Jack Patrick Dorsey (born November 19, 1976)[3] is an American Internet entrepreneur, philanthropist, and programmer, who is a co-founder and former CEO of Twitter, Inc. from 2015 until 2021, as well as co-founder, principal executive officer and chairperson[4] of Block, Inc., which is the developer of the Square financial services platform. As of October 2023, Forbes estimated his net worth to be $3.1 billion.[5]

Jack Dorsey
Dorsey in 2014
Jack Patrick Dorsey

(1976-11-19) November 19, 1976 (age 47)
  • Programmer
  • Internet entrepreneur
Known forCo-founding Twitter, Inc. and Block, Inc.
Board member of

Early life


Dorsey was born and raised in St. Louis, Missouri.[6][7] His father is Tim Dorsey and his mother is Marcia (née Smith) Dorsey.[8][9][10] Jack Dorsey is partly of Italian descent on his mother's side.[11] His father worked for a company that developed mass spectrometers and his mother was a homemaker.[12] He was raised Catholic, and his uncle is a Catholic priest in Cincinnati.[13]

Dorsey attended Bishop DuBourg High School. In his younger days, he worked occasionally as a fashion model.[14][15][16][17][18] By age 14, he had become interested in dispatch routing. Dorsey enrolled at the University of Missouri–Rolla in 1995 and attended for two-plus years[13] before transferring to New York University in 1997, but he dropped out two years later,[19] one semester short of graduating.[13] He came up with the idea that eventually became Twitter while studying at New York University.[13][20]

While working on dispatching as a programmer, Dorsey moved to California.[21][22] In 2000, Dorsey started his company in Oakland to dispatch couriers, taxis, and emergency services from the Web.[23] His other projects and ideas at this time included networks of medical devices and a "frictionless service market".[23] In July 2000, building on dispatching[8] and inspired in part by LiveJournal and by AOL Instant Messenger, he had the idea for a Web-based realtime status/short message communication service.[23]

When he first saw implementations of instant messaging, Dorsey wondered whether the software's user status output could be shared easily among friends.[8] He approached Odeo, which at the time happened to be interested in text messaging.[8] Dorsey and Biz Stone decided that SMS text suited the status-message idea, and built a prototype of Twitter in about two weeks.[8] The idea attracted many users at Odeo and investment from Evan Williams,[8] a co-founder of that firm in 2005 who had left Google after selling Pyra Labs and Blogger.




Dorsey in 2008

Noah Glass, Evan Williams, and Biz Stone co-founded Odeo, later renamed Obvious Corporation, which then spun off Twitter, Inc. Dorsey became Twitter's Chief Executive Officer (CEO).[8][24] As CEO, Dorsey saw the startup through two rounds of funding by venture capitalists.[25] He reportedly lost his position for leaving work early to enjoy other pursuits, such as yoga and fashion design.[26]

As the service began to grow in popularity, Dorsey chose the improvement of uptime as top priority,[27] even over creating revenue—which, as of 2008, Twitter was not designed to earn.[28] Dorsey described the commercial use of Twitter and its API as two things that could lead to paid features.[28] His three guiding principles, which he says the company shares, are simplicity, constraint, and craftsmanship.[28]

On October 16, 2008,[29] Williams took over as CEO, while Dorsey became chairman of the board.[30][31] During his time as chairman, Dorsey joined several State Department delegations, including a trip to Iraq in April 2009, led by Jared Cohen.[32][33][34] In November, when Iranians took to the streets in the Green Revolution, Twitter was scheduled to conduct maintenance of its site, which would entail temporarily shutting down Twitter's servers. Dorsey responded to a request from Cohen to delay the maintenance so that it would not affect the revolution in Iran, because Iranians were using Twitter to communicate and coordinate.[35] Since President Obama had announced that there would be no meddling in Iran, the move sparked controversy.[36][37][38] In February 2010, Dorsey was part of another State Department delegation, this time to Russia.[39][40] On March 28, 2011, he returned to Twitter as executive chairman after Dick Costolo replaced Williams as CEO.[41] On June 10, 2015, Costolo announced his resignation as CEO, effective July 1, 2015. Dorsey assumed the post of interim CEO upon Costolo's departure.[42] He was named permanent CEO on October 5, 2015.[43]

Dorsey and President Barack Obama at Twitter Town Hall in July 2011

In May 2016, Dorsey announced that Twitter would not count photos and links in the 140-character limit to free up more space for text. This was an attempt to entice new users, since the number of tweets per day had dropped from about 500 million in September 2013 and its peak of 661 million in August 2014 to about 300 million in January 2016.[44]

On November 22, 2016, Dorsey was briefly suspended from his own Twitter account with 3.9 million followers. After restoring the account, Dorsey tweeted that the suspension was due to an "internal mistake".[45]

In February 2017, Dorsey and Executive Chairman Omid Kordestani matched a $530,000 donation to the American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU) raised by Twitter staffers. Their match brought the total donation to $1.59 million.[46]

In March 2018, Dorsey announced that an improved version of the verification system would be coming to Twitter. The purpose of redesigning verification was to let people verify more facts about themselves, emphasizing proof of identity.[47] The overhaul was not in place before the U.S midterm election of 2018 to help in verifying the identities of the candidates.[48]

In September 2018, Dorsey testified before the Senate Intelligence Committee alongside Facebook COO Sheryl Sandberg about the use of social media by Russia and others to meddle in the 2016 presidential election. Following this testimony, Twitter shares fell six percent.[49]

President Donald Trump with Dorsey in the Oval Office of the White House on April 23, 2019

Dorsey met privately with U.S. President Donald Trump at the White House and discussed Trump's concerns that Twitter had limited or removed some of his Twitter followers, and those of conservatives. After the meeting, Dorsey tweeted that their discussion included making Twitter "healthier and more civil".[50] A week earlier, Dorsey took part in a TED talk about the social media platform's spread of abuse and misinformation, which has brought him criticism.[51]

On August 30, 2019, Dorsey's personal Twitter account was allegedly breached for nearly an hour by a group calling itself the Chuckling Squad, posting and retweeting numerous racist tweets.[52][53]

On October 23, 2019, Twitter's stock price fell by nearly 21 percent, to $30.75.[54] The reason was an earnings miss off a third quarter report, which Twitter blamed on ad targeting problems. Dorsey had been making a concerted effort to dampen the effect that Twitter had on political elections, which entailed banning all political ads. This was also seen as a large contributor to the drop. Dorsey announced that, as of November 22, 2019, Twitter would ban all political advertising. The policy applies globally to all marketing campaigns about political issues.[55]

On February 29, 2020, it was announced[56] that activist hedge fund Elliott Management led by billionaire Paul Singer was looking to oust Dorsey and nominate four directors to Twitter's board, including Elliott's senior portfolio manager Jesse Cohn.[57] The two parties reached an agreement days later, with Dorsey remaining CEO.[58][59]

In October 2020, Dorsey was one of several tech firm CEOs subpoenaed by the US Senate Commerce Committee. Republican Roger Wicker, who chaired the committee, led the charge to force the CEOs of Twitter, Facebook and Google to testify about the legal immunity the tech platforms receive under Section 230 of the Communications Act of 1996.[60]

He announced his immediate resignation as Twitter's CEO on November 29, 2021. Dorsey was replaced by the company's former CTO Parag Agrawal, who took over as CEO. Dorsey continued to lead as the CEO of Block, Inc.[61][62][63] In May 2022, Dorsey left the board of directors of the social network.[64]

In October 2022, Dorsey retained his 2.4% ownership of Twitter when the company was sold to Elon Musk.[65]


Dorsey in 2018

Dorsey, along with co-founder Jim McKelvey, developed a small business platform to accept debit and credit card payments on a mobile device called Square, released in May 2010. The small, square-shaped device attaches to iPhone, iPad, iPod Touch, or Android devices via the headphone jack, and as a mini card reader, allows a person to swipe their card, choose an amount to transfer to the recipient and then sign their name for confirmation. Square is also a system for sending paperless receipts via text message or email, and is available as a free app for iOS and Android OS.[66][67] The company grew from 10 employees in December 2009[68] to over 100 by June 2011. Square's office is on Market Street in San Francisco.[69] In September 2012, Business Insider magazine valued Square Inc. at US$3.2 billion.[70] Dorsey is CEO of Square, Inc.[71] On October 14, 2015, Square filed for an IPO to be listed on the New York Stock Exchange.[72] As of that date, Dorsey owned 24.4 percent of the company.[73] In March 2020 the FDIC permitted Square to open a bank. It announced plans to launch Square Financial Services in 2021.[74]

In May 2020, Dorsey announced that employees of Square would permanently become remote workers.[75]

In 2020, for months, Square began withholding up to 30 percent of the funds that merchants collected from customers using its Cash App.[76]

On December 1, 2021, CEO Jack Dorsey officially changed the name of the platform to Block, Inc. This was due in part to his interest in the blockchain as well as the new name encompassing the various businesses better than the current name, which is mostly associated with its merchant-payment services. The stock ticker for Block, Inc. would remain "SQ".[77]



In February 2022, Dorsey joined the board of directors[78] of Bluesky Social, a Twitter spin-off developing a decentralized social networking protocol and app.[79][80] On May 4, 2024, he announced he was no longer on the board, and on May 5, 2024, the company confirmed this.[81][82][83] He instead endorsed X, which he called "freedom technology".[84] In a 2024 interview, Dorsey said that Bluesky's shift toward a traditional corporate structure and the introduction of centralized moderation tools were major factors behind his leaving the company.[85]

Other projects


In 2013, Dorsey expressed his admiration of Michael Bloomberg to CNN,[86] and said he aspires to become mayor of New York City.[86] He served as a judge for Bloomberg's NYC BigApps competition in 2011.[87]

On December 24, 2013, Dorsey was announced as a new member of the board of directors of The Walt Disney Company.[88] In January 2018, it was reported that Dorsey would not seek reelection at Disney's March annual meeting, due to increased difficulty with conflicts of interest.[89]

Dorsey is a board member of the Berggruen Institute's Governance Center.[2] Dorsey gives advice in a chapter of Tim Ferriss' book Tools of Titans.[90][91][92]

Dorsey is a vocal Bitcoin advocate, and has spoken at Bitcoin conferences such as "The B Word". He has said that if he were not working on Twitter and Square, he would be working on Bitcoin.[93]

He also endorses and financially supported the development of the Nostr social networking protocol.[94][95]

Personal life


In 2012, Dorsey moved to the Sea Cliff neighborhood of San Francisco.[96]



In 2015, Dorsey said he began his mornings with meditation.[97] In late 2017, Dorsey completed ten days of meditation known as Vipassanā taught by followers of S. N. Goenka.[98][99] In November 2018, Dorsey went on a birthday Vipassanā meditation trip to Myanmar.[100]



In 2019, Dorsey contributed financially to the campaigns of 2020 Democratic presidential candidates Tulsi Gabbard and Andrew Yang.[101] In 2020, he donated $15 million to 29 mayors pursuing the piloting of guaranteed basic income programs in the United States.[102]

Until 2021, Dorsey applied "world leader" exceptions that enabled President Donald Trump to post content on Twitter that would normally be removed or generate sanctions per the platform's rules. In May 2020, some of Trump's tweets received warning labels, and from Election Day in November 2020, more flaggings were applied to his tweets.[103] On January 6, 2021, after pro-Trump supporters stormed the U.S. Capitol, Twitter applied a 12-hour timeout to Trump's account for violating its Civic Integrity policy. Trump's account was suspended permanently on January 8.[104] On January 14, Dorsey defended banning Trump but also said it "sets a precedent I feel is dangerous".[105] On November 19, 2022, Twitter reinstated Trump's account following Elon Musk's purchase of the platform.[106]

On June 4, 2023, Dorsey endorsed Robert F. Kennedy Jr. in his campaign to become the Democratic party nominee in the 2024 United States presidential election.[107][108][109]

Philanthropic and other donations


In March 2016, Dorsey fully funded about 600 Missouri public school projects registered at DonorsChoose.[110]

In October 2019, Dorsey donated $350,000 to #TeamTrees, a nonprofit started by YouTubers MrBeast and Mark Rober, that pledged to plant 20 million trees by the end of 2019.[111][112]

On April 7, 2020, Dorsey announced that he would move about $1 billion of his equity in Square, Inc., just under a third of his total wealth, to Start Small, LLC, and to relief programs related to the coronavirus.[113][114][115] He committed to funding COVID-19 relief, girls' education and health, and universal basic income.[116] Dorsey has donated $24 million to over 40 different grantees for relief efforts.[117]

In August 2020, Dorsey donated $10 million to Boston University's Center for Antiracist Research, founded by Ibram X. Kendi.[118]

In May 2021, he donated $15 million to support relief efforts in India's COVID-19 second wave. The three NGOs were Care ($10 million), Aid India ($2.5 million), and Sewa International ($2.5 million).[119]

Awards and recognition

  • In 2008, he was named to the MIT Technology Review TR35 as one of the top 35 innovators in the world under the age of 35.[120]
  • In 2012, The Wall Street Journal gave him the "Innovator of the Year Award" for technology.[121][122]
  • At the 5th Annual Crunchies Awards in 2012, hosted by TechCrunch, Dorsey was named Founder of the Year.[123]
  • In 2013, he was considered by Forbes the world's most eligible bachelor.[124]
  • Dorsey was ranked by Fox Business as the #4 Worst CEO of 2016, citing stagnant growth, falling stock prices, and his part-time commitment to Twitter.[125]
  • In 2017, 24/7 Wall St. listed Dorsey among the 20 Worst CEOs in America.[126][127]


  1. ^ "About Square". Square. Retrieved January 31, 2017.
  2. ^ a b Ward, Vicky (May 11, 2016). "Why Nicolas Berggruen is Creating an Institute for Geniuses". Town & Country. Retrieved April 17, 2017. Another wing of the Berggruen Institute has technologists like Elon Musk and Twitter co-founder Jack Dorsey, as well as former treasury secretary Larry Summers
  3. ^ "Who is Jack Dorsey, co-founder of Twitter, Square?". The Atlanta Journal-Constitution. May 9, 2019.
  4. ^ "SEC 8-K Filing". SEC.gov. April 20, 2022.
  5. ^ "Jack Dorsey". Forbes. October 2023. Retrieved October 9, 2023.
  6. ^ Leonard, Tom (January 29, 2009). "Profile Twitter founders: Jack Dorsey, Biz Stone and Evan Williams". The Telegraph. Archived from the original on January 11, 2022. Retrieved January 14, 2014.
  7. ^ Brown, Lisa (September 29, 2010). "Taste of St. Louis first major event to use Square". St. Louis Post-Dispatch. Retrieved January 14, 2014.
  8. ^ a b c d e f g Glaser, Mark (May 17, 2007). "Twitter Founders Thrive on Micro-Blogging Constraints". MediaShift. Retrieved November 5, 2008.
  9. ^ Chernin, Andrew. "Jack Dorsey, creador de twitter: 'En 140 caracteres la gente se siente más libre al escribir'". La Tercera (in Spanish). Archived from the original on October 6, 2014. Retrieved January 14, 2014.
  10. ^ Barker, Tim (November 26, 2009). "Twitter creator keeps it quiet and quirky". St. Louis Post-Dispatch. p. A23. Retrieved January 14, 2014 – via The Virginian-Pilot.
  11. ^ Kamp, David (June 10, 2013). "Jack Dorsey Believes That Eating Purple Food Makes You Healthier". Vanity Fair. Retrieved January 14, 2014.
  12. ^ Robehmed, Natalie (September 30, 2014). "The youngest billionaires on the Forbes 400: 11 under 40". Yahoo! Finance. Archived from the original on October 2, 2014. Retrieved October 1, 2014.
  13. ^ a b c d Barker, Tim (November 15, 2009). "Native son sets St. Louis atwitter". St. Louis Post-Dispatch. Retrieved January 17, 2018.
  14. ^ Dorsey, Jack [@jack] (September 4, 2013). "Me in my (very) short-lived days as a vintage clothing model: flic.kr/p/hG5x5" (Tweet) – via Twitter.
  15. ^ Dorsey, Jack [@jack] (May 15, 2015). "@ScottLucas86 @LizFiandaca @jeremys did it include my modeling days? m.flickr.com/#/photos/jackd…" (Tweet) – via Twitter.
  16. ^ Dorsey, Jack (July 13, 2006). "I read Gray's Anatomy". Flickr.
  17. ^ Dorsey, Jack (July 13, 2006). "Noele took pictures of me". Flickr.
  18. ^ Dorsey, Jack (July 13, 2006). "Who needs a nosering?". Flickr.
  19. ^ Rampton, John (September 22, 2016). "12 of the most successful entrepreneurs who dropped out of college". Mashable. Retrieved January 16, 2018.
  20. ^ Bussgang, Jeffrey (April 27, 2010). "When Jack Dorsey Met Fred Wilson, And Other Twitter Tales (Book Excerpt)". TechCrunch. Retrieved September 23, 2018. Jack ... moved to New York, transferred to NYU, and started writing dispatch software ... 'They're all reporting constantly where they are and what work they're doing ... I thought that abstraction was so cool that I wanted that same thing for my friends.'
  21. ^ "Tech's Next Gen: The Best and Brightest". BusinessWeek. March 26, 2007. Archived from the original on July 11, 2014. Retrieved November 5, 2008.
  22. ^ Dorsey, Jack (April 8, 2009). "To be clear: I didn't attend Cornell (and didn't invent Twitter there)". Twitter. Retrieved April 13, 2009.
  23. ^ a b c Dorsey, Jack (March 24, 2006). "twttr sketch". Flickr. Yahoo!. Retrieved November 7, 2008.
  24. ^ Hoge, Patrick (December 23, 2011). "Executive of the Year: Jack Dorsey". San Francisco Business Times. Retrieved April 30, 2017.
  25. ^ Miller, Claire Cain (October 16, 2008). "Twitter Sidelines One Founder and Promotes Another". The New York Times. Retrieved November 5, 2008.
  26. ^ "The Approval Matrix". Entertainment. New York magazine. October 21, 2013. Retrieved April 30, 2017.
  27. ^ Wagner, Mitch (June 24, 2008). "Twitter CEO Jack Dorsey: Improved Uptime Is Top Priority". InformationWeek. Archived from the original on July 17, 2020. Retrieved July 17, 2020.
  28. ^ a b c Wagner, Mitch (June 24, 2008). "Twitter CEO Jack Dorsey Talks About Its Business Model". InformationWeek. United Business Media. Archived from the original on March 26, 2012. Retrieved November 5, 2008.
  29. ^ Miller, Claire Cain (October 20, 2008). "Popularity or Income? Two Sites Fight It Out". The New York Times. Retrieved November 5, 2008.
  30. ^ McCarthy, Caroline (October 16, 2008). "Twitter CEO Jack Dorsey steps down". CNET News. CBS Interactive. Archived from the original on July 29, 2009. Retrieved November 5, 2008.
  31. ^ "Jack Dorsey Tells David Kirkpatrick How It Felt to Be Ousted from Twitter and Discusses His Big New Idea: Square". Vanity Fair. March 3, 2011. Retrieved April 30, 2017.
  32. ^ "Booting Up Baghdad: Tech Execs Take a Tour in Iraq". Wired. Retrieved October 24, 2020 – via wired.com.
  33. ^ "Founder of Twitter sent to save Iraq". The Telegraph. April 23, 2009. Archived from the original on January 11, 2022. Retrieved October 24, 2020.
  34. ^ Kukis, Mark (April 23, 2009). "Is Iraq Ready for Twitter? New Media in a War Zone". Time. Retrieved October 24, 2020 – via content.time.com.
  35. ^ Keller, Jared (June 18, 2010). "Evaluating Iran's Twitter Revolution". The Atlantic. Retrieved May 25, 2020.
  36. ^ Landler, Mark; Stelter, Brian (June 16, 2009). "Washington Taps Into a Potent New Force in Diplomacy". The New York Times. Retrieved October 24, 2020.
  37. ^ Lizza, Ryan. "An American President Abroad". The New Yorker. Retrieved October 24, 2020.
  38. ^ "Will the Revolution be Tweeted?". Retrieved October 24, 2020.
  39. ^ Barry, Ellen (February 23, 2010). "Washington Sends Delegation to Moscow, via Silicon Valley". The New York Times. Retrieved October 24, 2020.
  40. ^ "Getting punk'd in Russia". Fortune. Retrieved October 24, 2020.
  41. ^ "Jack Dorsey Officially Returns to Twitter". Mashable. March 28, 2011. Retrieved April 30, 2017.
  42. ^ Primack, Dan (June 11, 2015). "Twitter CEO Dick Costolo is Out, Jack Dorsey Back In". Fortune. Retrieved April 30, 2017.
  43. ^ Koh, Yoree (October 5, 2015). "Twitter Names Jack Dorsey CEO". The Wall Street Journal. ISSN 0099-9660. Retrieved October 5, 2015.
  44. ^ "Jack Dorsey is moving too slowly to save Twitter". Business Insider. Retrieved May 17, 2016.
  45. ^ Seetherman, Deepa (November 22, 2016). "Twitter CEO Jack Dorsey's Account Briefly Suspended". Wall Street Journal. Retrieved November 23, 2016.
  46. ^ Russell, Jon (February 1, 2017). "Twitter staff donate $1.59M to the ACLU to fight Trump on immigration". TechCrunch. Retrieved April 11, 2017.
  47. ^ Barron, Laignee (March 9, 2018). "Twitter Wants to Open Verification to All Users". Fortune. Retrieved March 9, 2018.
  48. ^ Guynn, Jessica (March 8, 2018). "Jack Dorsey pledges Twitter will improve blue check mark verification system". USA Today. Retrieved March 9, 2018.
  49. ^ Lucas, Amelia (September 5, 2018). "Twitter shares fall 6% as CEO Jack Dorsey testifies before Senate". CNBC. Retrieved September 6, 2018.
  50. ^ Romm, Tony (April 23, 2019). "Trump met with Twitter CEO Jack Dorsey – and complained about his follower count". The Washington Post. Retrieved April 27, 2019.
  51. ^ Bendix, Aria (April 17, 2019). "Jack Dorsey says Twitter makes it 'super easy' to harass and abuse others, and addressing the problem is his biggest worry". Business Insider. Retrieved April 27, 2019.
  52. ^ Thayer, Eric (August 30, 2019). "Twitter CEO Jack Dorseys Account Hacked". The Globe and Mail. Retrieved August 30, 2019.
  53. ^ Lee, Dave (August 31, 2019). "Twitter's Jack Dorsey has his own account hacked". BBC News. Retrieved January 29, 2020.
  54. ^ "Twitter Stock Craters on Q3 Financial Miss From Ad-Tech Glitches, Daily User Base Grows by 6 Million". Variety. October 24, 2019. Retrieved February 3, 2024.
  55. ^ Wong, Julia Carrie (October 30, 2019). "Twitter to ban all political advertising, raising pressure on Facebook". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved January 29, 2020.
  56. ^ "Twitter: CEO Jack Dorsey At Risk From Activist Investor – Bloomberg". Bloomberg News. February 29, 2020. Retrieved March 12, 2020.
  57. ^ English, Carleton (March 9, 2020). "Twitter Is Gaining Because an Activist Investor Just Put a Floor Under the Stock". barrons.com. Retrieved March 12, 2020.
  58. ^ Newton, Casey (March 10, 2020). "Jack Dorsey bought himself more time as Twitter CEO, but it might not matter". The Verge. Retrieved March 12, 2020.
  59. ^ English, Carleton (March 9, 2020). "Jack Dorsey Stays Twitter CEO After Company Reaches Agreement With Elliott Management". barrons.com. Retrieved March 12, 2020.
  60. ^ Feiner, Lauren (October 1, 2020). "Senate committee votes to subpoena CEOs of Facebook, Google and Twitter to testify". CNBC. Retrieved October 1, 2020.
  61. ^ Roumeliotis, Greg; Dang, Sheila (November 29, 2021). "Twitter CEO Jack Dorsey hands reins to technology chief Agrawal". Reuters. Archived from the original on November 30, 2021. Retrieved November 30, 2021.
  62. ^ Feiner, Lauren (November 29, 2021). "Twitter CTO Parag Agrawal replaced Jack Dorsey as CEO". CNBC. Retrieved November 29, 2021.
  63. ^ Jessica Bursztynsky; Lauren Feiner (November 29, 2021). "Twitter CTO Parag Agrawal will replace Jack Dorsey as CEO". CNBC. Retrieved December 3, 2021.
  64. ^ Mihalcik, Carrie (May 25, 2022). "Jack Dorsey Leaves Twitter's Board of Directors". CNET. Retrieved May 26, 2022.
  65. ^ Hays, Kali (October 31, 2022). "Jack Dorsey just saved Elon Musk about $1 billion by rolling over his shares of Twitter into a stake in the new private company". Business Insider. Retrieved November 18, 2022.
  66. ^ "Square". Retrieved October 7, 2014.
  67. ^ Hempel, Jessi (June 2, 2011). "Jack Dorsey: The man with two brains". Fortune. Retrieved March 12, 2018.
  68. ^ Pollock, Jennifer (June 30, 2011). "CH+D Office Space: Square in San Francisco's Chronicle Building". California Home + Design. Archived from the original on July 5, 2013. Retrieved September 19, 2011.
  69. ^ "Square opens new headquarters in San Francisco, announces plans for expanded offices in New York and Kitchener-Waterloo" (Press release). Square, Inc. October 7, 2013. Archived from the original on April 13, 2014. Retrieved March 29, 2014.
  70. ^ Shontell, Alyssa (October 3, 2012). "THE DIGITAL 100: The World's Most Valuable Private Tech Companies". Business Insider. Retrieved October 4, 2012.
  71. ^ Strugatz, Rachel (January 16, 2014). "Jack Dorsey Looks to Simplify Commerce With Square". WWD. Retrieved January 16, 2014.
  72. ^ Soper, Alex Barinka alexbarinka Spencer (October 14, 2015). "Square Files for IPO as CEO Dorsey Juggles Twitter Revamp". Bloomberg.com. Retrieved October 16, 2015.
  73. ^ Rao, Leena (October 14, 2015). "Who owns what at Square". Fortune. Retrieved November 25, 2017.
  74. ^ Fuscaldo, Donna (March 18, 2020). "Square Gets The Nod To Operate A Bank". Forbes. Retrieved June 21, 2020.
  75. ^ Kelly, Jack (May 19, 2020). "After Announcing Twitter's Permanent Remote-Work Policy, Jack Dorsey Extends Same Courtesy To Square Employees". Forbes.
  76. ^ "Square, Jack Dorsey's Pay Service, Is Withholding Money Merchants Say They Need". Respect Investment. June 23, 2020. Archived from the original on April 19, 2021. Retrieved October 9, 2020.
  77. ^ Vigna, Paul (December 1, 2021). "Square Changes Name to Block, Days After CEO Jack Dorsey Leaves Twitter". The Wall Street Journal. ISSN 0099-9660. Retrieved December 2, 2021.
  78. ^ Dang, Sheila (February 8, 2022). "Twitter-funded social media project Bluesky adds Jack Dorsey to board". Reuters. Retrieved April 30, 2023.
  79. ^ Barr, Kyle (October 19, 2022). "The Folks Jack Dorsey Tapped to Make a 'Decentralized' Social Platform Now Have a Beta". Gizmodo. Retrieved November 1, 2022.
  80. ^ Dodds, Io (October 31, 2022). "What is Bluesky, the potential Twitter alternative being tested by former CEO Jack Dorsey?". The Independent. Retrieved November 1, 2022.
  81. ^ Ha, Anthony (May 5, 2024). "Jack Dorsey says he's no longer on the Bluesky board". TechCrunch. Retrieved May 5, 2024.
  82. ^ MacDonald, Cheyenne (May 5, 2024). "Jack Dorsey says (on X) that he's not on the Bluesky board anymore". Engadget. Retrieved May 5, 2024.
  83. ^ Davis, Wes (May 5, 2024). "Bluesky confirms Jack Dorsey is no longer on its board". The Verge. Retrieved May 5, 2024.
  84. ^ Shapero, Julia (May 6, 2024). "Jack Dorsey praises Twitter as 'freedom technology' as he leaves Bluesky board". The Hill. Retrieved May 7, 2024.
  85. ^ Solana, Mike (May 9, 2024). "The End of Social Media: An Interview With Jack Dorsey". Pirate Wires. Retrieved May 9, 2024.
  86. ^ a b Tapper, Jake; Pham, Sherisse (March 21, 2013). "Jack Dorsey on his desire to be mayor of New York City, Steve Jobs, and being a bachelor". CNN. Turner Broadcasting. Retrieved March 25, 2013.
  87. ^ "Mayor Bloomberg Announces Winners of NYC BigApps 2.0 Competition". NYC.gov. March 31, 2011. Retrieved June 5, 2013.
  88. ^ Anthony Ha (December 24, 2013). "Jack Dorsey Joins Disney's Board Of Directors". TechCrunch. AOL Inc. Retrieved December 25, 2013.
  89. ^ Palmeri, Christopher (January 12, 2018). "Sheryl Sandberg, Jack Dorsey to Leave Disney's Board". Bloomberg. Retrieved January 13, 2018.
  90. ^ "Tool Guide". Tools of Titans. Retrieved February 11, 2021.
  91. ^ Elk, Kathleen (January 19, 2017). "Jack Dorsey says the best investment he ever made cost him nothing". CNBC. Retrieved February 11, 2021.
  92. ^ Elk, Kathleen (February 21, 2019). "I woke up at 5 am and walked 5.3 miles to work like Jack Dorsey for a week—and I'll never do it again". CNBC. Retrieved February 11, 2021.
  93. ^ Locke, Taylor (June 4, 2021). "Jack Dorsey on bitcoin: 'I don't think there is anything more important in my lifetime to work on'". CNBC. Retrieved December 17, 2021.
  94. ^ Torpey, Kyle (February 21, 2023). "Here's why Bitcoiners are flocking to Nostr, a social network supported by Jack Dorsey and Edward Snowden". Fortune. Retrieved February 22, 2023.
  95. ^ Dorsey, Jack [@jack] (December 15, 2022). "14 BTC deployed to @fiatjaf for #nostr" (Tweet). Retrieved February 23, 2023 – via Twitter.
  96. ^ Thomas, Owen (June 18, 2012). "We Hear Twitter Cofounder Jack Dorsey Now Lives In A $10 Million House". Business Insider. Retrieved August 15, 2018.
  97. ^ Robinson, Melia (January 3, 2018). "Twitter founder Jack Dorsey practices Vipassana in this Indian guru's ashram". Business Today. Retrieved March 8, 2022.
  98. ^ Robinson, Melia (January 3, 2018). "Twitter CEO Jack Dorsey tried the meditation craze that requires no sex, drugs, or talking for 10 days". Business Insider. Retrieved December 27, 2018.
  99. ^ "Twitter CEO Jack Dorsey criticised for 'tone deaf' Myanmar tweets". BBC News. December 9, 2018.
  100. ^ Mejia, Zameena (December 13, 2018). "Why Twitter CEO Jack Dorsey practiced this 'extremely painful' ancient meditation technique for his birthday". CNBC. Retrieved December 10, 2020.
  101. ^ Miller, Katherine (July 16, 2019). "Twitter's Jack Dorsey Donated $5,600 To Tulsi Gabbard". BuzzFeed News. Retrieved February 14, 2020.
  102. ^ "Jack Dorsey Donates $15 Million to Mayors Testing Basic Income". CEO Today. December 9, 2020. Retrieved December 27, 2020.
  103. ^ Hamilton, Isobel Asher (November 18, 2020). "Trump will lose his 'world leader' Twitter privileges on January 20, Jack Dorsey confirms — meaning he could get banned just like everyone else". Business Insider. Retrieved January 8, 2021.
  104. ^ Kastrenakes, Jacob; Kelly, Makena (January 8, 2021). "Twitter permanently bans Trump". The Verge. Retrieved January 8, 2021.
  105. ^ Clayton, James (January 14, 2021). "Twitter boss: Trump ban is 'right' but 'dangerous'". BBC News. Retrieved July 17, 2023.
  106. ^ Vincent, James; Hollister, Sean (November 19, 2022). "Elon Musk says he's letting Donald Trump back on Twitter". The Verge. Retrieved November 21, 2022.
  107. ^ Ecarma, Caleb (June 5, 2023). "Have Robert F. Kennedy Jr. and His Anti-vax Conspiracies Found a Home?". Vanity Fair. Retrieved July 4, 2023.
  108. ^ O'Sullivan, Donie (June 5, 2023). "Instagram lifts ban on anti-vaccine activist Robert F. Kennedy Jr. after launch of presidential bid | CNN Business". CNN. Retrieved July 4, 2023.
  109. ^ Mollman, Steve (June 5, 2023). "Jack Dorsey endorses fellow Bitcoin advocate Robert F. Kennedy, Jr. for president—and predicts he'll win". Fortune. Retrieved June 15, 2023.
  110. ^ Crouch, Elisa (March 11, 2016). "Classroom wishes come true at hundreds of Missouri schools, thanks to Jack Dorsey". St. Louis Post-Dispatch. Retrieved November 23, 2019.
  111. ^ "Help Us Plant 20 Million Trees – Join #TeamTrees". teamtrees.org. Retrieved October 30, 2019.
  112. ^ MrBeast (October 29, 2019). "The CEO of Twitter just planted 150,000 trees!!!!! AM I DREAMING?? :))))))pic.twitter.com/8CrSQlCvIr". @MrBeastYT. Retrieved October 30, 2019.
  113. ^ Dorsey, Jack [@Jack] (April 7, 2020). "I'm moving $1B of my Square equity (~28% of my wealth) to #startsmall LLC to fund global COVID-19 relief. After we disarm this pandemic, the focus will shift to girl's health and education, and UBI. It will operate transparently, all flows tracked here" (Tweet). Retrieved April 7, 2020 – via Twitter.
  114. ^ Cuccinello, Hayley C. "Jack Dorsey, Bill Gates And At Least 75 Other Billionaires Donating To Pandemic Relief". Forbes. Retrieved April 27, 2020.
  115. ^ "Jack Dorsey to donate $1 billion to fund COVID-19 relief and other charities". The Verge. April 7, 2020. Retrieved April 14, 2023.
  116. ^ Isaac, Mike (April 7, 2020). "Jack Dorsey Vows to Donate $1 Billion to Fight the Coronavirus". The New York Times. Retrieved April 8, 2020.
  117. ^ Gandhi, Jamila (May 12, 2020). "Top 10 Highest Private Donations By Billionaires For COVID-19 Relief". Forbes Middle East. Retrieved May 17, 2020.
  118. ^ Ward, Marguerite (August 21, 2020). "Twitter CEO Jack Dorsey donates $10 million to Ibram X. Kendi's center on antiracism at Boston University". Business Insider. Retrieved August 24, 2020.
  119. ^ Sindhu Hariharan (May 12, 2021). "Twitter CEO Jack Dorsey's aid to RSS-linked NGO sparks row | Chennai News – Times of India". The Times of India. Retrieved May 16, 2021.
  120. ^ "TR35 Young Innovator". Technology Review. Massachusetts Institute of Technology. 2008. Archived from the original on July 2, 2015. Retrieved November 5, 2008.
  121. ^ "Innovator of the Year Awards". WSJ. Magazine. Dow Jones. 2012. Archived from the original on January 23, 2013. Retrieved March 18, 2013.
  122. ^ "Columbia to host Square and Twitter Founder Jack Dorsey on September 16". Columbia College. Retrieved January 16, 2018.
  123. ^ "Founder of the Year: Jack Dorsey (Square, Twitter)". TechCrunch. Retrieved January 16, 2018.
  124. ^ Durgy, Edwin (March 6, 2013). "The World's 12 Most Eligible Billionaire Bachelors". Forbes. Retrieved April 13, 2018.
  125. ^ Tobak, Steve (December 21, 2016). "The Worst CEOs of 2016". Fox Business. Retrieved January 16, 2018.
  126. ^ "20 Worst CEOs in America 2017". 247wallst.com. Retrieved January 16, 2018.
  127. ^ Mirabella, Lorraine. "Under Armour founder Kevin Plank lands on a 'Worst CEOs' list". The Baltimore Sun. Archived from the original on January 17, 2018. Retrieved January 16, 2018.

Further reading

  • Max, D. T. (October 21, 2013). "Two-hit wonder". Profiles. The New Yorker. Vol. 89, no. 33. pp. 48–59.
Business positions
Preceded by
Position established
Twitter CEO
Succeeded by
Preceded by Twitter CEO
Succeeded by