Jaipur (// (listen); Hindi: [ˈdʒəjpʊr]) is the capital and the largest city of the Indian state of Rajasthan. As of 2011, the city had a population of 3.1 million, making it the tenth most populous city in the country. Jaipur is also known as the Pink City, due to the dominant colour scheme of its buildings. It is located 268 km (167 miles) from the national capital New Delhi. On 6 July 2019, UNESCO World Heritage Committee inscribed Jaipur the "Pink City of India" among its World Heritage Sites.
The Pink City
|Founded by||Jai Singh II|
|Named for||Jai Singh II|
|• Type||Municipal Corporation|
|• Body||Jaipur Municipal Corporation|
|• Mayor||Somya Gurjar(Jaipur Greater)|
Munesh Gurjar (Jaipur Heritage)
|• Total||467 km2 (180 sq mi)|
|Area rank||1st in Rajasthan|
|Elevation||431 m (1,414 ft)|
|• Rank||10th India|
|• Density||6,500/km2 (17,000/sq mi)|
|• Additional official||English|
|Time zone||UTC+05:30 (IST)|
|Vehicle registration||RJ-14 (Jaipur South)|
RJ-45 (Jaipur North)
|Official name||Jaipur City, Rajasthan|
|Criteria||Cultural: (ii), (iv), (vi)|
|Designated||2019 (43rd session)|
Jaipur was founded in 1727 by the Kacchawa Rajput ruler Jai Singh II, the ruler of Amer, after whom the city is named. It was one of the earliest planned cities of modern India, designed by Vidyadhar Bhattacharya. During the British Colonial period, the city served as the capital of Jaipur State. After independence in 1947, Jaipur was made the capital of the newly formed state of Rajasthan.
Jaipur is a popular tourist destination in India and forms a part of the west Golden Triangle tourist circuit along with Delhi and Agra (240 km, 149 mi). It also serves as a gateway to other tourist destinations in Rajasthan such as Jodhpur (348 km, 216 mi), Jaisalmer (571 km, 355 mi), Udaipur (421 km, 262 mi), Kota (252 km, 156 mi) and Mount Abu (520 km, 323 mi). Jaipur is located 616 km from Shimla.
On 6 July 2019, UNESCO World Heritage Committee inscribed Jaipur the "Pink City of India" among its World Heritage Sites. The city is also home to the UNESCO World Heritage Sites Amer Fort and Jantar Mantar.
The city of Jaipur was founded by King of Amer, Maharaja Sawai Jai Singh II on 18 November 1727, who ruled from 1699 to 1743. He planned to shift his capital from Amer, 11 kilometres (7 mi) to Jaipur to accommodate the growing population and increasing scarcity of water. Jai Singh consulted several books on architecture and architects while planning the layout of Jaipur. Under the architectural guidance of Vidyadhar Bhattacharya, Jaipur was planned based on the principles of Vastu Shastra and Shilpa Shastra. The construction of the city began in 1726 and took four years to complete the major roads, offices, and palaces. The city was divided into nine blocks, two of which contained the state buildings and palaces, with the remaining seven allotted to the public. Huge ramparts were built, pierced by seven fortified gates.
During the rule of Sawai Ram Singh I, the city was painted pink to welcome HRH Albert Edward, Prince of Wales (who later became King Edward VII, Emperor of India), in 1876. Many of the avenues still remain painted in pink, giving Jaipur a distinctive appearance and the epithet Pink city.
In the 19th century, the city grew rapidly and by 1900 it had a population of 160,000. The wide boulevards were paved and its chief industries were the working of metals and marble, fostered by a school of art founded in 1868. The city had three colleges, including a Sanskrit college (1865) and a girls' school (1867) opened during the reign of the Maharaja Ram Singh II.
Large areas of the city including the airport were flooded in August 1981, resulting in the death of eight people and much damage to the city's Dravyavati River. The floods were caused by three days of cloud burst that produced more rain than the annual average.
Jaipur has a monsoon-influenced hot semi-arid climate (Köppen climate classification BSh) with long, extremely hot summers and short, mild to warm winters. Annual precipitation is over 63 cm, falling mostly in July and August due to monsoon, causing the average temperatures in these two months to be lower compared to drier May and June. During the monsoon, there are frequent, heavy rains and thunderstorms, but flooding is not common. The highest temperature ever recorded was 48.5 °C (119.3 °F), in May. The city's average temperature remains below 20 °C or 68 °F between December and February. These months are mild, dry, and pleasant, sometimes chilly. The lowest temperature ever recorded was −2.2 °C (28.0 °F). Jaipur, like many other major cities of the world, is a significant urban heat island zone with surrounding rural temperatures occasionally falling below freezing in winters.
|Record high °C (°F)||31.7
|Mean maximum °C (°F)||27.2
|Average high °C (°F)||22.6
|Average low °C (°F)||8.6
|Mean minimum °C (°F)||3.8
|Record low °C (°F)||−2.2
|Average rainfall mm (inches)||5.9
|Average rainy days||0.6||0.9||0.6||0.8||1.6||3.7||9.3||8.9||4.0||1.3||0.3||0.3||32.4|
|Average relative humidity (%) (at 17:30 IST)||37||29||21||17||19||33||60||67||50||31||34||39||36|
|Source: India Meteorological Department|
According to provisional report of 2011 census, Jaipur city had a population of 3,073,350. The overall literacy rate for the city is 84.34%. 90.61% males and 77.41% females were literate. The sex ratio was 898 females per 1,000 males & the child sex ratio was recorded 854. However, the population of the city is expected to grow up to around 39.1 lakhs (3.91 million). According to the 2011 census, Hindus form the majority religious group comprising 77.9% of the city's population, followed by Muslims (18.6%), Jains (2.4%) and others (1.2%).
|Population Growth of Jaipur City|
|Source:Census of India|
Governance and politicsEdit
The Jaipur Municipal Corporation (JMC) was established in the year 1994. The area of the municipal corporation is 467 square km and it is governed under the Rajasthan Municipality Act of 1959. The municipal corporation is headed by a mayor.
JMC was recently bifurcated into two Municipal Corporations, namely Greater Jaipur Municipal Corporation and Jaipur Heritage Municipal Corporation. Originally, the municipality had 91 wards and each ward was represented by an elected member. However, the Local Self Government Department of Rajasthan divided Jaipur into two municipal corporations, namely Greater Jaipur Municipal Corporation and Heritage Jaipur Municipal Corporation, with 150 and 100 wards each, respectively.
Municipal elections of Jaipur was held in the year 2014. In 2014 elections, BJP won majority in civic body elections. The latest elections is scheduled to be held in October 2020, and had been postponed due to COVID-19. However, elections for the 100 wards of Jaipur Heritage Municipal Corporation were held on 29 October 2020.
The mayor is the elected representative of the city. The current mayor of Jaipur city is Vishnu Laata. The administration duties are carried out by the municipal commissioner and his group of officials. The municipal commissioner of Jaipur is Dinesh Kumar Yadav (IAS).
The estimated municipal budget for the year 2019-2020 is Rs. 215853. The key revenue sources for Jaipur municipality is taxes which includes House tax, Urban Development tax and octroi compensation. Along with this it also gains revenue from various fees and user charges. The masterplan for the city 2025 was created by the Jaipur Development Authority.
Legislative assembly and state agenciesEdit
Jaipur consists of two parliamentary constituencies Jaipur and Jaipur Rural. The political party with a majority in Jaipur is the Indian National Congress. It also has electives from the BJP and INC party.
The Jaipur Lok Sabha constituency comprises of eight vidhan sabha (legislative assembly) segments, all of which fall partly in Jaipur city. MLA for Hawa Mahal is Mahesh Joshi from INC, MLA for Vidhyadhar Nagar is Narpat Singh Rajvi from BJP, MLA for Civil Lines is Pratap Singh Khachariyavas from INC, MLA for Kishanpole is Amin Kagzi from INC, MLA for Adarsh Nagar is Rafeek Khan from INC, MLA for Malviya Nagar constituency is Kalicharan Saraf from BJP, MLA for Sanganer constituency is Ashok Lahoty from BJP and lastly the MLA for Bagru is Ganga Devi from INC.
The Jaipur Rural Lok Sabha constituency also comprises of eight vidhan sabha segments. There are in the northern outskirts of the Jaipur city. MLA for Kotputli is Rajendra Singh Yadav from INC, MLA for Viratnagar is Indraj Gurjar from INC, MLA for Shahpura is Alok Beniwal (Independent), MLA for Phulera is Nirmal Kumawat from BJP, MLA for Jhotwara is Lalchand Kataria from INC, MLA for Amber is Satish Poonia from BJP, MLA for Jamwa Ramgarh is Gopal Meena from INC and lastly MLA for Bansur is Shakuntala Rawat from INC.
Law and orderEdit
The city police in Jaipur is under the jurisdiction of the Rajasthan State Department. The current Police Commissioner for Jaipur City Police is Mr. Anand Srivastava. In Jaipur City, there is a District and Sessions court present. It also has a family court.
Jaipur Development Authority (JDA) is the nodal government agency responsible for the planning and development of Jaipur. Jaipur also falls under the Jaipur district of the state of Rajasthan in western India. There are 13 tehsils in the district, which are named Jaipur, Amer, Bassi, Chaksu, Chomu, Mojmabad, Jamwa Ramgarh, Phage, Phulera, Kotputli, Sanganer, Shahpura, Viratnagar. The total area of the district is 14068 square km.
Electricity in Jaipur City is supplied through Jaipur Vidyut Vitaran Nigam LTD by the Government of Rajasthan. Jaipur MC has a fire department wing and there are 11 fire stations, with 50 fire tenders in the state capital. However, with the city is expanding and the population increasing, the existing infrastructure is not sufficient to cater to the city's requirements. Jaipur, a Tier 2 city, also does not have rescue tenders, used for cutting material, or a turntable ladder (TTL), used for dousing flames from aerial angles without entering the building.
Water supply, sewerage and drainageEdit
The Rajasthan government has formed the Jaipur Water Supply and Sewerage Board (JWSSB) for the management of water supply and sewerage services in urban areas of the city. JWSSB, an autonomous body, has been constituted under the JWSSB Ordinance, 2018. It will ensure water supply as per the standards stipulated by the Bureau of Indian Standards, the State Pollution Control Board or Rajasthan's Public Health Engineering Department (PHED). JWSSB will be responsible for financing, designing, constructing, altering, repairing, operating, and maintaining various water supply and sewerage schemes. It will also provide meters and carry out commercial services such as meter reading, billing, and revenue collection.
The Jaipur Development Authority has divided the city into four main drainage zones with the northern and central zones draining into the Dravyavati river while the western zone drains into the Chandler lake and the eastern and southern areas combined drain into the Dhundh River. Sewerage systems and STPs have been constructed accordingly with the installed capacity being 730 km of sewer lines and 442 MLD of sewage treatment.
Solid waste managementEdit
The corporation has a new solid waste management system that includes the door-to-door collection, transportation of garbage in covered vehicles, proper deployment of dustbins, use of modern equipment. The system ensures private investment as well as public participation with small amount of monthly user charges. The size of the JMC garage can be kept at a manageable level.
Complete Sanitation work in 3 zones namely Hawamahal Zone (East), Hawamahal (West), Motidungari Zone, and Pratap Nagar has been contracted out through National Tendering.
Jaipur is a major tourist destination in India forming a part of the Golden Triangle. In the 2008 Conde Nast Traveller Readers Choice Survey, Jaipur was ranked the 7th best place to visit in Asia. According to TripAdvisor's 2015 Traveller's Choice Awards for Destination, Jaipur ranked 1st among the Indian destinations for the year. The Presidential Suite at the Raj Palace Hotel, billed at US$45,000 per night, was listed in second place on CNN's World's 15 most expensive hotel suites in 2012.
Jaipur Exhibition & Convention Centre (JECC) is Rajasthan's biggest convention and exhibition centre. It is famous for organising events such as Vastara, Jaipur Jewellery Show, Stonemart 2015 and Resurgent Rajasthan Partnership Summit 2015.
Visitor attractions include the Birla Auditorium, Albert Hall Museum, Hawa Mahal, Jal Mahal, City Palace, Amer Fort, Jantar Mantar, Nahargarh Fort, Jaigarh Fort, Birla Mandir, Galtaji, Govind Dev Ji Temple, Garh Ganesh Temple, Moti Dungri Ganesh Temple, Sanghiji Jain temple and the Jaipur Zoo. The Jantar Mantar observatory (The Jantar Mantar is a collection of 19 astronomical instruments remarkable at their time.) and Amer Fort are one of the World Heritage Sites. Hawa Mahal is a five-storey pyramidal shaped monument with 953 windows that rises 15 metres (50 ft) from its high base. Sisodiya Rani Bagh and Kanak Vrindavan are the major parks in Jaipur. Raj Mandir is a notable cinema hall in Jaipur.
Travel+Leisure - The World's Best Awards 2020
Jaipur was Ranked Number 8 in "The Top 15 Cities in Asia".
Jaipur has many cultural sites like Jawahar Kala Kendra formed by Architect Charles Correa and Ravindra Manch. Government Central Museum hosts several arts and antiquities. There is a government museum at Hawa Mahal and an art gallery at Viratnagar. There are statues depicting Rajasthani culture around the city. Jaipur has many traditional shops selling antiques and handicrafts, as well as contemporary brands reviving traditional techniques, such as Anokhi. The prior rulers of Jaipur patronised a number of arts and crafts. They invited skilled artisans, artists and craftsmen from India and abroad who settled in the city. Some of the crafts include bandhani, block printing, stone carving and sculpture, tarkashi, zari, gota-patti, kinari and zardozi, silver jewellery, gems, kundan, meenakari and jewellery, Lakh ki Chudiya, miniature paintings, blue pottery, ivory carving, shellac work and leather ware.
Jaipur has its own performing arts. The Jaipur Gharana for Kathak is one of the three gharanas of the major north Indian classical dance form of Kathak. The Jaipur Gharana of Kathak is known for its rapid intricate dance forms, vivacious body movements and subtle Abhinaya. The Ghoomar is a popular folk dance style. Tamasha is an art form where Kathputli puppet dance is shown in play form. Major festivals celebrated in Jaipur include Elephant Festival, Gangaur, Makar Sankranti, Holi, Diwali, Vijayadashami, Teej, Eid, Mahavir Jayanti and Christmas. Jaipur is also famous for the Jaipur Literature Festival, the world's largest free literature festival in which authors, writers and literature lovers from all over the country participate.
The city was planned according to the Indian Vastu shastra by Vidyadhar Bhattacharya in 1727. There are three gates facing east, west, and north. The eastern gate is called Suraj pol (sun gate), the western gate is called Chand pol (moon gate) and the northern gate faces the ancestral capital of Amer.
The city is unusual among pre-modern Indian cities in the regularity of its streets, and the division of the city into six sectors by broad streets 34 m (111 ft) wide. The urban quarters are further divided by networks of gridded streets. Five-quarters wrap around the east, south, and west sides of a central palace quarter, with a sixth quarter immediately to the east. The Palace quarter encloses the Hawa Mahal palace complex, formal gardens, and a small lake. Nahargarh Fort, which was the residence of the King Sawai Jai Singh II, crowns the hill in the northwest corner of the old city.
Typical dishes include Dal Baati Churma, Missi Roti, Gatte ki Sabzi, Lahsun ki chutney, Ker Sangri, Makke ki Ghat, Bajre ki Ghat, Bajre ki Roti and Laal Maans. Jaipur is also known for its sweets which include Ghevar, Feeni, Mawa Kachori, Gajak, Meethi thuli, Chauguni ke laddu, and Moong Thal.
The official language of Jaipur is Hindi and the additional official language is English. The native and main dialect of the city is Dhundari. The Marwari and Standard Hindi dialects are also spoken, along with English.
Economy and infrastructureEdit
In addition to its role as the provincial capital, educational, and administrative centre, the economy of Jaipur is fuelled by tourism, gemstone cutting, the manufacture of jewellery and luxury textiles, and information technology. Three major trade promotion organisations have their offices in Jaipur. These are: Federation of Indian Chambers of Commerce & Industry, (FICCI) the PHD Chamber of Commerce and Industry (PHDCCI) and the Confederation of Indian Industry (CII) which has its regional offices here. In 2008, Jaipur was ranked 31 among the 50 Emerging Global Outsourcing cities. Jaipur Stock Exchange is one of the regional stock exchanges in India and was founded in 1989. Jaipur is a major hub for arts and crafts. It has many traditional shops selling antiques, jewellery, handicrafts, gems, bangles, pottery, carpets, textiles, leather and metal products. Jaipur is one of India's largest manufacturers of hand-knotted rugs. Jaipur leg, a rubber-based prosthetic leg for people with below-knee amputations, was designed and is produced in Jaipur.
Jaipur has offices of companies like Airtel, Jio, VI (Vodafone-Idea) and BSNL which are providing mobile telephony and there are also various internet service providers in the city. The government of Rajasthan has started free WiFi at various public places like Central Park, Jantar Mantar among others.
Major daily newspapers in Jaipur include Amar Ujala, Rajasthan Patrika, Dainik Bhaskar, Dainik Navajyoti and The Times of India. The state-owned All India Radio is broadcast both on the medium wave and FM band in the city. Private FM stations include Radio Mirchi (98.3 MHz), Radio City (91.1 MHz), My FM (94.3 MHz), FM Tadka 95 FM (95.0 MHz), Red FM 93.5 (93.5 MHz) and Gyan Vani (105.6 MHz). The city has a community FM channel in FM Radio 7 (90.4 MHz) by India International School Institutional Network. The public broadcaster Doordarshan (Prasar Bharati) provides a regional channel in addition to the private broadcasters.
Jaipur is located on National Highway No.8 connecting Delhi and Mumbai. National Highway 12 links Jaipur with Kota and National Highway 11 links Bikaner with Agra passing through Jaipur. RSRTC operates bus service to major cities in Rajasthan, New Delhi, Uttar Pradesh, Haryana, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Punjab and Gujarat. City buses are operated by Jaipur City Transport Services Limited (JCTSL) of RSRTC. The service operates more than 400 regular and low-floor buses. Major bus depots are located at Vaishali Nagar, Vidyadhar Nagar and Sanganer.
Jaipur BRTS was approved by the government in August 2006. Jaipur BRTS is managed by JCSTL, a special purpose vehicle formed by Jaipur Development Authority and Jaipur Nagar Nigam. In Phase I, two corridors have been proposed: a "North-South Corridor" from Sikar Road to Tonk Road and an "East-West Corridor" from Ajmer Road to Delhi Road. A section of the North-South Corridor from bypass near Harmada to Pani Pech became operational in 2010.
Jaipur Ring Road is a project of Jaipur Development Authority to reduce increasing traffic of Jaipur city which connects NH-11 (Agra Road), NH-8 (Ajmer Road), NH-12 (Tonk Road), and NH-12 (Malpura Road) having a length of 150 km. The 57 km out of 150 km long six-lane Jaipur Ring Road has been completed at a cost of Rs. 1217 crore which was inaugurated by Sushma Swaraj, Arun Jaitley and Nitin Gadkari.
Bhawani Singh Road, named after the last Maharaja of Jaipur which begins from Nehru Sahkar Bhawan and ends at the intersection where Birla Mandir is situated is one of the most popular roads in the city with notable places like Rambagh Palace, Golf Club and Jaipur Development Authority Office falling on its path. A similarly named road; Bhawani Singh Lane, serves as a place where the prominent people of Jaipur reside. The road also serves as a passage for the offices of companies like ETV Rajasthan, Redington India Limited, Hal Clyde Denison, and Rajasthan Tourism Bureau.
Jaipur is the headquarters of North Western Railway Zone of Indian Railways. Jaipur Junction railway station is well connected to all major cities of India like Delhi, Mumbai, Hyderabad, Kolkata, Chennai, Bangalore, Indore, Lucknow, Visakhapatnam and Ahmedabad. Other stations include Gandhinagar, Bhagalpur, Jagatpura, Ninad Benad and Sanganer.
Jaipur Metro commenced commercial operation on 3 June 2015. Phase-1A is operational between Mansarovar and Chandpole consisting of nine stations namely Mansarovar, New Aatish Market, Vivek Vihar, Shayam Nagar, Ram Nagar, Civil Line, Railway Station, Sindhi Camp and Chandpole. Phase-1B is under construction. The estimated cost of the Total project is Rs97. 32bn ($1.74bn). and it is expected to be completed by 2020.
Jaipur International Airport is in Sanganer, 12.2 km (8 miles) from the centre. The airport handled 363,899 international and 2,540,451 domestic passengers in 2015–2016. Jaipur Airport also provides air cargo services. During winter, sometimes flights towards Indira Gandhi International Airport are diverted to Jaipur Airport due to heavy fog in Delhi. The airport operates regular domestic services to major Indian cities including Ahmedabad, Bengaluru, Chandigarh, Raipur, Chennai, Delhi, Guwahati, Hyderabad, Visakhapatnam, Indore, Kolkata, Lucknow, Mumbai, Pune, Surat, Udaipur, Bikaner, and Varanasi. International destinations served include Dubai, Muscat, Bangkok, Sharjah and Kuala Lumpur.
Public and private schools in Jaipur are governed by the Central Board of Secondary Education or Board of Secondary Education, Rajasthan, International Board of education and follow a "10+2" plan. This plan entails eight years of primary education and four years of secondary education. The secondary school includes two years of upper secondary education, which is more specific and diverse than the two years of lower secondary education before it. Languages of instruction include English and Hindi.
Admission to graduation colleges in Jaipur, many of which are affiliated to Rajasthan Technical University, is through the RPET, now RPET has been replaced by REAP (Rajasthan Engineering Admission Process). Notable institutions include SMS Medical College, Subodh College, St Xavier's College, University of Rajasthan, Indian Institute of Health Management Research,Malviya National Institute of Technology Jaipur, Jaipur National University, Manipal University, Apex University, National Institute of Ayurveda, The LNM Institute of Information Technology, IIS University, and Suresh Gyan Vihar University
The main cricket stadium in the city, Sawai Mansingh Stadium, has a seating capacity of 30,000 and has hosted national and international cricket matches. It is also the home ground of IPL team Rajasthan Royals. Sawai Mansingh Indoor Stadium, Chaugan Stadium and Railway Cricket Ground are the other sporting arenas in the city.
A new stadium has been proposed for Chonp Village with seating capacity 75,000. It would be the third-largest cricket stadium in the world after the Sardar Patel Stadium and the Melbourne Cricket Ground.
In popular cultureEdit
Paul McCartney wrote and recorded the Jaipur tribute song "Riding into Jaipur" (4:08) whose minimalist lyrics say: « riding to Jaipur, riding through the night, riding with my baby, oh what a delight, oh what a delight, it is. » The song was released on his 2001 studio album Driving Rain.
Jaipur is the setting for the film The Best Exotic Marigold Hotel and its sequel, The Second Best Exotic Marigold Hotel, which follow the adventures of a group of senior European ex-pats who retire to Jaipur and in the process discover their true selves.
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