arkansas River in Little Rock, Arkansas, U.S. The Oxford American magazine bestowed the 2013 Best Southern Film Award to Keber at the Little Rock festival and praised the film as "one of the most culturally important documentaries made in recent years." Keber explained her introduction to Booker in a subsequent Oxford American interview:
When I played Booker's album, the first thing that I noticed was what bizarre song titles it had—stuff like "Coquette" and "Piano Salad." I didn't know what "piano salad" meant. I had no idea what to make of the music either. I know how to listen to something like the Neville Brothers or Irma Thomas, but Booker's music I didn't even know how to listen to. It was like a different language.
In June and August 2013, the film was part of the program of the Melbourne International Film Festival (MIFF) and producer Nathaniel Kohn attended as a representative. Kohn participated in a brief interview and explained the importance of the research process:
Research was key to discovering Booker and his music. He died in 1983 and many of the people who knew him are either dead or reaching that certain age when memories start to fade. So we talked to a lot of people and those conversations led to boxes of old photographs and tapes, video and music libraries in the States and in Europe, and the vaults of television stations, record companies, and museums. Over three years of research went into this production.
Keber's documentary was also the Opening Night Film at the Southern Screen Film Festival in Lafayette, Louisiana, US on November 14, 2013. A question and answer (Q&A) session with Keber followed the screening.
- 1958, "Open the Door/Teenage Rock", Ace Records: 547 (as Little Booker)
- 1960, "Gonzo", Peacock Records: 5-1697, FR1061
- ‘’Lost Paramount Tapes’’ (DJM, 1974)
- Junco Partner (Hannibal, 1976)
- Classified (Demon, 1982)
- The Piano Prince Of New Orleans (Aves, 1976)
- Blues And Ragtime From New Orleans (Aves, 1976)
- James Booker Live! (Gold, 1978)
- New Orleans Piano Wizard: Live! (Rounder, 1987)
- Resurrection Of The Bayou Maharajah (Rounder, 1993)
- Spiders On The Keys (Rounder, 1993)
- Live At Montreux (Montreux Sounds, 1997)
- United Our Thing Will Stand (Night Train International, 2000)
- A Taste Of Honey (Night Train International, 2006)
- Manchester '77 (Document, 2007)
- Live From Belle Vue (Suncoast Music, 2015)
- King Of New Orleans Keyboard Vol. 1-2 (JSP, 1984–85)
- Mr. Mystery (Sundown, 1984)
- Let's Make A Better World (Amiga, 1991)
- The Lost Paramount Tapes (DJM, 1995)
- More Than All The 45s (Night Train International, 1996)
- New Orleans Keyboard King (Orbis, 1996)
(Albums listed are with James Booker as main artist. For a complete discography which includes Booker's other album credits, see "External Links".)
- "James Booker". PopMatters. Retrieved November 22, 2014.
- Tom Mann (July 3, 2013). "13 music docos you haveto see in 2013". Faster Louder. Faster Louder Pty Ltd. Retrieved July 6, 2013.
- Martin Chilton, "James Booker: revival of a genius", The Telegraph, November 30, 2013.
- Katie Van Syckle, "James Booker, the 'Black Liberace,' Celebrated in New Doc", Rolling Stone, March 21, 2013.
- The Encyclopedia of Popular Music, vol. 1, p. 665.
- Rubien, David (April 22, 2006). "Booker's Mad Muse". The San Francisco Chronicle.
- The Encyclopedia of Popular Music, p. 665
- The Encyclopedia of Popular Music, p. 665.
- Russell, Tony (1997). The Blues: From Robert Johnson to Robert Cray. Dubai: Carlton Books. p. 94. ISBN 1-85868-255-X.
- Sal Nunziato (November 6, 2008). "James Booker: New Orleans Piano Wizard; 25 Years Gone". The Huffington Post. Retrieved November 13, 2013.
- KEVIN JAGERNAUTH (July 30, 2013). "The Playlist – Review: 'Bayou Maharajah: The Tragic Genius Of James Booker' An Ordinary Doc About An Extraordinary Musician". Indiewire. A SnagFilms Co. Retrieved November 13, 2013.
- Allmusic – James Booker credits
- CORRY342 (May 24, 2012). "January 9–10, 1976: Sophie's, Palo Alto, CA: The Jerry Garcia Band with James Booker". Lost Live Dead. Retrieved July 6, 2013.
- Ollie Etherington (December 9, 2011). "James Booker Live BBC Sessions 1978 – Part 1/2" (Audio upload). YouTube. Retrieved July 6, 2013.
- Ollie Etherington (December 9, 2011). "James Booker Live BBC Sessions 1978 – Part 2/2" (Audio upload). YouTube. Retrieved July 6, 2013.
- Caitlin Love (July 8, 2013). "DIRECTOR INTERVIEW: Lily Keber". The Oxford American. The Oxford American. Archived from the original on November 13, 2013. Retrieved November 13, 2013.
- James Nadal (2013). "James Booker". All About Jazz. Archived from the original on September 1, 2010. Retrieved November 13, 2013.
- David Kunian (October 1, 2013). "WHY DOES JAMES BOOKER MATTER?". Offbeat Magazine. Retrieved November 13, 2013.
- Wade Luquet (June 2, 2013). "Bayou Maharajah: The Tragic Genius of James Booker". All About Jazz. Retrieved July 6, 2013.
- Norman Darwen (2013). "Blues Matters review of James Booker Manchester '77". Document Records. Retrieved November 13, 2013.
- "A Piano Genius Is Revealed in the Trailer for 'Bayou Maharajah'". Rolling Stone. JANN S. WENNER. March 7, 2013. Retrieved July 6, 2013.
- Lily Keber (January 15, 2013). "Bayou Maharajah: The Tragic Genius of James Booker". Kickstarter, Inc. Retrieved July 6, 2013.
- Roisin O'Connor (June 28, 2016). "Bayou Maharajah: The Tragic Genius of James Booker". The Independent. Retrieved June 11, 2018.
- "Festival Genius: Bayou Maharajah". Little Rock Film Festival. 2013. Retrieved July 6, 2013.
- "Q&A with Nathaniel Kohn, producer of Bayou Maharajah: The Tragic Genius of James Booker". Melbourne International Film Festival. MIFF. August 2013. Archived from the original on August 6, 2013. Retrieved August 6, 2013.
- "OPENING NIGHT CHAMPAGNE & PREMIERE 'BAYOU MAHARAJAH'". Southern Screen Film Festival. Archived from the original on November 13, 2013. Retrieved November 13, 2013.
- "Booker's Mad Muse", April 23, 2006 at the San Francisco Chronicle
- "Booker: A Pianist's Perspective", by Joshua Paxton
- "Making The Insipid Sublime", January 17, 2007 at NPR
- "Maharajahs in the Mist" from Blues Access Summer, 1997
- Producer Scott Billington on Booker
- Singer Rickie Lee Jones on Booker
- Illustrated James Booker Discography
- Jerry Garcia & James Booker Sessions Info
- Harriet Blum's Original Booker Photos
- Document Records James Booker Podcast
- James Carroll Booker III
- Bayou Maharajah: The troubled genius of James Booker (documentary film)
- "Reviving James Booker, The 'Piano Prince Of New Orleans'", March 31, 2012 at NPR