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A snap general election was held in Italy on 13–14 April 2008.[1] The election came after President Giorgio Napolitano dissolved Parliament on 6 February 2008, following the defeat of the government of Prime Minister Romano Prodi in a January 2008 Senate vote of confidence[2] and the unsuccessful tentative appointment of Franco Marini with the aim to change the current electoral law. Under Italian law, elections must be held within 70 days of the dissolution. The voting determined the leader of Italy's 62nd government since the end of World War II.[3] The coalition led by ex-Prime Minister Silvio Berlusconi from The People of Freedom party defeated that of former Mayor of Rome, Walter Veltroni of the Democratic Party.[4]

2008 Italian general election

← 2006 13–14 April 2008 2013 →

All 630 seats in the Chamber of Deputies
315 seats in the Senate
Opinion polls
Turnout80.48%
  Berlusconi-2010-1.jpg Walter Veltroni cropped.jpg
Leader Silvio Berlusconi Walter Veltroni
Alliance Centre-right coalition Centre-left coalition
Leader since 18 January 1994 14 October 2007
Leader's seat Molise (C) Lazio 1 (C)
Seats won 344 C / 174 S 246 C / 134 S
Seat change Increase102 C / Increase29 S Increase3 C / Increase21 S
Coalition vote 17,403,145 (C)
15,508,899 (S)
14,099,747 (C)
12,457,182 (S)
Percentage 46.8% (C)
47.3% (S)
37.5% (C)
38.0% (S)

Italian 2008 elections.png
Election results maps for the Chamber of Deputies (on the left) and for the Senate (on the right). On the left, the color identifies the coalition which received the most votes in each province. On the right, the color identifies the coalition which won the most seats in respect to each Region. Blue denotes the Centre-right coalition, Red the Centre-left coalition, and Gray regional parties.

Prime Minister before election

Romano Prodi
Democratic Party

Elected Prime Minister

Silvio Berlusconi
People of Freedom

Contents

BackgroundEdit

On 24 January 2008 Prime Minister of Italy Romano Prodi lost a vote of confidence in the Senate by a vote of 161 to 156 votes, causing the downfall of his government.[5] Prodi's resignation led President Giorgio Napolitano to request the president of the Senate, Franco Marini, to assess the possibility to form a caretaker government. The other possibility would have been to call for early elections immediately.

The decision of former Minister of Justice Mastella arrived a few days after the confirmation of the Constitutional Court which confirmed the referendum to modify the electoral system.[6] As stated many times by Minister Mastella, if the referendum would have been confirmed this would have led directly to the fall of the government[7][8] and it happened.
The fall of the government would disrupt a pending election-law referendum that if passed would make it harder for small parties like Mastella's to gain seats in parliament.[9]

 
Silvio Berlusconi during a People of Freedom rally in 2008.

UDEUR's defection forced the question of whether Prodi still had the parliamentarian support to govern. Presenting a motion of confidence to parliament, he won relatively easily in the lower house of the Parliament, the Chamber of Deputies, where the coalition's majority was substantial.[10] Yet a win in the upper house – or Senate – seemed unlikely, and President Giorgio Napolitano was said to have warned against going through with the vote.[10]

The vote, held between 3pm and 9pm (CET), was heated and dramatic.[11] During its course the UDEUR party Senator Stefano Cusumano decided to confirm the confidence and to support the prime minister, even against the orders of his party's leader. He was subsequently subjected to the abuse of his colleagues, being called an "hysteric faggot", "traitor", and reportedly spat on by a member of the conservative UDEUR party. At this point Cusumano apparently fainted, and was carried out on a stretcher.[12] Cusumano's defection had no effect, however: Prodi lost the vote with 161 to 156 votes (one member abstained from voting, while three were absent), and promptly handed in his resignation.[11]

On 30 January, Napolitano appointed Franco Marini to try to form a caretaker government with the goal of changing the current electoral system, rather than call a quick election.[13] The state of the electoral system had been under criticism not only within the outgoing government, but also among the opposition and in the general population, because of the impossibility to choose candidates directly and of the risks that a close-call election may not grant a stable majority in the Senate.

On 4 February 2008 Marini acknowledged that he had failed to find the necessary majority for an interim government,[14] and resigned his mandate,[15] after having met with all major political forces and having found opposition to forming an interim government mainly from center-right parties Forza Italia and National Alliance, favoured in a possible next election and strongly in favour of an early vote.,[16]

President Napolitano summoned Bertinotti and Marini, the two speakers of the houses of the Italian parliament, acknowledging the end of the legislature, on 5 February 2008.[17] He dissolved parliament on 6 February 2008.

CampaignEdit

Major competitors in the election were Silvio Berlusconi, as leader of the centre-right opposition coalition, and Walter Veltroni, leader of the Democratic Party. Berlusconi's right coalition was leading by a significant margin in opinion polls.[18] The 71-year-old Berlusconi, who was twice prime minister—from May 1994 to January 1995 and again from May 2001 to May 2006—was not considered too old for the job though he had had heart surgery since leaving office.[19]

Veltroni's campaign has been compared to Barack Obama's presidential run in the United States. The most apparent of the similarities is his slogan, "Si può fare" (literally, "it can be done").[19]

 
Walter Veltroni in Trento during the electoral campaign.

Following the calling of the election, Veltroni stated his party will not make any alliance in either Chamber, choosing instead to run alone with its own platform, and challenged Berlusconi to do likewise with his Forza Italia party. The main four left-wing parties not part of the PD decided to contest the election together under the banner of The Left – The Rainbow. On 8 February, Berlusconi announced Forza Italia and Gianfranco Fini's National Alliance will run together under the common symbol of The People of Freedom, being regionally allied with the Northern League.[20]

On 13 February, Veltroni announced to have reached an agreement with the Italy of Values, led by Antonio Di Pietro, which agreed for an electoral alliance with the Democratic Party, accepting also to join the Democratic Party parliamentary groups after the election.[21] On 21 February the Italian Radicals announced an agreement with the Democratic Party, accepting to present themselves in list with the latter, under the agreement they will have nine MPs elected in the Parliament, and appointment of Emma Bonino as Minister in case of victory.[22]

Though Berlusconi and Veltroni were in opposite parties, they allegedly represent such similar policies that they were dubbed "Veltrusconi". Both candidates supported big tax cuts and generous spending programs.[19]

The Union of Christian and Centre Democrats was invited to support Berlusconi, but refused and decided to run on its own instead. The Rose for Italy originally planned to run alone with Bruno Tabacci as their PM candidate, but shortly before the filing deadline, they decided to form joint lists with the UDC.[citation needed]

Electoral systemEdit

The electoral system had been last reformed by Law no. 270, 21 December 2005.[23]

Chamber of DeputiesEdit

For the election of the lower house,[24] all seats in the Chamber of Deputies (excluding one deputy for the region of Aosta Valley and twelve deputies for Italians residing abroad) are allocated based on the national vote in a form of party-list proportional representation with a series of thresholds to encourage parties to form coalitions. Voters cast one vote for a closed list, meaning they cannot express a preference for individual candidates.

Parties can choose to run in coalitions. Seats are first allocated based on coalition votes, then divided among parties belonging to the same coalition by the largest remainder method. To guarantee a working majority, the coalition or party that obtains a plurality of the vote, but fewer than 340 seats, is assigned additional seats to reach that number, which is roughly 54% of all seats.

The autonomous region of Aosta Valley elects one deputy through a first-past-the-post system. Italians abroad are divided into four constituencies, which elect a total of twelve seats based on proportional representation.

SenateEdit

For the election of the upper house,[24] a similar system is used. However, the results are based on regional, rather than national, vote. This means the coalition or party that wins a plurality of votes in each region is guaranteed a majority of the seats assigned to that region. As this mechanism is region-based, opposing parties or coalitions may benefit from the majority bonus in different regions. It therefore does not guarantee any party or coalition a majority in the Senate.

Three regions have exceptions to the system detailed above. In the region of Molise, that is granted two seats in the Senate, seats are allocated proportionally, with no majority bonus. The region of Aosta Valley, which elects one senator, uses a first-past-the-post system. Finally, the region of Trentino-South Tyrol elects seven senators with a mixed-member proportional system: six senators are elected in six single-member constituencies, while the seventh is allocated to the most underrepresented list based on the regional votes.

Six seats in the Senate are assigned to Italians living abroad and are allocated using the same system used for the Chamber of Deputies.

Main coalitions and partiesEdit

Coalition Party Main ideology Leader
Centre-right coalition
The People of Freedom (PdL) Liberal conservatism Silvio Berlusconi
Northern League (LN) Regionalism Umberto Bossi
Movement for the Autonomy (MpA) Regionalism Raffaele Lombardo
Centre-left coalition
Democratic Party (PD) Social democracy Walter Veltroni
Italy of Values (IdV) Populism Antonio Di Pietro
Autonomy Liberty Democracy (ALD) Regionalism Roberto Nicco
Union of the Centre (UdC) Christian democracy Pier Ferdinando Casini
The Left – The Rainbow (SA) Communism Fausto Bertinotti
The Right – Tricolour Flame (Destra – FT) National conservatism Daniela Santanché
Socialist Party (PS) Social democracy Enrico Boselli

Coalitions' leadersEdit

Portrait Name Most recent position Refs
  Silvio Berlusconi
(1936– )
Prime Minister of Italy
(2001–2006)

[25][26]
  Walter Veltroni
(1955– )
Secretary of the Democratic Party
(2007–incumbent)

[27][28]
  Pier Ferdinando Casini
(1955– )
President of the Chamber of Deputies
(2001–2006)

[29][30]
  Fausto Bertinotti
(1940– )
President of the Chamber of Deputies
(2006–incumbent)

[31][32]
  Daniela Santanchè
(1961– )
Member of the Chamber of Deputies
(2001–incumbent)

[33][34]
  Enrico Boselli
(1957– )
Member of the Chamber of Deputies
(1994–incumbent)

Opinion pollsEdit

Results for the Chamber of DeputiesEdit

Overall resultsEdit

Summary of the 13–14 April 2008 Chamber of Deputies election results
Coalition Party Italy (19 regions) Aosta Valley Italians abroad Total
seats
+/–
Votes % Seats Votes % Seats Votes % Seats
Centre-right coalition The People of Freedom 13,629,464 37.38 272 13,880 18.52 0 322,437 30.90 4 276 +60
Northern League 3,024,543 8.30 60 2,322 3.10 0 N/A N/A 0 60

+34

Movement for Autonomy 410,499 1.13 8 N/A N/A 0 N/A N/A 0 8
Total seats 340 0 4 344
Centre-left coalition Democratic Party 12,095,306 33.18 211 N/A N/A 0 338,954 32.48 6 217 −9
Italy of Values 1,594,024 4.37 28 N/A N/A 0 42,149 4.04 1 29 +12
SVP 147,718 0.41 2 N/A N/A 0 N/A N/A 0 2 −2
Autonomy Liberty Democracy N/A N/A 0 29,314 39.12 1 N/A N/A 0 1 ±0
Total seats 241 1 7 249
Union of the Centre 2,050,229 5.62 36 N/A N/A 0 88,017 8.43 0 36 −3
Associative Movement Italians Abroad N/A N/A 0 N/A N/A 0 86,970 8.33 1 1 New
Total 630
Popular vote (Party)
PdL
37.38%
PD
33.18%
LN
8.30%
UdC
5.62%
IdV
4.37%
SA
3.08%
Destra
2.43%
MpA
1.13%
Others
4.51%
Popular vote (Coalition)
CDX
46.81%
CSX
37.55%
UdC
5.62%
SA
3.08%
Destra
2.43%
Others
4.51%
Seat distribution (Coalition)
CDX
55.11%
CSX
38.74%
UdC
5.83%
Others
0.32%

Italy (19 regions out of 20)Edit

Coalition Party Votes % Seats
Centre-right coalition The People of Freedom (PdL) 13,629,464 37.38 272
Northern League (LN) 3,024,543 8.30 60
Movement for Autonomy (MpA) 410,499 1.13 8
Total 17,064,506 46.81 340
Centre-left coalition Democratic Party (PD) 12,095,306 33.18 211
Italy of Values (IdV) 1,594,024 4.37 28
Total 13,689,303 37.55 239
Union of the Centre (UdC) 2,050,229 5.62 36
The Left – The Rainbow (SA) 1,124,298 3.08 0
The Right – Tricolour Flame (Destra–FT) 884,961 2.43 0
Socialist Party (PS) 355,495 0.98 0
Workers' Communist Party (PCL) 208,296 0.57 0
Critical Left (SC) 168,916 0.46 0
South Tyrolean People's Party (SVP) 147,718 0.41 2
Abortion? No, Thanks 135,535 0.37 0
For the Common Good (PBC) 119,569 0.33 0
New Force (FN) 109,699 0.30 0
Italian Liberal Party (PLI) 104,053 0.29 0
Democratic Union for Consumers (UDpC) 91,106 0.25 0
List of Talking Crickets 66,835 0.18 0
Venetian Republic League (LVR) 31,353 0.09 0
Die Freiheitlichen (DF) 28,340 0.08 0
European Movement Disabled Persons (MEDA) 16,483 0.05 0
Sardinian Action Party (PSd'Az) 14,860 0.04 0
Lombard Autonomy League (LAL) 13,992 0.04 0
Union for South Tyrol (UfS) 12,981 0.04 0
Sardinia Nation (SN) 7,176 0.02 0
Southern League Ausonia (LSA) 4,399 0.01 0
Venetian Agreement (IV) 2,388 0.01 0
Communist Alternative Party (PdAC) 1,993 0.01 0
The Lotus 1,797 0.00 0
Thought and Action Party (PPA) 946 0.00 0
Total 36,457,254 100.00 617

Results by region (19 regions out of 20)Edit

Region Centre-right Coalition Centre-left Coalition Union of the Centre The Left – The Rainbow The Right – Tricolour Flame Others
Abruzzo 43.2 40.5 5.9 3.2 3.2 4.0
Apulia 47.4 35.6 8.0 3.0 2.1 3.9
Basilicata 37.6 44.5 6.9 3.5 2.3 5.2
Calabria 43.8 36.2 8.2 3.2 2.2 6.4
Campania 51.5 33.9 6.5 2.7 1.6 3.8
Emilia-Romagna 36.4 50.0 4.3 3.0 2.5 3.8
Friuli-Venezia Giulia 47.8 35.7 6.0 3.1 3.0 4.4
Lazio 43.7 40.9 4.8 3.3 3.4 3.9
Liguria 43.6 42.5 3.8 3.7 2.7 3.7
Lombardy 55.1 32.1 4.3 2.9 2.1 3.5
Marche 37.2 45.9 6.0 3.0 3.4 4.5
Molise 41.8 45.6 5.8 1.9 1.7 3.2
Piedmont 47.0 37.4 5.2 3.4 3.2 3.8
Sardinia 43.0 40.0 6.6 3.6 1.5 5.3
Sicily 54.3 28.8 9.4 2.6 2.0 2.9
Trentino-Alto Adige 30.4 27.8 4.2 3.1 2.0 32.5
Tuscany 33.6 50.3 4.2 4.5 2.9 4.5
Umbria 36.1 47.4 4.5 3.5 3.6 4.9
Veneto 54.4 30.8 5.6 2.2 2.0 5.0

Aosta ValleyEdit

The autonomous region of Aosta Valley, in northwestern Italy, elects one member to the Chamber of Deputies through a direct first-past-the-post election. Some parties that formed electoral coalitions in Italy, might have opted to run against one another (or form different coalitions) in this particular region.

Party Votes % Seats
Autonomy Liberty Democracy (ALD) 29,314 39.12 1
Aosta Valley (UV-SA-FA) 28,357 37.84 0
The People of Freedom (PdL) 13,880 18.52 0
Northern League (LN) 2,322 3.10 0
Social Action (AS) 1,066 1.42 0
Total 74,939 100.00 1

Italians abroadEdit

Twelve members of the Chamber of Deputies are elected by Italians abroad. Two members are elected for North America and Central America (including most of the Caribbean), three members for South America (including Trinidad and Tobago), six members for Europe, and one member for the rest of the world (Africa, Asia, Oceania, and Antarctica). Voters in these regions select candidate lists and may also cast a preference vote for individual candidates. The seats are allocated by proportional representation.

The electoral law allows for parties to form different coalitions on the lists abroad, compared to the lists in Italy.

Party Votes % Seats
Democratic Party (PD) 338,954 32.48 6
The People of Freedom (PdL) 322,437 30.90 4
Union of the Centre (UdC) 88,017 8.43 0
Associative Movement Italians Abroad (MAIE) 86,970 8.33 1
Italian Associations in South America (AISA) 64,325 6.16 0
Italy of Values (IdV) 42,149 4.04 1
Socialist Party (PS) 32,513 3.12 0
The Left – The Rainbow (SA) 28,495 2.73 0
The Right – Tricolour Flame (Destra–FT) 14,974 1.43 0
The Other Sicily (LAS) 9,251 0.89 0
Critical Left (SC) 6,062 0.58 0
Italian Civic Consumers 4,878 0.47 0
Values and Future 4,493 0.43 0
Total 1,043,518 100.00 12

Results for the Senate of the RepublicEdit

Overall resultsEdit

Summary of the 13–14 April 2008 Senate of the Republic election results
Coalition Party Italy (18 regions) Aosta Valley Trentino-Alto Adige Italians abroad Total
seats
+/–
Votes % Seats Votes % Seats Votes % Seats Votes % Seats
Centre-right coalition The People of Freedom 12,511,258 38.17 141 12,167 17.25 0 156,126 28.18 3 322,698 33.86 3 147 +26
Northern League 2,642,280 8.06 25 2,081 2.95 0 N/A N/A 0 N/A N/A 0 25 +11
Movement for Autonomy 355,361 1.08 2 N/A N/A 0 N/A N/A 0 N/A N/A 0 2
Total seats 168 0 3 3 174
Centre-left coalition Democratic Party 11,042,452 33.69 116 N/A N/A 0 19,253 3.48 0 274,732 30.70 2 118 +10
Italy of Values 1,414,730 4.32 14 N/A N/A 0 N/A N/A 0 38,357 4.02 0 14 +10
SVP N/A N/A 0 N/A N/A 0 252,669 45.61 4 N/A N/A 0 4 +1
Total seats 130 0 4 2 136
Union of the Centre 1,866,356 5.69 3 N/A N/A 0 32,511 5.87 0 57,817 6.07 0 3 −18
Aosta Valley (UVSAFA) N/A N/A 0 29,191 41.39 1 N/A N/A 0 N/A N/A 0 1 +1
Associative Movement Italians Abroad N/A N/A 0 N/A N/A 0 N/A N/A 0 72,511 7.61 1 1 New
Total 315
Popular vote (Party)
PdL
38.17%
PD
33.69%
LN
8.06%
UdC
5.69%
IdV
4.32%
SA
3.21%
Destra
2.10%
MpA
1.08%
Others
3.68%
Popular vote (Coalition)
CDX
47.32%
CSX
38.01%
UdC
5.69%
SA
3.21%
Destra
2.10%
Others
3.68%
Seat distribution for coalition
CDX
55.24%
CSX
41.90%
UdC
0.95%
Others
0.98%

Italy (18 regions out of 20)Edit

Coalition Party Votes % Seats
Centre-right coalition The People of Freedom (PdL) 12,511,258 38.17 141
Northern League (LN) 2,642,280 8.06 25
Movement for Autonomy (MpA) 355,361 1.08 2
Total 15,508,899 47.32 168
Centre-left coalition Democratic Party (PD) 11,042,452 33.69 116
Italy of Values (IdV) 1,414,730 4.32 14
Total 12,457,182 38.01 130
Union of the Centre (UdC) 1,866,356 5.69 3
The Left – The Rainbow (SA) 1,053,228 3.21 0
The Right – Tricolour Flame (Destra–FT) 686,926 2.10 0
Socialist Party (PS) 284,837 0.87 0
Workers' Communist Party (PCL) 180,442 0.55 0
Critical Left (SC) 136,679 0.42 0
For the Common Good (PBC) 105,827 0.32 0
Italian Liberal Party (PLI) 100,759 0.31 0
New Force (FN) 85,564 0.26 0
Democratic Union for Consumers (UDpC) 78,139 0.24 0
List of Talking Crickets 49,535 0.15 0
Venetian Republic League (LVR) 47,647 0.15 0
Lombard Autonomy League (LAL) 45,623 0.14 0
European Movement Disabled Persons (MEDA) 19,899 0.06 0
Sardinian Action Party (PSd'Az) 15,280 0.05 0
United Populars (PU) 12,389 0.04 0
Marxist–Leninist Italian Communist Party (PCIM-L) 8,094 0.02 0
Southern League Ausonia (LSA) 7,109 0.02 0
Sardinia Nation (SN) 6,972 0.02 0
Independence Front Lombardy (FIL) 5,234 0.02 0
Venetian Agreement (IV) 4,600 0.01 0
Party of the South (PdS) 3,727 0.01 0
Free South 1,795 0.01 0
Thought and Action Party (PPA) 1,597 0.00 0
Total 32,774,339 100.00 301

Aosta ValleyEdit

Party Votes % Seats
Aosta Valley (UV-SA-FA) 29,191 41.39 1
Autonomy Liberty Democracy (ALD) 26,377 37.40 0
The People of Freedom (PdL) 12,167 17.25 0
Northern League (LN) 2,081 2.95 0
Social Action (AS) 712 1.01 0
Total 70,520 100.00 1

Trentino-Alto Adige/South TyrolEdit

Party Votes % Seats
The People of Freedom (PdL) 156,126 28.18 3
SVP - Together for the Autonomies 153,721 27.75 2
South Tyrolean People's Party (SVP) 98,948 17.86 2
The Left – The Rainbow (SA) 39,957 7.21 0
Union of the Centre (UdC) 32,511 5.87 0
Die Freiheitlichen (DF) 24,772 4.47 0
Democratic Party (PD) 19,253 3.48 0
The Right-Tricolour Flame (Destra-FT) 16,462 2.97 0
Union for South Tyrol (UfS) 11,820 2.13 0
Socialist Party (PS) 369 0.07 0
Total 553,939 100.00 7

Italians abroadEdit

Party Votes % Seats
The People of Freedom (PdL) 322,698 33.86 3
Democratic Party (PD) 314,703 33.02 2
Associative Movement Italians Abroad (MAIE) 72,511 7.61 1
Italian Associations in South America (AISA) 60,794 6.38 0
Union of the Centre (UdC) 57,817 6.07 0
Italy of Values (IdV) 38,357 4.02 0
Socialist Party (PS) 28,149 2.95 0
The Left - The Rainbow (SA) 27,067 2.84 0
The Right-Tricolour Flame (Destra-FT) 13,139 1.38 0
The Other Sicily (LAS) 8,391 0.88 0
Critical Left (SC) 5,855 0.61 0
Italian Civic Consumers 3,663 0.38 0
Total 953,144 100.00 6

Results by regionEdit

Region Coalitions Majority bonus
winner
Senators
Centre-right coalition Centre-left coalition Union of the Centre Others
 
Lombardy
19 (PdL)
11 (LN)
15 (PD)
2 (IdV)
CDX 47
 
Campania
18 (PdL) 10 (PD)
2 (IdV)
CDX 30
 
Lazio
15 (PdL) 11 (PD)
1 (IdV)
CDX 27
 
Sicily
13 (PdL)
2 (MpA)
7 (PD)
1 (IdV)
3 (UdC) CDX 26
 
Veneto
8 (PdL)
7 (LN)
8 (PD)
1 (IdV)
CDX 24
 
Piedmont
10 (PdL)
3 (LN)
8 (PD)
1 (IdV)
CDX 22
 
Emilia-Romagna
7 (PdL)
2 (LN)
11 (PD)
1 (IdV)
CSX 21
 
Apulia
12 (PdL) 8 (PD)
1 (IdV)
CDX 21
 
Tuscany
7 (PdL) 10 (PD)
1 (IdV)
CSX 18
 
Calabria
6 (PdL) 4 (PD) CDX 10
 
Sardinia
5 (PdL) 4 (PD) CDX 9
 
Liguria
4 (PdL)
1 (LN)
3 (PD) CDX 8
 
Marche
3 (PdL) 5 (PD) CSX 8
 
Abruzzo
4 (PdL) 2 (PD)
1 (IdV)
CDX 7
 
Friuli-Venezia Giulia
3 (PdL)
1 (LN)
3 (PD) CDX 7
 
Trentino-South Tyrol
3 (PdL) 2 (SVP - IpA)
2 (SVP)
N/A 7
 
Umbria
3 (PdL) 4 (PD) CSX 7
 
Basilicata
3 (PdL) 3 (PD)
1 (IdV)
CSX 7
 
Molise
1 (PdL) 1 (PD) N/A 2
 
Aosta Valley
1 (VA) N/A 1
Italians abroad 3 (PdL) 2 (PD) 1 (MAIE) N/A 6
Total 174 132 3 5 315

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "Italy's President Dissolves Parliament, Forces Vote". Bloomberg.com. 6 February 2008. Retrieved 8 February 2008.
  2. ^ "Italy to hold snap April election". BBC News. 6 February 2008. Retrieved 6 February 2008.
  3. ^ "Berlusconi plans Naples clean-up". BBC News. 15 April 2008.
  4. ^ "Berlusconi declares election win". BBC News. 14 April 2008.
  5. ^ "Prodi loses crucial Senate vote". BBC. 24 January 2008. Archived from the original on 27 January 2008. Retrieved 24 January 2008.
  6. ^ "Italian court okays referendum on election law" Reuters, January 16th 2008
  7. ^ "Legge elettorale, Mastella minaccia la crisi" Corriere della Sera, April 10, 2007
  8. ^ "Mastella: Se c'è referendum si rischia la crisi di governo" Archived 28 August 2007 at the Wayback Machine La Stampa, April 10, 2007
  9. ^ "Prodi Likely to Quit, Prompt Vote or Election Reform" Bloomberg.com
  10. ^ a b Ian Fisher (24 January 2008). "Italy Backs Its Coalition but Only Just for Now". New York Times. Retrieved 24 January 2008.
  11. ^ a b "Prodi sconfitto in Senato: cade il governo, Il premier al Quirinale per le dimissioni" (in Italian). Corriere della Sera. 24 January 2008. Archived from the original on 25 January 2008. Retrieved 24 January 2008.
  12. ^ "Cusumano si dissocia: voto sì. È bagarre" (in Italian). Corriere della Sera. 24 January 2008. Archived from the original on 27 January 2008. Retrieved 24 January 2008.
  13. ^ "Crisi, Napolitano incarica Marini" (in Italian). Corriere della Sera. 30 January 2008. Archived from the original on 31 January 2008. Retrieved 30 January 2008.
  14. ^ SignOnSanDiego.com > News > World - Italy Senate speaker fails to form govt, vote looms Archived 12 February 2009 at the Wayback Machine
  15. ^ Italy's Marini says no majority for electoral reform govt, resigns mandate | Latest News | News | Hemscott
  16. ^ ""A Marini diremo: "subito al voto""" (in Italian). Corriere della Sera. 30 January 2008. Archived from the original on 3 February 2008. Retrieved 30 January 2008.
  17. ^ "DOMANI LO SCIOGLIMENTO DELLE CAMERE" (in Italian). Ansa. 5 February 2008. Archived from the original on 4 February 2008. Retrieved 5 February 2008.
  18. ^ Elisabeth Rosenthal (7 February 2008). "With Flawed System Unchanged, Italy Sets Elections for April". The New York Times. Retrieved 8 February 2008.
  19. ^ a b c "Italy faces second day of voting". CNN. 14 April 2008. Archived from the original on 15 April 2008. Retrieved 14 April 2008.
  20. ^ "Berlusconi: "Simbolo unico per Fi e An"". Corriere della Sera (in Italian). 8 February 2008. Retrieved 8 February 2008.
  21. ^ "Pd: accordo Di Pietro, Veltroni" (in Italian). ANSA.it. 13 February 2008. Retrieved 21 February 2008.[dead link]
  22. ^ "I Radicali dicono sì al Pd: 9 seggi e Bonino ministro". L'Unità (in Italian). 21 February 2008. Retrieved 21 February 2008.[dead link]
  23. ^ http://www.parlamento.it/parlam/leggi/05270l.htm
  24. ^ a b "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 20 December 2016. Retrieved 14 December 2016.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  25. ^ Berlusconi presenta il programma
  26. ^ Politiche 2008, netta vittoria del Pdl. Maggioranza chiara anche in Senato
  27. ^ Walter Veltroni – Elezioni 2008
  28. ^ Politiche 2008: comizio di Walter Veltroni
  29. ^ Pier Ferdinando Casini – Elezioni 2008
  30. ^ Pier Ferdinando Casini – Corriere della Sera
  31. ^ Sinistra Arcobaleno, obiettivo 8% e oltre
  32. ^ Bertinotti presenta la Sinistra arcobaleno: dal simbolo scompare la falce e il martello
  33. ^ Elezioni: Destra e Fiamma Tricolore insieme, Santanchè candidata premier
  34. ^ La De Albertis saluta la Santanchè

External linksEdit