The Jê languages (also spelled , Jean, Ye, Gean), or Jê–Kaingang languages, are spoken by the , a group of indigenous peoples in Brazil.

Jê–Kaingang, Gê, Ye
EthnicityGê peoples
Geographic
distribution
Brazil
Linguistic classificationMacro-Jê
Subdivisions
  • Central Jê
  • Jeikó
  • Northern Jê
  • Southern Jê
Glottologjeee1236[1]
Macro-Ge languages.png
Jê languages proper (clear yellow) and other Macro-Jê languages (dark yellow) in modern times. Shadowed area represent approximately extension in the past.

Genetic relationsEdit

The Jê family forms the core of the Macro-Jê family. Kaufman (1990) finds the proposal convincing.

Family divisionEdit

According to Ethnologue (which omits Jeikó), the language family is as follows:

VocabularyEdit

Loukotka (1968) lists the following basic vocabulary items.[2]

Language Branch head eye tongue hand one two three
Mehín Timbirá I i-xreː ntó i-yotó i-nuxrá püti ibiaklüte inklüt
Tajé Timbirá I pá-krẽ ntó pá-yõtó pá-ushrá
Krenjé Timbirá I í-xu ntó pá-yõtó pá-ükra mbuchíd ibyashüd nkri
Remkoka-Mekran Timbirá I pa-krãn pa-ntó pa-ñató pa-nukra puchite hibiakruke inkri
Aponegikran Timbirá I i-kra i-nthó i-ñoto i-ninkráy hapuchiti ipiakautu inkré
Krenkatajé Timbirá I hõ-ató hõ-krá buchití daikrut donkré
Sakamekran Timbirá II i-krã i-tó yontou u-krá
Purekamekran Timbirá II i-klan i-notho
Makamekran Timbirá II i-kran ñóto i-nontó ñukrá püchit äklúte glé
Apinagé Timbirá II is-kran i-nto ñoto ñukra pushi adkrúte adrun-ati
Karaho Timbirá II i-kran i-nto yoto ñukra ita ökrüd inkrä
Menren Timbirá II pa-kran i-tó i-yukrá pitit emkröt enkrí
Kayapó Kayapó I i-kran i-ntó i-ñoto i-nikra pudi amaikrut
Iraamráire Kayapó I krã no i-ñoto nikra púdi amaikrut
Gorotiré Kayapó II krã ñótó nikra püdyi amaigru
Duludi Kayapó II hueh-noh hue-nohdoh hue-nigrah
Metotíre Kayapó II i-kran i-nó i-ñotó i-nikra
Gradaú Kayapó II i-kran i-naká i-ñoto i-nikra podzyi ameikrut
Xikrí Kayapó II krãn ontó nikrá pudí amaikrut amaikrutkieket
Usikrin Kayapó II no
Southern Kayapó Kayapó II i-ikran i-ntó tsuto shikria
Kapiekran Krao ñukrá
Krahó Krao krãn hitó hioptó nikrá puchite hibiakruke nkri
Piokobjé Krao nkrãn ntó to nkrá pechäte hibiakrót nkri
Krikati Krao i-krã i-tó i-yukrá itá pochet netá ipekrot itá ikri
Suyá Eastern wa-kurá woa-ndó wã-notó wa-ñikó
Xavante Eastern da-kän da-to da-nonto dé-iperé simisi maipoänä skudaton
Xerente Eastern da-krãn da-tó da-noitó da-nipikra shimishi poñkámen mepráne
Xakriabá Eastern da-kran da-toman da-shipigrá hemerotong prané eskumantong
Akroá Eastern ai-krán aí-nthó aso-inthó as-subkrá
Jeicó Jeicó grang-blá a-lepú ä-netá ä-nänong


Language Branch water fire sun jaguar tapir bow
Mehín Timbirá I kühü pud erb kuxrüd xúhi
Tajé Timbirá I kúhü püt oróp kuxüd kúhi
Krenjé Timbirá I kúxü püd orób kukrüdn kúhi
Remkoka-Mekran Timbirá I kuxú pud oróbo kukrúte kuːhí
Aponegikran Timbirá I koxʔhó pútu orópa
Krenkatajé Timbirá I goxé put oropi kuhé
Sakamekran Timbirá II ko put kuhẽ
Purekamekran Timbirá II kuhü put rop guklüthe
Makamekran Timbirá II köyhé büt róp kokreyuti kuché
Apinagé Timbirá II inkó kukuvu buré robo koklüte gutye
Karaho Timbirá II kukuvu put robo kokräti kuhä
Menren Timbirá II ko koró putiri orótuk kokrét kuhẽ
Kayapó Kayapó I ngo kuwú mut róp kukrot dzyuzyé
Iraamráire Kayapó I no kuö mút rob kukrüt dzyudzye
Gorotiré Kayapó II ngó kuwü mud rob kukrüd dyúdye
Duludi Kayapó II
Metotíre Kayapó II ingo kua mut rokronre kukrut dudzye
Gradaú Kayapó II ngo kui mut rab kukrit dzyudzyä
Xikrí Kayapó II ngou kuã maːt róp diudieː
Usikrin Kayapó II ngo kóã mud rokrari kokrít derätukä
Southern Kayapó Kayapó II piñkó ichiú itputi napiá idzhúta ishé
Kapiekran Krao ku kusshi amikru
Krahó Krao kuvrú amkró rob kutkrút
Piokobjé Krao kahó amkró ropkro kokrät kohé
Krikati Krao ko kuhẽ ankró
Suyá Eastern ngo kustó múrru rauití kukrit tuté
Xavante Eastern kushe budu kuhodu kumikã
Xerente Eastern kuzé bedö rhúkú kudu komikan
Xakriabá Eastern kuché stakró ukú kutó komekané
Akroá Eastern kuchio put hukutu kuäté
Jeicó Jeicó ping xügkrá kolunong xkünoniang

Proto-languageEdit

Proto-Jê reconstructions by Ribeiro and van der Voort (2010):[3]

gloss Proto-Jê
‘relational prefix’ *j-
‘dative’ *mã
‘to open’ *kje
‘wing’ *j-ar
‘mouth’ *j-arkua
‘mouth’ *j-ar-
‘head’ *krã
‘feather’ *j-ar
‘path’ *prɨ
‘causativizer’ *-n
‘chief’ *paʔi
‘to suck’ *so
‘to catch’ *wɨ
‘to eat, to bite’ *ku
‘body’ *hǝ
‘to sing, to dance’ *ŋrɛ
‘to lay’ *j-i, *s-i
‘hard’ *tǝt
‘to stand’ *j-am
‘thorn’ *j-ĩ
‘to speak’ *wẽ
‘fart’ *pek
‘tree, wood, horn’ *ko
‘wood, firewood’ *pĩ
‘ashes, dust’ *mrɔ
‘to wash’ *pe
‘tongue’ *j-õtɔ
‘hand’ *j-ĩ-
‘hand’ *ɲ-ĩkra
‘to kill’ *wĩ
‘nest’ *j-ase
‘bone’ *si
‘to hear, to know’ *ma
‘egg’ *ŋrɛ
‘stone’ *kɛn
‘skin, bark’ *kɨ
‘to plant’ *krɛ
‘1st person’ *ĩj-
‘2nd database’ *a-
‘3rd person’ *ĩ-
‘3rd person’ *s-
‘pus’ *j-u, *j-ur
‘tail’ *mɨ
‘root’ *j-are
‘seed’ *sɨ
‘to sit’ *j-ã
‘hunger’ *prãm
‘earth’ *pɨka
‘to come’ *tẽm

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Je". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  2. ^ Loukotka, Čestmír (1968). Classification of South American Indian languages. Los Angeles: UCLA Latin American Center.
  3. ^ Ribeiro, E. R. & van der Voort, H. (2010). Nimuendajú Was Right: The Inclusion of the Jabutí Language Family in the Macro-Jê Stock. In Vilacy Galucio, A. & Gildea, S. (eds.), International Journal of American Linguistics, Vol. 76, No. 4, pp. 517-570. Published by: The University of Chicago Press. Accessed from DiACL, 9 February 2020.