Jai Shri Ram (Sanskrit: जय श्री राम) is a Sanskrit expression, translating to "Glory to Lord Rama". The expression attracted notability after the Hindu nationalist Bharatiya Janata Party embraced the slogan in the late 20th century, as a tool of increasing the visibility of Hinduism in public spaces and went on to use it as a war-cry, for perpetration of communal atrocities against people of other faiths.[1][2][3][4][5][6][7][8][9][10][11][12][13][14][15][16][17][18][19][20][21][22][23][24][a] The proclamation has been also used as an informal greeting[25] or as a symbol of adhering to Hindu faith[26][27] or for projection of varied faith-centered emotions,[28][29][30] by Hindus in recent past.

Notes and References

Notes

  1. ^ Compare with the usage of Allāhu akbar in Islamic radicalism, over here.

References

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  2. ^ Engineer, Asghar Ali (1993). "Bastion of Communal Amity Crumbles". Economic and Political Weekly. 28 (7): 262–264. ISSN 0012-9976. JSTOR 4399390.
  3. ^ Breman, Jan (1993). "Anti-Muslim Pogrom in Surat". Economic and Political Weekly. 28 (16): 737–741. ISSN 0012-9976. JSTOR 4399608.
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  6. ^ Engineer, Asghar Ali (1992). "Sitamarhi on Fire". Economic and Political Weekly. 27 (46): 2462–2464. ISSN 0012-9976. JSTOR 4399118.
  7. ^ Nussbaum, Martha C. (2008-11-01). "The Clash Within: Democracy and the Hindu Right". Journal of Human Development. 9 (3): 357–375. doi:10.1080/14649880802236565. ISSN 1464-9888.
  8. ^ Staples, James (2019-11-02). "Blurring Bovine Boundaries: Cow Politics and the Everyday in South India". South Asia: Journal of South Asian Studies. 42 (6): 1125–1140. doi:10.1080/00856401.2019.1669951. ISSN 0085-6401.
  9. ^ Gupta, Charu; Sharma, Mukul (1996). "Communal constructions: media reality vs real reality". Race & Class. 38 (1): 1–20. doi:10.1177/030639689603800101. ISSN 0306-3968.
  10. ^ Austin, Dennis; Lyon, Peter (1993). "The Bharatiya Janata Party of India". Government and Opposition. 28 (1): 36–50. doi:10.1111/j.1477-7053.1993.tb01304.x. ISSN 0017-257X. JSTOR 44484547.
  11. ^ Ramaseshan, Radhika (1990). "The Press on Ayodhya". Economic and Political Weekly. 25 (50): 2701–2704. ISSN 0012-9976. JSTOR 4397088.
  12. ^ Sarkar, Sumit (1999). "Conversions and Politics of Hindu Right". Economic and Political Weekly. 34 (26): 1691–1700. ISSN 0012-9976. JSTOR 4408131.
  13. ^ Sarkar, Sumit (1993). "The Fascism of the Sangh Parivar". Economic and Political Weekly. 28 (5): 163–167. ISSN 0012-9976. JSTOR 4399339.
  14. ^ Ludden, David; Ludden, Professor of History David (April 1996). Contesting the Nation: Religion, Community, and the Politics of Democracy in India. University of Pennsylvania Press. ISBN 978-0-8122-1585-4.
  15. ^ Rambachan, Anantanand (2017-04-20). "The Coexistence of Violence and Nonviolence in Hinduism". Journal of Ecumenical Studies. 52 (1): 96–104. doi:10.1353/ecu.2017.0001. ISSN 2162-3937.
  16. ^ Gudipaty, Nagamallika (2017), "Television, Political Imagery, and Elections in India", in Ngwainmbi, Emmanuel K. (ed.), Citizenship, Democracies, and Media Engagement among Emerging Economies and Marginalized Communities, Springer International Publishing, pp. 117–145, doi:10.1007/978-3-319-56215-5_6, ISBN 978-3-319-56215-5
  17. ^ Mazumdar, Sucheta (1995). "Women on the March: Right-Wing Mobilization in Contemporary India". Feminist Review (49): 1–28. doi:10.2307/1395323. ISSN 0141-7789. JSTOR 1395323.
  18. ^ Schultz, Kai; Raj, Suhasini (5 January 2020). "Masked Men Attack Students in Rampage at University in New Delhi". The New York Times. Retrieved 6 January 2020.
  19. ^ Brosius, Christiane (2005). "Hindutva's Media Phantasmagorias". Empowering visions : the politics of representation in Hindu nationalism. Anthem Press. p. 95. ISBN 1-84331-134-8. OCLC 52566622.
  20. ^ Brosius, Christiane (2007). "The Unwanted Offering. Ubiquity And Success Of Failure In A Ritual Of The Hindu Right". In Hüsken, Ute (ed.). When rituals go wrong mistakes, failure and the dynamics of ritual. Numen. 115. Brill. ISBN 978-90-474-1988-4. OCLC 928981707.
  21. ^ Ghassem-Fachandi, Parvis (2009-08-01). "Bandh in Ahmedabad". Violence: Ethnographic Encounters. Berg. ISBN 978-1-84788-418-3.
  22. ^ Salam, Ziya Us. ""Jai Shri Ram": The new battle cry". Frontline. Retrieved 2020-01-10.
  23. ^ Daniyal, Shoaib. "'Jai Shri Ram' might be a new slogan – but the use of Ram as a political symbol is 800 years old". Scroll.in. Retrieved 2020-01-10.
  24. ^ DelhiJuly 13, Prabhash K. Dutta New; July 13, 2019UPDATED; Ist, 2019 12:28. "Jai Shri Ram: A slogan that changed political contours of India". India Today. Retrieved 2020-01-10.
  25. ^ Menon, Kalyani Devaki (2011-07-06). "Notes". Everyday Nationalism: Women of the Hindu Right in India. University of Pennsylvania Press. p. 190. doi:10.9783/9780812202793. ISBN 978-0-8122-0279-3. JSTOR j.ctt3fj1wh.
  26. ^ Agrawal, Purushottam (1994). "'Kan Kan Mein Vyape Hein Ram': The Slogan as a Metaphor of Cultural Interrogation". Oxford Literary Review. 16 (1/2): 245–264. doi:10.3366/olr.1994.010. ISSN 0305-1498. JSTOR 44244508.
  27. ^ Ghosh, Shohini (2000). "Hum Aapke Hain Koun...!: Pluralizing Pleasures of Viewership". Social Scientist. 28 (3/4): 83–90. doi:10.2307/3518192. ISSN 0970-0293. JSTOR 3518192.
  28. ^ Ramachandran, Tanisha (2014-03-01). "A call to multiple arms! protesting the commoditization of hindu imagery in western society". Material Religion. 10 (1): 54–75. doi:10.2752/175183414X13909887177547. ISSN 1743-2200.
  29. ^ "Modi's party will grow stronger in West Bengal". Emerald Expert Briefings. 2019-08-20. doi:10.1108/OXAN-DB245910. ISSN 2633-304X.
  30. ^ Dasgupta, Amlan (2006). Bakhle, Janaki (ed.). "Rhythm and Rivalry". Economic and Political Weekly. 41 (36): 3861–3863. ISSN 0012-9976. JSTOR 4418675.