This article includes a list of references, but its sources remain unclear because it has insufficient inline citations. (October 2009) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
James Pierson Beckwourth, born James Beckwith and generally known as, Jim Beckwourth (April 26, 1798 or 1800 – October 29, 1866 or 1867) was an American mountain man, fur trader, and explorer. James was also famously known as "Bloody Arm" because of his skill as a fighter. He was mixed-race and born into slavery in Virginia. He was freed by his white father (and master), and apprenticed to a blacksmith so that he could learn a trade.
James P. Beckwourth, circa 1856
James Pierson Beckwourth
April 26, 1798 or 1800
|Died||October 29, 1866 or 1867 (aged 67–69)|
|Cause of death||severe headaches and unstoppable nosebleeds, possibly caused by a severe case of hypertension or possible poisoning|
|Resting place||Crow Indian Settlement Burial Ground, Laramie, Albany County, Wyoming|
|Other names||Bloody Arm, Jim Beckwourth, James Pierson Beckwourth, James Beckwith, Black Chief of the Crow, Medicine Calf|
|Occupation||blacksmith, frontiersman, trapper, fur trader, explorer, wrangler, soldier, courier, wagon master, gambler, rancher, hotel keeper, trader, store keeper, rancher, author, scout|
|Employer||slavemaster, Rocky Mountain Fur Company, American Fur Company, Bent, St. Vrain, & Company, U.S. Government, self employed|
|Known for||Being one of the few African-American mountain men, on the American Western Frontier|
|Spouse(s)||two Native American wives, a Hispanic wife, and an African American wife|
|Service/||United States Army John M. Chivington's 3rd Colorado Cavalry Regiment|
|Rank||U.S. Army wagon master (1837–?), U.S. Army scout (1866) Territorial militia scout (1864)|
|Battles/wars||Second Seminole War (1835–1842)
As a young man, Beckwourth moved to the American West, first making connections with fur traders in St. Louis, Missouri. As a fur trapper, he lived with the Crow Nation for years. He is credited with the discovery of Beckwourth Pass, through the Sierra Nevada (U.S.) Mountains, between present-day Reno, Nevada, and Portola, California, during the California Gold Rush years. He improved the Beckwourth Trail, which thousands of settlers followed to central California.
The trapper narrated his life story to Thomas D. Bonner, an itinerant justice of the peace. The book was published in New York City and London in 1856 as The Life and Adventures of James P. Beckwourth: Mountaineer, Scout and Pioneer, and Chief of the Crow Nation of Indians. A translation was published in France in 1860.
Early historians of the Old West originally considered the book little more than campfire lore. It has since been reassessed as a valuable source of social history, especially for life among the Crow, although not all its details are reliable or accurate. The civil rights movement of the 1960s celebrated Beckwourth as an early African-American pioneer. He has since been featured as a role model in children's literature and textbooks.
Early life of slaveryEdit
James was born into slavery in Frederick County, Virginia, but sources differ as to the year: 1798 or 1800. Of mixed race, he had an enslaved mother who was African American. His white father was their master, Sir Jennings Beckwith, a descendant of Irish and English nobility. Little was known about Beckwourth's mother, but James was said to be third of her thirteen children. When James was a boy, his father arranged to apprentice him to a blacksmith so that he could learn a good trade. He acknowledged James as his son. Beckwourth was apprenticed to a blacksmith until age 19 to learn a trade. James was fired by the artisan after getting into an argument with him.
Jennings Beckwith moved to Missouri around 1809, when James was young, taking his mother and all their children with him. Although Beckwith acknowledged and raised his mixed-race children as his own, he legally held them as master. He freed James Beckworth by manumission, by deed of emancipation in court in 1824, 1825, and 1826. The young Beckwourth, as he later came to spell his surname, attended school in St. Louis for four years. When and why James changed his name to Beckwourth is unknown.
Fur trade, Indian fighter, and a black chief of the Crow NationEdit
In 1824 as a young man, Beckwourth joined Gen. William Ashley's Rocky Mountain Fur Company. He worked as a wrangler during Ashley's expedition to explore the Rocky Mountains. In the following years, Beckwourth became known as a prominent trapper and mountain man. He worked with the Rocky Mountain Fur Company and was an Indian fighter. He was well known for telling tales about his adventures.
In July 1825, rendezvous, trapper and colleague Caleb Greenwood told the campfire story of Beckwourth's being the child of a Crow chief. He claimed Beckwourth had been stolen as a baby by raiding Cheyenne and sold to whites. This lore was widely believed, as Beckwourth had adopted Native American dress and was taken by some people as an Indian.
Later that year, Beckwourth claimed to have been captured by Crow Indians while trapping in the border county between the territories of Crow, Cheyenne, and Blackfoot. According to his account, he was mistaken for the lost son of a Crow chief, so they admitted him to the nation. Independent accounts suggest his stay with the Crow was planned by the Rocky Mountain Fur Company to advance its trade with the tribe. Beckwourth married the daughter of a chief, and may have had multiple wives. (Marriages between Native Americans and fur trappers and traders were common for the valuable alliances they provided both parties.)
For the next eight to nine years, Beckwourth lived with a Crow band. He rose in their society from warrior to chief (a respected man) and leader of the "Dog Clan". According to his book, he eventually ascended to the highest-ranking war chief of the Crow Nation. He still trapped but did not sell his or Crow furs to his former partners of the Rocky Mountain Fur Company. Instead, he sold to John Jacob Astor's competing American Fur Company. Beckwourth participated in raids by the Crow on neighboring nations and the occasional white party. Sometimes such raids escalated to warfare, most often against bands of their traditional Blackfoot enemy.
In 1837, when the American Fur Company did not renew his contract, Beckwourth returned to St. Louis. He volunteered with the United States Army to fight in the Second Seminole War in Florida. In his book, he claimed to have been a soldier and courier. According to historical records, he was a civilian wagon master in the baggage division.
From 1838 to 1840, Beckwourth was an Indian trader to the Cheyenne, on the Arkansas River, working out of Fort Vasquez, Colorado, near Platteville. In 1840, he moved to the Bent & St. Vrain Company (the Bent brothers built Fort Bent on the Arkansas River). Later that same year, Beckwourth became an independent trader. Together with other partners, he built a trading post in Colorado. It was the center of development of the community of Pueblo, Colorado.
In 1844, Beckwourth traded on the Old Spanish Trail between the Arkansas River and California, then controlled by Mexico. When the Mexican–American War began in 1846, Beckwourth returned to the United States. He brought along nearly 1,800 stolen Mexican horses as spoils of war. In the war, he served as a courier with the US Army and helped suppress the Taos Revolt. His former employer, Charles Bent, then interim governor of New Mexico, was slain in that revolt.
By 1848 and the start of the Gold Rush, Beckwourth went to California. He first opened a store at Sonoma. He soon sold up and went to Sacramento, then a boomtown close to the mines, to live as a professional card player.
In 1850, Beckwourth was credited with discovering what came to be called Beckwourth Pass, a low-elevation pass through the Sierra Nevada Mountain chain. In 1851, he improved what became the Beckwourth Trail, originally a Native American path through the mountains. It began near Pyramid Lake and the Truckee Meadows east of the mountains, climbed to the pass named for him, and went along a ridge, between two forks of Feather River, before passing down through the gold fields of northern California, and on to Marysville. The trail spared the settlers and gold seekers, about 150 miles (240 km) and several steep grades and dangerous passes, such as Donner Pass.
By his account, the business communities of the gold towns in California were supposed to fund the making of the trail. However, when Beckwourth tried to collect his payment in 1851 after leading a party through, Marysville had suffered from two huge fires and town leaders were unable to pay. (In 1996, in recognition of his contribution to the city's development and of the outstanding debt to him, the City of Marysville officially renamed the town's largest park as Beckwourth Riverfront Park.)
Beckwourth began ranching in the Sierra. His ranch, trading post and hotel, in today's Sierra Valley, were the starting of the settlement of Beckwourth, California. In the winter of 1854/55, the itinerant judge, Thomas D. Bonner stayed in the hotel, and on winter nights Beckwourth told him his life story. Bonner wrote it down, edited the material the following year, and offered the book to Harper & Brothers in New York. The Life and Adventures of James P. Beckwourth was published in 1856. According to the contract, Beckwourth was entitled to one half of the proceeds, but he never received any income from Bonner.
United States Indian agent and scout during Sand Creek Massacre and Red Cloud's WarEdit
In 1859, Beckwourth returned to Missouri briefly, but settled later that year in Denver, Colorado Territory. He was a storekeeper and was appointed as a local US agent for Indian affairs. In 1864, Beckwourth was hired as a scout, by Colonel John M. Chivington, commander of the 3rd Colorado Cavalry Regiment. He was to serve in a campaign against the Cheyenne and Apache, leading a frontier para-military volunteer militia formed to annihilate indigenous inhabitants in the Territory for the American settlers. The Colorado Territory campaign resulted in the Sand Creek Massacre, in which the hostile militia killed an estimated 70-163 friendly Cheyenne men, women and children, who had camped in an area suggested by the previous commander of Fort Lyon as a safe place and were flying an American flag to show their peaceful intentions. Outraged by his association with the massacre, the Cheyenne banned Beckwourth from trading with them.
This section does not cite any sources. (September 2016) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
While guiding a military column to a Crow band in Montana, Beckwourth complained of severe headaches and suffered nosebleeds, most probably the result of a severe case of hypertension. He returned to the Crow village, where he died on October 29, 1866, with unstoppable nose bleeding. William Byers, a personal friend and the founder of the Rocky Mountain News, claimed the Crow had poisoned Beckwourth. He said the tribe felt they could no longer trust him because of his involvement in the Sand Creek Massacre. But, Byers had no supporting evidence, and his claim was speculation. Beckwourth's body was placed on an elevated platform in the traditional funerary custom of the Crow Tribe at the Crow Indian Settlement Burial Ground, Laramie, Albany County, Wyoming.
Marriage and familyEdit
This section does not cite any sources. (September 2016) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
At different times, Beckwourth had married at least four women: two Native Americans, an Hispanic, and an African American. --> He had numerous recorded children by them, conceived between his trapping and exploring expeditions.
Beckwourth's frontier memoirEdit
Beckwourth recounted his life history to Thomas D. Bonner, who wrote the book The Life and Adventures of James P. Beckwourth: Mountaineer, Scout, Pioneer and Chief of the Crow Nation. Beckwourth's language and style (as written by Bonner) were as notable as the reported adventures. The book provides historical information on how US government officials used alcohol; how occupations affect those who work in the field; the historical relationship among diseases, wildlife, and the environment; as well as reports dealing with massacres and war.
Jim Beckwourth, who knew, said that though the Indian could never become a white man, the white man lapsed easily into an Indian.
In popular cultureEdit
- In the James Michener 1978 NBC television miniseries Centennial, the figure of Jim Beckworth appears briefly and is portrayed by actor Carl Franklin.
- In the 2015 film The Revenant, an unnamed African-American man is depicted, as part of Ashley's 100. Since the chronology of events in the life of Hugh Glass was changed slightly for the film, it is unclear if the African American shown was intended as James Beckwourth, Edward Rose, a lesser known black mountain man, or simply a representation of blacks on the western frontier, where men's actions counted for more than did their ethnicity.
- Leigh Brackett, Follow the Free Wind, New York: Doubleday, 1963 (novel based on Beckwourth's life)
- Bill Hotchkiss, The Medicine Calf, New York: Norton, 1981, ISBN 0-393-01389-8. (novel based on Beckwourth's life.)
- Matt Braun, Bloody Hand, New York: St Martin's Press, 1996, ISBN 0-312-95839-0. (novel about Beckwourth's life with the Crow)
Legacy and honorsEdit
- Beckwourth Pass, named in honor of Beckwourth, is located in the Sierra Nevada Mountains in Plumas County, California. This pass and route was used by the Western Pacific Railroad to cross the Sierra along their Feather River route. The pass is located east of Portola, California. State Route 70 crosses the Sierra at this pass at an elevation of 1,591 m (5,221 ft); it is one of the lowest crossings of the Sierra Nevada in California.
- Beckwourth improved a Native American path to create what became known as the Beckwourth Trail through Plumas, Butte, and Yuba counties. In August 1851, he led the first intact wagon train into the burgeoning Gold Rush city of Marysville, California. Beckwourth demanded payment for improving the trail, claiming he had an agreement with the city and its merchants. As noted above, the city did not pay, as it has suffered disastrous fires.
- In 1994, the U.S. Postal Service issued a 29-cent commemorative postage stamp honoring Beckwourth.
- In 1996, the city of Marysville renamed its largest park as Beckwourth Riverfront Park to commemorate his contributions to development of the city. For a few years, the "Beckwourth Frontier Days" were celebrated annually in October, and were the only living history festival in northern California.
- Elinor Wilson, Jim Beckwourth – Black Mountain Man, War Chief of the Crows, Norman and London: University of Oklahoma Press, 1972, ISBN 0-8061-1555-6, p. 30
- Bonner, Thomas D. (1856). The Life and Adventures of James P. Beckwourth, Mountaineer, Scout, and Pioneer, and Chief of the Crow Nation of Indians. With Illustrations. Written from His Own Dictation. New York: Harper & Brothers. Archived from the original on 29 June 2014. Retrieved 3 August 2014.
- Noblet, Pierre (1860). Beckwourth le Chasseur. Scènes de la vie sauvage en Amérique traduit de l'anglo-américain par Noblet. Paris. Retrieved 3 August 2014.
- "Biography: Early Years"; note on 1972 biography, James Beckwourth Website, accessed 6 Oct 2009
- "Biography", James Beckwourth Website, accessed 6 Oct 2009
- The Life and Adventures of James P. Beckwourth, 1865, page 263
- Elinor Wilson: Jim Beckwourth – Black Mountain Man, War Chief of the Crows. University of Texas Press, Norman and London, 1972, ISBN 0-8061-1555-6, p. 86/87
- Bernard DeVoto (1943). The Year of Decision: 1846. Boston: Little, Brown. p. 65.
- Thomas D. Bonner (Hrsg.), The Life and Adventures of James P. Beckwourth: Mountaineer, Scout and Pioneer, and Chief of the Crow Nation of Indians, New York: Harper and Brothers; London: Sampson, Low, Son & Co., 1856; (online: The Life and Adventures of James P. Beckwourth)
- Oswald, Delmot R. "James P. Beckwourth", in Trappers of the Far West, Leroy R. Hafen, editor. 1972, Arthur H. Clark Company, reprint: Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press, October 1983. ISBN 0-8032-7218-9
- John W. Ravage, Black Pioneers: Images of the Black Experience on the North American Frontier, Salt Lake City: University of Utah Press, 1997, 2002
- Sifakis, Carl, The Encyclopedia of American Crime, Facts of File Inc., 1982
- Elinor Wilson, Jim Beckwourth: Black Mountain Man, War Chief of the Crows, Trader, Trapper, Explorer, Frontiersman, Guide, Scout, Interpreter, Adventurer and Gaudy Liar, Norman, OK and London: University of Oklahoma Press, 1972, ISBN 0-8061-1555-6