Jack Patrick Dorsey (born November 19, 1976) is an American computer programmer and Internet entrepreneur who is co-founder and CEO of Twitter, and founder and CEO of Square, a mobile payments company.
Dorsey in November 2014
Jack Patrick Dorsey
November 19, 1976
|Residence||San Francisco, California, U.S.|
|Alma mater||University of Missouri–Rolla (transferred out)|
New York University (dropped out)
|Known for||Co-founding Twitter & Square, Inc.|
|Salary||Square, Inc. $2.75 (2017)|
Twitter $0 (2017)
|Net worth||US$5.5 billion (January 2019)|
|Title||CEO of Twitter and Square, Inc.|
|Board member of|
Dorsey was born and raised in St. Louis, Missouri, the son of Tim and Marcia (née Smith) Dorsey. He is of English, Irish and Italian descent. His father worked for a company that developed mass spectrometers and his mother was a homemaker. He was raised Catholic, and his uncle is a Catholic priest in Cincinnati. He attended the Catholic Bishop DuBourg High School.
In his younger days, Dorsey worked occasionally as a fashion model. By age fourteen, Dorsey had become interested in dispatch routing. Some of the open-source software he created in the area of dispatch logistics is still used by taxicab companies. Dorsey attended the University of Missouri–Rolla for two-plus years (1995–97) before transferring to New York University, but he dropped out in 1999, one semester short of graduating. He first came up with the idea that he developed as Twitter while studying at NYU.
While working on dispatching as a programmer, Dorsey moved to California. In 2000, Dorsey started his company in Oakland to dispatch couriers, taxis, and emergency services from the Web. His other projects and ideas at this time included networks of medical devices and a "frictionless service market". In July 2000, building on dispatching and inspired in part by LiveJournal and by AOL Instant Messenger, he had the idea for a Web-based realtime status/short message communication service.
When he first saw implementations of instant messaging, Dorsey wondered whether the software's user status output could be shared easily among friends. He approached Odeo, which at the time happened to be interested in text messaging. Dorsey and Biz Stone decided that SMS text suited the status-message idea, and built a prototype of Twitter in about two weeks. The idea attracted many users at Odeo and investment from Evan Williams, who had left Google after selling Pyra Labs and Blogger.
Williams, Stone and Noah Glass co-founded Obvious Corporation, which then spun off Twitter, Inc., with Dorsey as the Chief Executive Officer (CEO). As CEO, Dorsey saw the startup through two rounds of funding by venture capitalists. He reportedly lost his position for leaving work early to enjoy other pursuits, such as yoga and fashion design.
As the service began to grow in popularity, Dorsey chose the improvement of uptime as top priority, even over creating revenue – which, as of 2008, Twitter was not designed to earn. Dorsey described the commercial use of Twitter and its API as two things that could lead to paid features. He says his three guiding principles, which he says the company shares, are simplicity, constraint and craftsmanship.
On October 16, 2008, Williams took over as CEO, while Dorsey became chairman of the board. On March 28, 2011, Dorsey returned to Twitter as Executive Chairman after Dick Costolo replaced Williams as CEO. On June 10, 2015, Costolo announced that he was resigning as CEO of Twitter, effective July 1, 2015. Dorsey would assume the post of Interim CEO upon Costolo's departure. He was named permanent CEO of Twitter on October 5, 2015. On the day after the controversy about Twitter's new algorithms for tweets, Dorsey said it was only a hoax.
In May 2016, Dorsey announced that Twitter would not count photos and links in the 140-character limit to free up more space for text. This was an attempt to entice new users, since the number of tweets per day had dropped to about 300 million in January 2016 from about 500 million in September 2013 and its peak of 661 million in August 2014.
On November 22, 2016, Dorsey was briefly suspended from his own Twitter account with 3.9 million followers. After restoring the account, Dorsey tweeted that the suspension was due to an "internal mistake".
In February 2017, Dorsey and Executive Chairman Omid Kordestani matched a $530,000 donation to the American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU) raised by Twitter staffers. Their match brought the total donation to $1.59 million.
In March 2018, Dorsey announced that an improved version of the verification system is coming to Twitter. The purpose of redesigning verification is to let people verify more facts about themselves, emphasizing proof of identity. The overhaul was not in place before the U.S midterm election of 2018 to help in verifying the identities of the candidates.
In September 2018, Dorsey testified before the Senate Intelligence Committee alongside Facebook COO Sheryl Sandberg about meddling in the 2016 presidential election. Following this testimony, Twitter shares fell 6%.
On March 5, 2019, Dorsey appeared on episode #1258 of The Joe Rogan Experience, alongside Vijaya Gadde and journalist Tim Pool, to discuss Twitter's censorship of controversial conservatives and social critics of transgenderism, and how Twitter attempts to balance free speech with safety concerns.
In April 2019, Dorsey met privately with U.S. President Donald Trump at the White House and discussed Trump's concerns that Twitter had limited or removed some of his Twitter followers, and those of fellow conservatives, without clear reasons. After the meeting, Dorsey tweeted that their discussion included making Twitter "healthier and more civil". A week earlier, Dorsey took part in a TED talk about the social media platform's spread of abuse and misinformation, which has brought him criticism.
Dorsey, along with co-founder Jim McKelvey, developed a small business platform to accept debit and credit card payments on a mobile device called Square, released in May 2010. The small, square-shaped device attaches to iPhone, iPad, iPod Touch, or Android devices via the headphone jack, and as a mini card reader, allows a person to swipe their card, choose an amount to transfer to the recipient and then sign their name for confirmation. Square is also a system for sending paperless receipts via text message or email, and is available as a free app for iOS and Android OS. The company grew from 10 employees in December 2009 to over 100 by June 2011. Square's office is on Market Street in San Francisco. In September 2012, Business Insider magazine valued Square Inc. at US$3.2 billion. Dorsey is CEO of Square, Inc. On October 14, 2015, Square filed for an IPO to be listed on the New York Stock Exchange. As of that date, Dorsey owned 24.4% of the company.
In 2013, talking to CNN, Dorsey expressed admiration for Michael Bloomberg and his reinvention through design and simple interfaces of what it means to be mayor. Dorsey thinks becoming mayor of New York City is an aspiration that would raise the bar for him. He served as a judge for New York City Mayor Michael Bloomberg's NYC BigApps competition in 2011. Dorsey is an on-record donor to Democratic Party candidates.
Dorsey was announced as a new member of the board of directors of The Walt Disney Company on December 24, 2013. In January 2018, it was reported that Dorsey would not seek reelection at Disney's March annual meeting, due to increased difficulty with conflicts of interest.
Former Twitter CEO Dick Costolo described Dorsey as a calm, thoughtful leader. Charles Whitehead, a business law professor at Cornell Law School who lectures on the dual CEO, said "Half of Jack Dorsey is worth 100% of anyone else. He appeals to investors, whom he attracts, and employees, whom he retains."
In 2012, Dorsey moved to the Sea Cliff neighborhood of San Francisco with sweeping views of the Golden Gate, Marin Headlands and Pacific Ocean. He walks five miles to work each morning and calls it a "very clearing time". He is a fan of Kendrick Lamar's music and of French radio station FIP. In late 2017, Dorsey completed ten days of meditation known as Vipassanā taught by followers of S. N. Goenka.
Awards and recognitionEdit
- In 2008, he was named to the MIT Technology Review TR35 as one of the top 35 innovators in the world under the age of 35.
- In 2012, The Wall Street Journal gave him the "Innovator of the Year Award" for technology.
- At the 5th Annual Crunchies Awards in 2012, hosted by TechCrunch, Dorsey was named Founder of the Year.
- In 2013, he was considered by Forbes the world's most eligible bachelor.
- Dorsey was ranked by Fox Business as the #4 Worst CEO of 2016, citing stagnant growth, falling stock prices, and his part-time commitment to Twitter.
- In 2017, 24/7 Wall Street listed Dorsey among the 2017 Worst CEOs in America.
- In 2018, Dorsey was rated 404th on CEOWORLD magazine's "Best CEOs In The World" list.
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Jack ... moved to New York, transferred to NYU, and started writing dispatch software ... 'They're all reporting constantly where they are and what work they're doing ... I thought that abstraction was so cool that I wanted that same thing for my friends.'
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- Wagner, Mitch (June 24, 2008). "Twitter CEO Jack Dorsey Talks About Its Business Model". InformationWeek. United Business Media. Retrieved November 5, 2008.
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- McCarthy, Caroline (October 16, 2008). "Twitter CEO Jack Dorsey steps down". CNET News. CBS Interactive. Retrieved November 5, 2008.
- "Jack Dorsey Tells David Kirkpatrick How It Felt to Be Ousted from Twitter and Discusses His Big New Idea: Square". Vanity Fair. March 3, 2011. Retrieved April 30, 2017.
- "Jack Dorsey Officially Returns to Twitter". Mashable. March 28, 2011. Retrieved April 30, 2017.
- Primack, Dan (June 11, 2015). "Twitter CEO Dick Costolo is Out, Jack Dorsey Back In". Retrieved April 30, 2017.
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- Russell, Jon (February 1, 2017). "Twitter staff donate $1.59M to the ACLU to fight Trump on immigration". TechCrunch. Retrieved April 11, 2017.
- Barron, Laignee (March 9, 2018). "Twitter Wants to Open Verification to All Users". Fortune. Retrieved March 9, 2018.
- Guynn, Jessica (March 8, 2018). "Jack Dorsey pledges Twitter will improve blue check mark verification system". USA Today. Retrieved March 9, 2018.
- Lucas, Amelia (September 5, 2018). "Twitter shares fall 6% as CEO Jack Dorsey testifies before Senate". CNBC. Retrieved September 6, 2018.
- "Joe Rogan Experience #1258 - Jack Dorsey, Vijaya Gadde & Tim Pool". March 5, 2019. Retrieved March 6, 2019.
- Romm, Tony (April 23, 2019). "Trump met with Twitter CEO Jack Dorsey – and complained about his follower count". The Washington Post. Retrieved April 27, 2019.
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- Ward, Vicky (May 11, 2016). "Why Nicolas Berggruen is Creating an Institute for Geniuses". Town & Country. Retrieved April 17, 2017.
Another wing of the Berggruen Institute has technologists like Elon Musk and Twitter co-founder Jack Dorsey, as well as former treasury secretary Larry Summers
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