JNR Class C12

The Class C12 is a type of 2-6-2T steam locomotive built by the Japanese Government Railways and the Japanese National Railways from 1932 to 1947. A total of 282 Class C12 locomotives were built and designed by Hideo Shima .

JNR Class C12
Taiwan Railways Class CK120
North China Transport Class PureA (プレA)
China Railways Class PL51
Vietnam Railways Class 131
Indonesian Railway Company Class C32
JNR C12 66 20120319.jpg
Preserved C12 66, on the Mooka Railway, March 2012
Type and origin
Power typeSteam
Build date1932–1947
Total produced282
 • Whyte2-6-2T
 • UIC1′C1′ h2t
Gauge1,067 mm (3 ft 6 in)
Driver dia.1,400 mm (55+18 in)
Length11,350 mm (37 ft 2+34 in)
Height3,900 mm (12 ft 9+12 in)
Axle load10.90 tonnes (10.73 long tons; 12.02 short tons)
Adhesive weight32.00 tonnes (31.49 long tons; 35.27 short tons)
Loco weight50.05 tonnes (49.26 long tons; 55.17 short tons)
Fuel capacity1.50 tonnes (1.48 long tons; 1.65 short tons)
Water cap5,500 litres (1,200 imp gal; 1,500 US gal)
 • Firegrate area
1.30 m2 (14.0 sq ft)
 • Tube plates3,200 mm (10 ft 6 in)
 • Small tubes45 mm (1+34 in), 68 off
 • Large tubes127 mm (5 in), 16 off
Boiler pressure14.0 kg/cm2 (1.37 MPa; 199 psi)
Heating surface53.5 m2 (576 sq ft)
 • Tubes and flues46.1 m2 (496 sq ft)
 • Firebox7.4 m2 (80 sq ft)
 • Heating area19.8 m2 (213 sq ft)
CylindersTwo, outside
Cylinder size400 by 610 millimetres (15+34 in × 24 in)
Valve gearWalschaerts
Performance figures
Power output505 PS (371 kW; 498 hp)
Tractive effort81.356 kN (18,290 lbf)
  • JGR/JNR: C12
  • NCTC: プレA
  • CR: PL51
  • TRA: CK120
  • VR: 131
  • IR: C32
Number in class
  • JGR/JNR: 282
  • NCTC: 60
  • CR: 60
  • TRA: 7
  • IR: 2
  • JGR/JNR: C12 1–C12 282
  • NCTC: プレA1501−プレA1560
  • TRA: CK121−CK127
  • IR: C3201-C3202

Service outside JapanEdit

North China Transport プレA, China Railways PL51, Vietnam Railways 131Edit

From 1938 to 1939, 60 C12s were converted to metre gauge and shipped to the North China Transportation Company, where they operated primarily between Zhengding and Taiyuan. They were classified プレA (PureA). In 1939 Shijiazhuang–Taiyuan Railway was converted to standard gauge, these locomotives removed to Datong–Puzhou Railway north section. After the establishment of the People's Republic of China, they were taken over by the China Railway, where they were classified ㄆㄌ51 in 1951, and PL51 in 1959.[1] In 1956 the Datong–Puzhou Railway north section was reconverted to standard gauge, they were transferred to Vietnam, and they were classified 131.[2]

Taiwan Railways Administration CK120Edit

From 1936 to 1941, the Nippon-Sharyo was built in 7 C12s for Governor-General of Taiwan Railway. After World War II, they were taken over by Taiwan Railways Administration, and they were classified CK120.[3] CK124 is preserved at Changhua Locomotive Depot.

Indonesian Railway Company Class C32Edit

In 1943, the Imperial Japanese Army sent two locomotives, C12 94 and C12 168, to Surabaya, Java for a military transport with a 1067 mm gauge. They were based at Sidotopo depot.[4] The original knuckle coupler were replaced with bell-and-hook coupler.[5] After the war, the two locomotives were received by the Indonesian Railway and were classed as C32. The Indonesian Railway only used them as shunters for goods wagons in Surabaya area as their profile are too big for Indonesian Railway loading gauge.[5] Both of the locomotives were scrapped around 1980s.[4]

Preserved examplesEdit

26 Class C12 locomotives are preserved, as listed below, with 5 in working order.



See alsoEdit


  1. ^ C12 class in Vietnam _Kurogane No Michi
  2. ^ 131 Class_2-6-2 Tank Locomotive _Railways in Vietnam website
  3. ^ CK120 class _Kurogane No Michi
  4. ^ a b Prayogo, Prabowo, Radityo 2017, p. 83
  5. ^ a b "LOKOMOTIF UAP C32". jalanbaja.medarrieworks.com (in Indonesian). 26 February 2020. Retrieved 23 May 2021.
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad Sasada, Masahiro (September 2012). 国鉄&JR保存車大全 [JNR & JR Preserved Rolling Stock Complete Guide]. Tokyo, Japan: Ikaros Publications Ltd. pp. 131–132. ISBN 978-4863206175.
  7. ^ 内子駅前のC12 231の修復工事が完成 [Renovation of C12 231 preserved in front of Uchiko Station complete]. Japan Railfan Magazine Online (in Japanese). Japan: Koyusha Co., Ltd. 25 December 2014. Retrieved 25 December 2014.
  • Prayogo, Yoga Bagus; Prabowo, Yohanes Sapto; Radityo, Diaz (2017). Kereta Api di Indonesia: Sejarah Lokomotif Uap (in Indonesian). Yogyakarta: Jogja Bangkit Publisher. ISBN 978-602-0818-55-9.