Jacques Leroy de Saint-Arnaud
This article relies largely or entirely on a single source. (February 2012)
Armand-Jacques Leroy de Saint-Arnaud (20 August 1798 – 29 September 1854) was a French soldier and Marshal of France. He served as French Minister of War until the Crimean War when he became Commander-in-chief of the army of the East.
Jacques Leroy de Saint Arnaud
19th century lithographic portrait of Saint Arnaud.
|Born||20 August 1798|
|Died||29 September 1854 (aged 56)|
|Allegiance|| Bourbon Restoration|
French Second Republic
Second French Empire
|Years of service||1821–1854|
|Rank||Maréchal de France|
|Battles/wars||Conquest of Algeria|
|Awards||Legion of Honour (Grand Croix)|
Born in Paris, he entered the army in 1817, but after ten years of garrison service he still held only the lowest commissioned grade. He then resigned, led a life of adventure in several lands and returned to the army at the age of thirty as a sub-lieutenant. He took part in the suppression of the Vendée émeute (1832), and served for a time on the staff of General (Marshal) Bugeaud. However, his debts and the scandals of his private life compelled him to go to Algeria as a captain in the French Foreign Legion. There he distinguished himself on numerous occasions, and after twelve years had risen to the rank of maréchal de camp (major general).
In 1848 Saint Arnaud commanded a brigade during the revolution in Paris. On his return to Africa, possibly because Louis Napoleon considered him a suitable military head of a potential coup d'état, an expedition took place into Little Kabylie in northern Algeria, in which Saint Arnaud showed his prowess as a commander-in-chief and provided his superiors with the pretext for bringing him home as a general of division (July 1851).
He succeeded Marshal Magnan as minister of war and superintended the military operations of the coup d'état of 2 December 1851, which placed Louis Napoleon on the throne as Emperor Napoleon III. A year later he became a Marshal of France and a senator, remaining at the head of the war office till 1854, when he set out to command the French forces in the Crimean War, alongside his British colleague Lord Raglan. Ill with stomach cancer, he died on board ship, shortly after commanding at the Battle of the Alma (20 September 1854). His body, returned to France, lies buried in Les Invalides.
The town of St Arnaud, Victoria, Australia was named after Jaques and has a commemorative statue of him in the town's botanical gardens on Napier Street. Another town, located in Algeria, was called Saint Arnaud under French rule; currently, its name is El Eulma. The Saint Arnaud Range and the nearby locality of Saint Arnaud in New Zealand both derive their name from him.
- Second French Empire: Baton of Maréchal de France
- Second French Empire: Grand Croix of the Legion of Honour
- Second French Empire: Médaille militaire
- Kingdom of Sardinia: Grand Croix of the Order of Saints Maurice and Lazarus
- Two Sicilies: Grand Croix of the Order of Saint George and Reunion
- Papal States: Grand Croix of the Order of Pope Pius IX
- Papal States: Grand Croix of the Order of St. Gregory the Great
- Belgium: Commander of the Order of Leopold
- Ottoman Empire: First Class of the Order of the Medjidie
- Tunisia: First Class of the Order of Glory
- Encyclopædia Britannica Encyclopædia Britannica
- This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Saint Arnaud, Jacques Leroy de". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.
Jacques Louis Randon
| Minister of War,
26 October 1851 – 11 March 1854
Jean-Baptiste Philibert Vaillant