Italian front (World War I)

The Italian front (Italian: Fronte italiano; German: Südwestfront) was one of the main theatres of war of World War I. It involved a series of military engagements in Northern Italy between the Central Powers and the Entente powers from 1915 to 1918. Following secret promises made by the Allies in the 1915 Treaty of London, the Kingdom of Italy entered the war on the Allied side, aiming to annex the Austrian Littoral, northern Dalmatia and the territories of present-day Trentino and South Tyrol.

Italian front
Part of the European theatre of World War I

Clockwise: Italian soldiers listening to their general's speech; Austro-Hungarian trench on the Isonzo; Austro-Hungarian trench in the Alps; Italian trench on the Piave
Date23 May 1915 – 6 November 1918
(3 years, 5 months and 2 weeks)

Italian victory

Italy annexes Trento, Bolzano and Trieste and occupies Innsbruck until the armistice

Kingdom of Italy Italy

 United Kingdom
 United States
 German Empire
Commanders and leaders
Kingdom of Italy Luigi Cadorna
Kingdom of Italy Armando Diaz
Kingdom of Italy Duke of Aosta
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland Rudolph Lambart
French Third Republic Jean César Graziani
Austria-Hungary Conrad von Hötzendorf
Austria-Hungary Arz von Straußenburg
Austria-Hungary Archduke Eugen
Austria-Hungary Svetozar Boroević
German Empire Otto von Below
1915: up to 58 divisions
 United Kingdom
1917: 3 divisions
1918: 2 divisions
Czechoslovak Legion
1918: 5 regiments
Romanian Legion
1918: 3 regiments
 United States
1918: 1,200 in one regiment
1915: up to 61 divisions
 German Empire
1917: 5 divisions
Casualties and losses
Kingdom of Italy 1,832,639:[1][2]
246,133 killed
946,640 wounded
70,656 missing[nb 1]
569,210 captured[nb 2]
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland 6,700:[3]
1,057 killed
4,971 wounded
670 missing/captured
French Third Republic 2,872:
480 killed
(700 died indirectly)
2,302 wounded
Unknown captured
Austria-Hungary 1,386,327:[4][5][nb 3]
155,350 killed[nb 4]
560,863 wounded
175,041 missing[nb 5]
477,024 captured[6][nb 6]
German Empire N/A

Although Italy had hoped to gain the territories with a surprise offensive, the front soon bogged down into trench warfare, similar to that on the Western Front, but at high altitudes and with extremely cold winters. Fighting along the front displaced much of the local population, and several thousand civilians died from malnutrition and illness in Italian and Austro-Hungarian refugee camps.[7]

Before the Allied victory, the Austro-Hungarian state started to disintegrate on the last week of October. The Allied victory at the Battle of Vittorio Veneto, the disintegration of Austria-Hungary and the Italian capture of Trento and Trieste ended all military operations on the front by November 1918. On the 1st of November, the pacifist and pro-Allies Mihály Károlyi's new Hungarian government decided to recall all of the troops, who were conscripted from the territory of Kingdom of Hungary, which was a major blow for the Habsburg's armies.[8] The armistice of Villa Giusti entered into force on 4 November 1918, when Austria-Hungary no longer existed as a unified entity. Some Italians subsequently referred to the conflict as the Fourth Italian War of Independence, as it completed the final stage of the unification of Italy.[9]



Pre-war period

  • 1908 - Bosnian Crisis: Italy expected compensations in the areas of "Italia Irredenta" ruled by Austria-Hungary in exchange for its recognition of the annexation of Bosnia-Herzegovina, as was agreed upon in the Triple Alliance treaties with Austria-Hungary. However, this did not happen and this became one of the reasons for Italy to break its alliance with Austria-Hungary in 1915.[citation needed] The mutual compensation clause was Article 7 of the 1909 and of 5 December 1912 versions of the same treaty:

However, if, in the course of events, the maintenance of the status quo in the regions of the Balkans or of the Ottoman coasts and islands in the Adriatic and in the Aegean Sea should become impossible, and if, whether in consequence of the action of a third Power or otherwise, Austria-Hungary or Italy should find themselves under the necessity of modifying it by a temporary or permanent occupation on their part, this occupation shall take place only after a previous agreement between the two Powers, based upon the principle of reciprocal compensation for every advantage, territorial or other, which each of them might obtain beyond the present status quo, and giving satisfaction to the interests and well-founded claims of the two Parties.[10]

  • 1911 - Libyan war: The war is regarded as a major escalation stage on the way to the First World War. The weakening of the Ottoman Empire alienated Italy from its previous partners in the Triple Alliance, as Germany viewed the Ottomans as an ally and Austria-Hungary's position was further complicated by the subsequent Balkan Wars, which Bulgaria, Greece, Serbia and Montenegro ignited by the prospect of an Italian victory.
  • 1914 - 1 July, Alberto Pollio, the Chief of Staff of the Italian army since 1908, dies unexpectedly and is replaced by Luigi Cadorna. According to Alfred von Kleist, German military attaché in Rome, in a dispatch from April 1914, Pollio was considered up most stable, loyal and fully committed to the Triple Alliance and its military prospects.[11]
  • 1914 - July Crisis: Berchtold deliberately failed to inform the (officially) allies Italy and Romania of the intended action against Serbia, breeching Article 7 of the Triple Alliance, since he foresaw that consent would only be given in exchange for compensation.[12]
  • 1914 - 5 November, Sonnino is appointed Minister of Foreign Affairs and makes it a priority to pressure Austria-Hungary on Article 7 of the Triple Alliance in terms of compensation. Also urged by the ambassadors in Rome, Bernhard von Bülow and Karl von Macchio, Berchtold gave in and on January 9, 1915 suggested to Emperor Franz Joseph to cede the Trentino. However, the Emperor and the Hungarian Prime Minister István Tisza rejected it and at the instigation of Tisza Berchtold was replaced on January 13, 1915 as Foreign Minister by the Hungarian Stephan Burián.[13] A German proposal of giving Sosnowiec and its coalfields to Austria-Hungary in compenastion for the Trentino was likewise rejected in February 1915.
  • 1915 - 26 April, The Treaty of London is signed by the United Kingdom, France, and Russia on the one part, and Italy on the other, in order to entice the latter to enter World War I on the side of the Triple Entente within a month. The Entente also hoped that Romania and Bulgaria would be encouraged to join them after Italy did the same. The Treaty was agreed to be kept a secret according to Article 16, and remained so until December 1917 when Bolshevik leader Vladimir Lenin exposed to the public all treaties of Tsar Nicholas II and the Entente, including the secret treaty of London.
  • 1915 - 16 May, Salandra is reinstated as Giolitti failed to form a new government amid rising social tensions and threats from the king. When Parliament resumed on May 20 Salandra secured overwhelming majorities (367 to 54 and 407 to 74) on a Bill conferring extraordinary powers upon the Government in the event of war. General mobilization was ordered on May 22.
  • 1915 - 23 May, Italy declares war on Austria-Hungary.

The Front




The Italian Front stretched from the Stelvio Pass (at the border triangle between Italy, Austria-Hungary and Switzerland) along the Tyrolean, Carinthian, and Littoral borders to the Isonzo. Its total length was around 600 kilometers, of which 450 kilometers ran in high alpine terrain.[14] This information relates to measurements as the crow flies. Taking into account the natural terrain, the many yokes, peaks and ridges with the resulting differences in height, the effective length was several thousand kilometers.[15]

The front touched very different geographical areas: in the first three sections - from the Stelvio Pass to the Julian Alps in the area of Tarvisio, it ran through mountainous territory, where the average ridge heights reached 2,700 to 3,200 meters. The higher mountainous regions have a highly rugged relief with little vegetation; Elevations over 2,500 meters are also covered by glaciers. The barren landscape and lack of sufficient arable land led to little development of these high elevations; settlement was largely limited to the lower-lying zones. From the Julian Alps to the Adriatic Sea, the mountains are constantly losing on height and only rarely reach 1,000 meters as in the area around Gorizia. This area is also sparsely populated and characterized by a harsh climate with cold winters and very hot and dry summers. A craggy karst landscape spreads out around the Isonzo valley, which adjoins the Italian foothills of the Alps in the southwest.[16]

The topographical characteristics of the front area had a concrete impact on the conduct of the war. The rocky ground, for example, made it difficult to dig trenches and in addition, the karst rock in the Isonzo Valley turned out to be an additional danger for the soldiers. If grenades exploded on the porous surface fragments of the exploding rock acted as additional shrapnel.


The digging of trenches on the Isonzo front by k.u.k soldiers

Archduke Eugen, who was already in command of the Balkan forces, was promoted to Generaloberst on May 22, 1915 and was given supreme command of the new southwest front.[17] Together with his chief of staff Alfred Krauß the 5th Army was reorganized and placed under the command of General d. Inf. Svetozar Boroević who on May 27 had arrived from the Eastern Front. The K. u. k. Landesverteidigungskommando in Tyrol (LVK) was handed to GdK Viktor Dankl to protect the Tyrolean borders. It included the German Alpenkorps which was suitable for operations in the high mountains, the first divisions arrived on May 26; a short time later, the Alpenkorps was already taking part in combat operations against Italian units, although the German Empire was not officially at war with Italy until August 28, 1916.[18] The "Armeegruppe Rohr" stood under the command of Franz Rohr von Denta and was to secure the Carinthian front. The transfer of the 5th Army and additional troops from the east went smoothly; within a few weeks, Archduke Eugen had around 225,000 soldiers under his command. In June the 48. Division (FML Theodor Gabriel) and finally, in July, the four Kaiserjäger regiments and three k.k. Landesschützen regiments from Galicia were added. A major advantage of the Austro-Hungarian defense was its entrenchment on higher ground.

Italy ordered general mobilization on May 22, 1915 and by the end of June four armies had marched into the north-east border area. In the deployment plan of the Italian general staff (Commando Supremo) under the direction of FM Luigi Cadorna, three main points were set:

  • The 1st Army was to encircle the Tyrolean front from the west and south.
  • The 4th Army was to set up position in the Cadore and Carnia
  • The 2nd and 3rd Armies on the other hand, were opposed to the 5th k.u.k. Army, in the Julian Alps and on the Isonzo.
Italian infantry soldier in full marching order

Although the Italian armed forces were numerically superior, things initially remained surprisingly quiet on the southwestern front. No attempt was made to break through on the Tyrolean front, and there was no major offensive on the Isonzo either. Due to the hesitant implementation of Cadorna's attack plans, the chance to score the decisive blow right at the beginning was lost.[19] FML Cletus Pichler, the chief of staff of the LVK Tirol, wrote: [20]

A general attack on the most important penetration points, such as the Stilfser Joch, Etschtal, Valsugana, Rollepass [sic], [and] Kreuzbergpass, [...] could have led to significant enemy successes in view of the extremely weak defense forces in May.

That the opportunity for a quick breakthrough was not used was partly due to the slow mobilization of the Italian army. Due to the poorly developed transport network, the provision of troops and war material could only be completed in mid-June, i.e. a month later than estimated by the military leadership.[21] The Italian army also suffered from many shortcomings on the structural level. Artillery pieces and munitions were not the only area where shortages were acute. In August 1914 the Italian army had at its disposal only 750,000 rifles of the standard Carcano 1891 model and no hand grenades available at all. This inadequate supply of equipment especially limited the scope and efficiency of training throughout 1914 and 1915. Munitions were also urgently needed: in July 1914 only ca. 700 rounds were available per rifle, despite Cadorna's demand that 2,000 rounds each be found in preparation for war, by May 1915 the army had only succeeded in procuring 900 rounds per rifle.[22] Meanwhile, Emilio De Bono records that "throughout 1915 hand-grenades remained unheard of in the trenches".[23]

Italy's first machine guns were prototypes, as the Perino Model 1908, or Maxim guns acquired in 1913 from the British manufacturer Vickers. In line with the 1911 plan for creating 602 machine gun sections. By August 1914 only 150 of these had been created, meaning there was only one machine gun section per regiment, as opposed to one per battalion, as envisaged in the plans. By May 1915 the Fiat-Revelli Mod. 1914 became the standard machine gun of the Italian army and a total of 309 sections had been created, with 618 guns in total; though this was an improvement it was still only half the planned number, leaving many battalions to do without. In contrast a standard k.u.k regiment had four machine gun sections, MG 07/12 "Schwarzlose", one for each battalion, whilst a standard British regiment had by February 1915 four machine gun sections per battalion.[24]

The Italian Front in 1915–1917: eleven Battles of the Isonzo and Asiago offensive. In blue, initial Italian conquests
Italian Alpini troops; 1915
Italian soldiers listening to their General's speech

During the Italo-Turkish War in Libya (1911–1912), the Italian military suffered equipment and munition shortages not yet repaired before Italian entry into the Great War.[25] At the opening of the campaign, Austro-Hungarian troops occupied and fortified high ground of the Julian Alps and Karst Plateau, but the Italians initially outnumbered their opponents three-to-one.

Battles of Isonzo in 1915

Austro-Hungarian 350 mm L/45 M. 16 naval guns

An Italian offensive aimed to cross the Soča (Isonzo) river, take the fortress town of Gorizia, and then enter the Karst Plateau. This offensive opened the first Battles of the Isonzo.

At the beginning of the First Battle of the Isonzo on 23 June 1915, Italian forces outnumbered the Austrians three-to-one but failed to penetrate the strong Austro-Hungarian defensive lines in the highlands of northwestern Gorizia and Gradisca. Because the Austrian forces occupied higher ground, Italians conducted difficult offensives while climbing. The Italian forces therefore failed to drive much beyond the river, and the battle ended on 7 July 1915.

Despite a professional officer corps, severely under-equipped Italian units lacked morale.[26] Also many troops deeply disliked the newly appointed Italian commander, general Luigi Cadorna.[27] Moreover, preexisting equipment and munition shortages slowed progress and frustrated all expectations for a "Napoleonic style" breakout.[25] Like most contemporaneous militaries, the Italian army primarily used horses for transport but struggled and sometimes failed to supply the troops sufficiently in the tough terrain.

Two weeks later on 18 July 1915, the Italians attempted another frontal assault against the Austro-Hungarian trench lines with more artillery in the Second Battle of the Isonzo. In the northern section of the front, the Italians managed to overrun Mount Batognica over Kobarid (Caporetto), which would have an important strategic value in future battles. This bloody offensive concluded in stalemate when both sides ran out of ammunition.

The Italians recuperated, rearmed with 1200 heavy guns, and then on 18 October 1915 launched the Third Battle of the Isonzo, another attack. Forces of Austria-Hungary repulsed this Italian offensive, which concluded on 4 November without resulting gains.

The Italians again launched another offensive on 10 November, the Fourth Battle of the Isonzo. Both sides suffered more casualties, but the Italians conquered important entrenchments, and the battle ended on 2 December for exhaustion of armaments, but occasional skirmishing persisted.

After the winter lull, the Italians launched the Fifth Battle of the Isonzo on 9 March 1916, and captured the strategic Mount Sabatino. But Austria-Hungary repulsed all other attacks, and the battle concluded on 16 March in poor weather for trench warfare.

The Asiago offensive


Following Italy's stalemate, the Austro-Hungarian forces began planning a counteroffensive (Battle of Asiago) in Trentino and directed over the plateau of Altopiano di Asiago, with the aim to break through to the Po River plain and thus cutting off the 2nd, 3rd, and 4th Italian Armies in the North East of the country. The offensive began on 15 May 1916 with 15 divisions, and resulted in initial gains, but then the Italians counterattacked and pushed the Austro-Hungarians back to the Tyrol.

Later battles for the Isonzo

The Austro-Hungarian supply line over the Vršič pass, October 1917

Later in 1916, four more battles along the Isonzo river erupted. The Sixth Battle of the Isonzo, launched by the Italians in August, resulted in a success greater than the previous attacks. The offensive gained nothing of strategic value but did take Gorizia, which boosted Italian spirits. The Seventh, Eighth, and Ninth battles of the Isonzo (14 September – 4 November) managed to accomplish little except to wear down the already exhausted armies of both nations.

The frequency of offensives for which the Italian soldiers partook between May 1915 and August 1917, one every three months, was higher than demanded by the armies on the Western Front. Italian discipline was also harsher, with punishments for infractions of duty of a severity not known in the German, French, and British armies.[28]

Shellfire in the rocky terrain caused 70% more casualties per rounds expended than on the soft ground in Belgium and France. By the autumn of 1917 the Italian army had suffered most of the deaths it was to incur during the war, yet the end of the war seemed to still be an eternity away.[28] This was not the same line of thought for the Austro-Hungarians. On 25 August, the Emperor Charles wrote to the Kaiser the following: "The experience we have acquired in the eleventh battle has led me to believe that we should fare far worse in the twelfth. My commanders and brave troops have decided that such an unfortunate situation might be anticipated by an offensive. We have not the necessary means as regards troops."[29]

Tunnel warfare in the mountains

A mine gallery in the ice at Pasubio
Trenches at the mount Škabrijel in 1917

From 1915, the high peaks of the Dolomites range were an area of fierce mountain warfare. In order to protect their soldiers from enemy fire and the hostile alpine environment, both Austro-Hungarian and Italian military engineers constructed fighting tunnels which offered a degree of cover and allowed better logistics support. Working at high altitudes in the hard carbonate rock of the Dolomites, often in exposed areas near mountain peaks and even in glacial ice, required extreme skill of both Austro-Hungarian and Italian miners.

Beginning on the 13th, later referred to as White Friday, December 1916 would see 10,000 soldiers on both sides killed by avalanches in the Dolomites.[30] Numerous avalanches were caused by the Italians and Austro-Hungarians purposefully firing artillery shells on the mountainside, while others were naturally caused.

In addition to building underground shelters and covered supply routes for their soldiers like the Italian Strada delle 52 Gallerie, both sides also attempted to break the stalemate of trench warfare by tunneling under no man's land and placing explosive charges beneath the enemy's positions. Between 1 January 1916 and 13 March 1918, Austro-Hungarian and Italian units fired a total of 34 mines in this theatre of the war. Focal points of the underground fighting were Pasubio with 10 mines, Lagazuoi with 5, Col di Lana/Monte Sief also with 5, and Marmolada with 4 mines. The explosive charges ranged from 110 to 50,000 kilograms (240–110,230 pounds) of blasting gelatin. In April 1916, the Italians detonated explosives under the peaks of Col Di Lana, killing numerous Austro-Hungarians.

1917: Germany arrives on the front

The Battle of Caporetto

The Italians directed a two-pronged attack against the Austrian lines north and east of Gorizia. The Austrians checked the advance east, but Italian forces under Luigi Capello managed to break the Austrian lines and capture the Banjšice Plateau. Characteristic of nearly every other theater of the war, the Italians found themselves on the verge of victory but could not secure it because their supply lines could not keep up with the front-line troops and they were forced to withdraw. However, the Italians despite suffering heavy casualties had almost exhausted and defeated the Austro-Hungarian army on the front, forcing them to call in German help for the much anticipated Caporetto Offensive.

The Austro-Hungarians received desperately needed reinforcements after the Eleventh Battle of the Isonzo from German Army soldiers rushed in after the Russian offensive ordered by Kerensky of July 1917 failed. Also arrived German troops from Romanian front after the Battle of Mărășești. The Germans introduced infiltration tactics to the Austro-Hungarian front and helped work on a new offensive. Meanwhile, mutinies and plummeting morale crippled the Italian Army from within. The soldiers lived in poor conditions and engaged in attack after attack that often yielded minimal or no military gain.

On 24 October 1917 the Austro-Hungarians and Germans launched the Battle of Caporetto (Italian name for Kobarid or Karfreit in German). Chlorine-arsenic agent and diphosgene gas shells were fired as part of a huge artillery barrage, followed by infantry using infiltration tactics, bypassing enemy strong points and attacking on the Italian rear. At the end of the first day, the Italians had retreated 19 kilometres (12 miles) to the Tagliamento River.

When the Austro-Hungarian offensive routed the Italians, the new Italian chief of staff, Armando Diaz ordered to stop their retreat and defend the fortified defenses around the Monte Grappa summit between the Roncone and the Tomatico mountains; although numerically inferior (51,000 against 120,000) the Italian Army managed to halt the Austro-Hungarian and German armies in the First Battle of Monte Grappa.

1918: The war ends


Second Battle of the Piave River (June 1918)

Austro-Hungarian trench in Ortler Alps, 1917

Advancing deep and fast, the Austro-Hungarians outran their supply lines, which forced them to stop and regroup. The Italians, pushed back to defensive lines near Venice on the Piave River, had suffered 600,000 casualties to this point in the war. Because of these losses, the Italian Government called to arms the so-called 99 Boys (Ragazzi del '99); the new class of conscripts born in 1899 who were turning 18 in 1917. In November 1917, British and French troops started to bolster the front line, from the 5 and 6 divisions respectively provided.[31][32][a] Far more decisive to the war effort than their troops was the Allies economic assistance by providing strategic materials (steel, coal and crops – provided by the British but imported from Argentina – etc.), which Italy always lacked sorely. In the spring of 1918, Germany pulled out its troops for use in its upcoming Spring Offensive on the Western Front. As a result of the Spring Offensive, Britain and France also pulled half of their divisions back to the Western Front.

The Austro-Hungarians now began debating how to finish the war in Italy. The Austro-Hungarian generals disagreed on how to administer the final offensive. Archduke Joseph August of Austria decided for a two-pronged offensive, where it would prove impossible for the two forces to communicate in the mountains.

The Second Battle of the Piave River began with a diversionary attack near the Tonale Pass named Lawine, which the Italians repulsed after two days of fighting.[34] Austrian deserters betrayed the objectives of the upcoming offensive, which allowed the Italians to move two armies directly in the path of the Austrian prongs. The other prong, led by general Svetozar Boroević von Bojna initially experienced success until aircraft bombed their supply lines and Italian reinforcements arrived.

The Italian front in 1918 and the Battle of Vittorio Veneto.
Italian troops landing in Trieste, 3 November 1918

The decisive Battle of Vittorio Veneto (October–November 1918)


To the disappointment of Italy's allies, no counter-offensive followed the Battle of Piave. The Italian Army had suffered huge losses in the battle, and considered an offensive dangerous. General Armando Diaz waited for more reinforcements to arrive from the Western Front. By the end of October 1918, Austro-Hungary was in a dire situation. Czechoslovakia, Croatia, and Slovenia proclaimed their independence and parts of their troops started deserting, disobeying orders and retreating. Many Czechoslovak troops, in fact, started working for the Allied Cause, and in September 1918, five Czechoslovak Regiments were formed in the Italian Army.

By October 1918, Italy finally had enough soldiers to mount an offensive. The attack targeted Vittorio Veneto, across the Piave. The Italian Army broke through a gap near Sacile and poured in reinforcements that crushed the Austro-Hungarian defensive line. On 31 October, the Italian Army launched a full scale attack and the whole front began to collapse. On 3 November, 300,000 Austro-Hungarian soldiers surrendered, at the same day the Italians entered Trento and Trieste, greeted by the population.

On 3 November, the military leaders of the already disintegrated Austria-Hungary sent a flag of truce to the Italian commander to ask again for an armistice and terms of peace. The terms were arranged by telegraph with the Allied authorities in Paris, communicated to the Austro-Hungarian commander, and were accepted. The Armistice with Austria was signed in the Villa Giusti, near Padua, on 3 November, and took effect at three o'clock in the afternoon of 4 November. Austria and Hungary signed separate armistices following the overthrow of the Habsburg monarchy and the collapse of the Austro-Hungarian Empire.



Italian military deaths numbered 834 senior officers and generals, 16,872 junior officers, 16,302 non-commissioned officers, and 497,103 enlisted men, for a total of over 531,000 dead. Of these, 257,418 men came from Northern Italy, 117,480 from Central Italy, and 156,251 from Southern Italy.[35] While the KIA numbers of Italian soldiers on the Italian front in 1915 were 66,090 killed, in 1916 this figure was 118,880 killed, in 1917 it was 152,790 killed, and in 1918 it stood at 40,250 killed soldiers.[36]

Austro-Hungarian KIAs (this category does not include soldiers who perished in the rear or as POWs) amounted to 4,538 officers and 150,812 soldiers, for a total of 155,350 dead. The losses were increasing over time; there were 31,135 killed in 1915, 38,519 in 1916, 42,309 in 1917 and 43,387 in 1918.[37] While in 1915 killed-in-action fatalities on the Italian front constituted 18% of all Austro-Hungarian KIAs, in 1916 this figure was 41%, in 1917 it was 64%, and in 1918 it stood at 84%.[38]

Occupation of northern Dalmatia and Tyrol


By the end of hostilities in November 1918, the Italian military had seized control of the entire portion of Dalmatia that had been guaranteed to Italy by the London Pact.[39] From 5–6 November 1918, Italian forces were reported to have reached Lissa, Lagosta, Sebenico, and other localities on the Dalmatian coast.[40] In 1918, Admiral Enrico Millo declared himself Italy's Governor of Dalmatia.[39] After 4 November the Italian military occupied also Innsbruck and all Tyrol by 20–22,000 soldiers of the III Corps of the First Army.[41][42]

Enrico Toti, Italian patriot and hero of World War I.
(From Italian weekly La Domenica del Corriere, 24 September 1916).
Italian propaganda poster in 1917

Italian Army Order of Battle as of 24 May 1915


First Army


Lieutenant General Roberto Brusati

III Corps


Lieutenant General Vittorio Camerana

  • 5th Infantry Division (Lieutenant General Luigi Druetti)
    • "Cuneo" Brigade – 7th (I, III & IV[b]) and 8th (I-III) Infantry Regiments
    • "Palermo" Brigade – 67th (I-III) and 68th (I, III & IV) Infantry Regiments
    • 27th Field Artillery Regiment (-) (5 batteries)[c] 75/906[d] (arr. 7–13 June); 10th Co, 2nd Sapper Regiment
  • 6th Infantry Division (Lieutenant General Oscar Roffi)
    • "Toscana" Brigade – 77th (I-III) and 78th (I-III) Infantry Regiments
    • "Sicilia" Brigade – 61st (I-III) and 62nd (I-III) Infantry Regiments
    • 16th Field Artillery Regiment (8 batteries) 75/906; 11th Co, 2nd Sapper Regiment
  • 35th Infantry Division (Lieutenant General Felice De Chaurand)
    • "Milano" Brigade – 159th (I-III) and 160th (I-III) Infantry Regiments
    • "Novara" Brigade—153rd I-III) and 154th (I-III) Infantry Regiments
    • 42nd Field Artillery Regiment (6 batteries) 75/906; 15th Co, 1st Sapper Regiment; 5th Group of mobile militia cavalry (9th & 10th Squadrons)
  • Corps Troops
    • 7th Bersaglieri Regiment (Btns 8, 10 & 11 bis)
    • 45th Bersaglieri Battalion (mobile militia)
    • Mixed Regular & Mobile Militia Alpini battalions: Morbegno (44, 45, 47, 88, 104 Cos); Tirano (46, 48, 49, 89, 113 Cos); Edolo (50–52, 90, 105 Cos) and Vestone (53–55, 91 Cos)
    • Territorial Militia Alpini battalions: Val d’Intelvi (244, 245, 247 Cos); Valtellina (246, 248, 249 Cos); Val Camonica (250-52 Cos) and Val Chiese (253-54 Cos)
    • III Battalion, Royal Customs Guards (Frontier) (Reale Guardia di Finanza di frontiers)
    • 27th Light Cavalry Regiment of Aquila (4 squadrons)[e] (arr. 20 May)
    • 6th Field Artillery Regiment (8 batteries) 75/906
    • 30th Mountain Battery
    • 2nd Group, 1st Heavy Field Artillery Regiment (4th & 5th batteries)[f]
    • 1st Battalion, Miners (Cos 10, 11, 18)
    • 4th Telegraph Co
    • ½ 18th Co, 2nd Sapper Regiment

V Corps


source:[g] Lieutenant General Florenzio Aliprindi

  • 9th Infantry Division (Lieutenant General Ferruccio Ferri)
    • "Roma" Brigade—79th (II, III, IV) and 80th (I-III) Infantry Regiments
    • "Pugile" Brigade—71st (II-IV) and 72nd (I-III) Infantry Regiments
    • 29th Field Artillery Regiment (8 batteries) 75/906; 12th Co, 1st Sapper Regiment
  • 15th Infantry Division (Lieutenant General Luigi Lenchantin)[h]
    • "Venezia" Brigade—83rd (I-III) and 84th (I, II, IV) Infantry Regiments
    • "Abruzzi" Brigade—57th (I, III, IV) and 58th (I-III) Infantry Regiments
    • 19th Field Artillery Regiment (-) (6 batteries)[i] 75/906; 1st Co, 2nd Sapper Regiment
  • 34th Infantry Division (Lieutenant General Pasquale Oro)
    • "Ivrea" Brigade—161st (I-III) and 162nd (I-III) Infantry Regiments
    • "Treviso" Brigade—115th (I-III) and 116th (I-III) Infantry Regiments
    • 41st Field Artillery Regiment (6 batteries) 75/906; 9th Co, 2nd Sapper Regiment; Mobile Militia cavalry: 21st Squadron (arr. 11 June) & 23rd Squadron (arr. 29 June)
  • Corps Troops
    • 2nd Bersaglieri Regiment (Btns 2 bis, 4 & 17)
    • 4th Bersaglieri Regiment (Btns 26 bis, 29 & 31 bis)
    • 8th Bersaglieri Regiment (Btns 3 bis, 5 & 12)
    • 41st, 42nd and 48th Bersaglieri Battalions (mobile militia)
    • Mixed Regular & Mobile Militia Alpini battalions: Verona (56–58, 73, 92 Cos); Vincenza (59–61, 93, 108 Cos); Bassano (77–79, 106 Cos) and Feltre (64–66, 95 Cos)
    • Territorial Militia Alpini battalions: Val d’Adige (256–258 Cos); Val Leogra (259, 260 Cos); Val Brenta (262, 263 Cos) and Val Cismon (264, 265 Cos)
    • V, VII, IX, XVII & XVIII Battalions, Royal Customs Guards (Coastal) (Reale Guardia di Finanza di costieri) with Autonomous Cos. 11 and 52
    • I Battalion, Royal Custom Guards (Frontier)
    • 22nd Light Cavalry Regiment of Catania (arr. 28 May)
    • 15 batteries of mountain artillery: Oneglia Group (batteries 23, 26 & 27); Vincenza Group (batteries 19–21); Genove Group (batteries 28 & 29); Torino Aosta Group (batteries 4–6) and Independent batteries: 1, 8, 57 & 59
    • 5th Field Artillery Regiment (8 batteries) 75/911[j]
    • 1st, 13th, 14th & ½ 7th Cos, Miners
    • 11th Telegraph Co
    • 16th Co, 2nd Sapper Regiment (barrier Brenta-Cismon)
    • 16th Co, 1st Sapper Regiment (barrier Agno-Assa)

Army Troops

  • "Mantova" Brigade[k]—113th (I-III) and 114th Infantry (I-III) Regiments
  • 4th Squadron, 27th Light Cavalry Regiment of Aquila[l]
  • 3rd Group, 1st Heavy Field Artillery Regiment (6th & 7th batteries)
  • 2nd & 17th Cos, Miners
  • 17th Co, 2nd Sapper Regiment[k]
  • 14th Pontoon Co
  • 16th Telegraph Co
  • 1 section, radiotelegraph of 1+12 kW
  • 1 squad, telephotography

Second Army


Lieutenant General Pietro Frugoni

II Corps


Lieutenant General Enzio Reisoli

  • 3rd Division (Lieutenant General Giovanni Prelli)
    • "Ravenna" Brigade – 37th (I, III, IV) & 38th (I-III) Infantry Regiments
    • "Forli Brigade" – 43rd (I-III) & 44th (I, III, IV) Infantry Regiments
    • 23rd Field Artillery Regiment (8 batteries) 75/906; 2nd Co, 2nd Sapper Regiment
  • 4th Division (Major General Cesare Del Mastro)
    • "Livorno" Brigade – 33rd (I-III) & 34th (IV-VI) Infantry Regiments
    • "Lombardia" Brigade – 73rd (I-III) & 74th (I-III) Infantry Regiments
    • 26th Field Artillery Regiment (8 batteries) 75/906; 3rd Co, 2nd Sapper Regiment
  • 32nd Division (Lieutenant General Alberto Piacentini)[m]
    • "Spezia" Brigade – 125th (I-III) & 126th (I-III) Infantry Regiments
    • "Firenza" Brigade – 127th (I-III) & 128th (I-III) Infantry Regiments
    • 48th Field Artillery Regiment (6 batteries) 75/906; 13th Co, 2nd Sapper Regiment
  • Corps Troops
    • 9th & 10th Bersaglieri Cyclist Battalions
    • 11th Field Artillery Regiment (8 batteries) 75/911
    • 6th Group, 1st Heavy Field Artillery Regiment (13th & 14th batteries)
    • 6th Telegraph Co

IV Corps


source:[n] Lieutenant General Mario Nicolis de Robilant

  • 7th Division (Lieutenant General Nicola D'Avanzo)
    • "Bergamo" Brigade – 25th (I-III) & 26th (II-IV) Infantry Regiments
    • "Valtellina" Brigade – 65th (I-III) & 66th (I-III) Infantry Regiments
    • 21st Field Artillery Regiment (8 batteries) 75/911; 1st Co, 1st Sapper Regiment
  • 8th Division (Lieutenant General Guglielmo Lang)
    • "Modena" Brigade – 41st (I-III) & 42nd (I, II, IV) Infantry Regiments[o]
    • "Salerno" Brigade – 89th (I, III, IV) & 90th (I-III) Infantry Regiments
    • 28th Field Artillery Regiment (8 batteries) 75/906
  • 33rd Division (Lieutenant General Carlo Ricci)
    • "Liguria" Brigade – 157th (I-III) & 158th (I-III) Infantry Regiments
    • "Emilia" Brigade – 119th (I-III) & 120th (I-III) Infantry Regiments
    • 40th Field Artillery Regiment (6 batteries) 75/906; 14th Co, 1st Sapper Regiment
  • Bersaglieri Division (Lieutenant General Alessandro Raspi)
  • Alpini Group A (Colonel Riccardo Tedeschi)
    • Regular & Mobile Militia Alpini Battalions: Aosta (41–43 Reg Cos, 87, 103 MM Cos); Ivrea (38–40, 86, 111 Cos); Intra (7, 24, 37, 112 Cos) & Cividale (16, 20, 76, 87, 103 Cos)
    • Territorial Militia Alpini battalions: Val Natisone (216, 220 Cos); Val Orco (238, 239 Cos); Val Baltea (241, 242 Cos) & Val Toce (207, 243 Cos)
    • Bergamo Group Mountain Artillery (Mt batteries 31, 32, 33, 61)
  • Alpini Group B (Colonel Ernesto Alliana)
    • Regular & Mobile Militia Alpini Battalions: Pinerolo (25–27, 82 Cos); Susa (34–36, 85, 102 Cos); Exilles (31–33, 84 Cos) & Val Pellice (41–43, 87, 103 Cos)
    • Territorial Militia Alpini Battalions: Val Cenischia (234, 235 Cos) &Val Dora (231, 232 Cos)
    • Pinerola Group Mountain Artillery (Mt batteries 7 & 9)
  • Corps Troops
    • 5th Bersaglieri Regiment (Btns 14, 22 bis, 24) with 5th Bersaglieri Cyclist Battalion
    • 4th Field Artillery Regiment (8 batteries) 75/911
    • 4th Group, 1st Heavy Field Artillery Regiment (batteries 8, 9 & 10)
    • 17th Telegraph Co

XII Corps


source:[p] Lieutenant General Luigi Segato

  • 23rd Division (Lieutenant General Giovanni Airaldi)
    • "Verona" Brigade – 85th (I-III) & 86th (I, III, IV; 9 cos only) Infantry Regiments
    • "Aosta" Brigade – 5th Infantry Regiment (II-IV; 9 cos only) &6th (I, III, IV) Infantry Regiments
    • 22nd Field Artillery Regiment (8 batteries) 75/906
    • 1st Group, 10th Field Artillery Regiment (batteries 1, 2 & 3)
    • 12th Co, 2nd Sapper Regiment
  • 24th Division (Major General Gustavo Fara)
    • "Napoli" Brigade – 75th (I, II, IV; 9 cos only) &76th (I-III) Infantry Regiments
    • "Piemonte" Brigade – 3rd (II, III, IV; 9 cos only) & 4th (I, II, IV) Infantry Regiments
    • 36th Field Artillery Regiment (2 groups w 5 field batteries) 75/911 plus 3 (sic 6?[q]) mt. batteries: 13th Mt Group (Mt batteries 37–39) & 14th Mt. Group (Mt batteries 63, 64 & 65)
    • 3rd Group, 10th Field Artillery Regiment (batteries 6, 7 & 8); 4th Co, 2nd Sapper Regiment
  • Corps Troops
    • 10th bis Bersaglieri Regiment (Btns 16 bis, 34 bis & 35 bis)
    • 2nd Group, 10th Field Artillery Regiment (batteries 4 & 5)[r]
    • 4th Group, 2d Heavy Field Artillery Regiment (batteries 8, 9 & 10)
    • 9th Telegraph Co

Army Troops

  • 2 groups of 2 batteries of 149 A cannon[s] (149 A batteries 1, 7, 11 & 12) (for the "first bound forward")
  • 1 group of 3 batteries of 149 G cannon[t] (149 G batteries 5, 6 & 7) (for the "first bound forward")
  • 2 groups of 4 batteries of pack 70 A cannon.[u] (pack batteries 1, 4, 5, 8, 9, 10, 11 & 20)
  • 1 Pontoon battalion (Cos 6, 7, 8, 13)
  • 8th Co, Miners
  • 24th Telegraph Co
  • 1 section radiotelegraph of 1+12 kW
  • 1 squad field photography
  • 3 sections of field aerostatic balloons
  • 3 squadrons of aeroplanes (Nos 6th, 7th & 8th Newport)

Third Army


source:[v] His Royal Highness, Prince Emanuele Filiberto, Duke of Aosta[w]

VI Corps


source:[x] Lieutenant General Carlo Ruelle

  • 11th Division (Lieutenant General Ettore Mambretti)
    • "Pistoia" Brigade – 35th (I, III, IV) & 36th (I-III) Infantry Regiments
    • The King's ("Re") Brigade – 1st (I-III) & 2nd (I-III) Infantry Regiments
    • 14th Field Artillery Regiment (8 batteries) 75/906 (3 batteries arr. 27 May)
    • 1 group of 3 batteries of 70 A. pack (pack batteries 2, 7 & 14)
    • 1st Group, 1st Heavy Artillery Regiment (byts 1, 2 & 3)
    • 6th Co, 2nd Sapper Regiment
  • 12th Division (Major General Oreste Zavattari)
    • "Casale" Brigade – 11th (I-III) & 12th (I-III) Infantry Regiments
    • "Pavia" Brigade – 27th (I-III) & 28th (I-III) Infantry Regiments
    • 30th Field Artillery Regiment (8 batteries) 75/906; 7th Co, 2nd Sapper Regiment
  • 1st Cavalry Division (Lieutenant General Nicola Pirozzi)
    • 1st Cavalry Brigade – 13th Light Cavalry Regiment of Monferrato (-) (4 squadrons)[y] (arr. 10 May) & 20th Light Cavalry Regiment of Rome (arr. 10 May)
    • 2nd Cavalry Brigade – 4th Cavalry Regiment of Genova (arr. 10 May) & 5th Lancer Regiment of Novara (arr. 12 May)
    • 94th Infantry Regiment [from Messina Brigade, 13th Division, VII Corps]
    • 1 battalion of 20th Infantry Regiment
    • 8th & 11th Bersagliari Cyclist Battalions
    • 2nd Group of Horse Artillery (Horse Artillery batteries 1 & 2) 75/912[z]
    • 2nd Group, 3rd Field Artillery Regiment (batteries 4 & 5)
  • Corps Troops
    • 6th & 12th Bersaglieri Cyclist Battalions
    • II Battalion, Royal Customs Corps (Frontier)
    • 3rd Field Artillery Regiment (-) (6 batteries)[aa] 75/911
    • 2nd Group, 2nd Heavy Field Artillery Regiment (4th & 5th batteries)
    • 8th Telegraph Co
    • ½ 18th Co, 2nd Sapper Regiment
    • 19th Co, Miners
    • 12th Pontoon Co
    • 1st & 2nd Squadrons aeroplanes Bleriot

VII Corps


source:[ab] Lieutenant General Vincenzo Garioni

  • 13th Division (Lieutenant General Cleto Angelotti)
    • "Messina" Brigade – 93rd (III, IV, V; 9 cos only); [94th Infantry Regiment (II-IV)[ac]]
    • Sardinia Grenadiers – 1st (I, II, IV)[ad] & 2nd (I-III) Grenadier Regiments
    • 31st Field Artillery Regiment (8 batteries) (not arrived by 24 May)
    • 1 battery of 70 A. pack (pack battery 12)
    • 2nd Co, 1st Sapper Regiment
  • 14th Division (Major General Giacinto Rostagno)
    • "Pinerolo" Brigade – 13th (I-III)[ae] & 14th (I, II, IV)[af] Infantry Regiments
    • "Acqui" Brigade – 17th (I, III, IV) & 18th (I-III) Infantry Regiments
    • 18th Field Artillery Regiment (8 batteries) 75/906 (arr. 28 May); 7th Co, 1st Sapper Regiment
  • Corps Troops
    • 2nd Field Artillery Regiment (8 batteries) 75/911 (not arrived by 24 May)
    • 13th Telegraph Co (not arrived by 24 May)

XI Corps


Main Source:[ag] Lieutenant General Giorgio Cigliana

  • 21st Division (Lieutenant General Carlo Mazzoli)
    • The Queen's ("Regina") Brigade (not arrived by 24 May) – 9th Infantry Regiment (I-III)[ah]
    • "Pisa" Brigade (not arrived by 24 May) – 29th (II-IV; 9 cos only) & 30th (I, III, IV) Infantry Regiments
    • 35th Field Artillery Regiment (8 batteries) 75/911 (arr. 28–30 May); 4th Co, 1st Sapper Regiment (not arrived by 24 May)
  • 22nd Division (Lieutenant General Vittorio Signorile)
    • "Brescia" Brigade (not arrived by 24 May) – 19th (I, II, IV; 9 cos only) & 20th (I-III) Infantry Regiments
    • "Ferrara" Brigade (not arrived by 24 May) – 47th (II, III, IV; 9 cos only) & 48th (I, II, IV) Infantry Regiments
    • 15th Field Artillery Regiment (8 batteries) 75/911 (arr. 28 May); 3rd Co, 1st Sapper Regiment (not arrived by 24 May)
  • 2nd Cavalry Division (or Detachment of San Giorgio di Nogaro) (Lieutenant General Giovanni Vercellana)
    • HQ of the Queen's Brigade
    • 3rd Cavalry Brigade – 7th Lancer Regiment of Milano (arr. 16 May) & 10th Lancer Regiment of Victor Emanuel II (arr. 21 May)
    • 4th Cavalry Brigade – 6th Lancer Regiment of Aosta (arr. 9 June) & 25th Lancer Regiment of Mantova (arr. 30 May)
    • 3rd & 7th Bersagliari Cyclist Battalions
    • 10th Infantry Regiment (I-III)[ai]
    • 1 battalion of 14th Infantry Regiment
    • 1 battalion of 1st Grenadiers
    • 1st Group of Horse Artillery (Horse Artillery batteries 1 & 2) 75/912
    • 3rd Group, 2nd Heavy Field Artillery Regiment (batteries 6 & 7)
    • 2 pack batteries (pack batteries 16 & 17)
  • Corps Troops
    • 9th Field Artillery Regiment (8 batteries) 75/911 (arr. 30 May)
    • 5th Pontoon Co (not arrived by 24 May)
    • 10th Telegraph Co (not arrived by 24 May)

Army Troops

  • X, XI, XII, XIII, XIV, XV Battalions, Royal Customs Guards (Coastal)
  • 1st Group, 2nd Heavy Field Artillery Regiment (1, 2 & 3 batteries)
  • 1 group of 4 batteries of 149 G cannon (149 G batteries 1–4)
  • 1 battery of pack cannon of 70 A. (pack battery 19)
  • 5th Co, Miners
  • 21st Telegraph Co
  • 4th, 10th & 11th Pontoon Cos
  • 1 section radiotelegraph
  • 1 squad field photography
  • 3 sections of field aerostatic balloons
  • 5 squadrons of aeroplanes (Nos 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 13th & 14th Bleriot)

Fourth Army


source:[aj] Lieutenant General Luigi Nava

I Corps


Lieutenant General Ottavio Ragni

  • 1st Division (Lieutenant General Alfonso Pettiti di Roreto)
    • "Parma" Brigade – 49th (I-III) &50th (I, IV & V; 9 cos only) Infantry Regiments
    • "Basilicata" Brigade – 91st (I-III) & 92nd (I-III) Infantry Regiments
    • 25th Field Artillery Regiment (-) (5 batteries)[ak] 75/906 (arr. 1 June)
    • 2 batteries of 70 A. pack (pack batteries 6 & 13) (arr. 20 June)
    • 5th Co, 2nd Sapper Regiment
  • 2nd Division (Lieutenant General Saverio Nasalli Rocca)
    • "Como" Brigade – 23rd (I, IV & V; 9 cos only) & 24th (I-III) Infantry Regiments
    • "Umbria" Brigade – 53rd (I-III) & 54th (I-III) Infantry Regiments
    • 17th Field Artillery Regiment (8 batteries) 75/906
  • 10th Division (Lieutenant General Giovanni Scrivante)
    • "Marche" Brigade – 55th (I-III) & 56th (I-III) Infantry Regiments
    • "Ancona" Brigade – 69th (I-III) & 70th (I-III) Infantry Regiments
    • 20th Field Artillery Regiment (8 batteries) 75/906; 11th Co, 1st Sapper Regiment; 14th Co, 2nd Sapper Regiment
  • Corps Troops
    • 21st Light Cavalry Regiment of Padova (arr. 30 May)
    • 8th Field Artillery Regiment (8 batteries) 75/906
    • ½ 7th & 21st Cos, Miners
    • 12th Telegraph Co

IX Corps


Lieutenant General Pietro Marini

  • 17th Division (Lieutenant General Diomede Saveri)
    • "Reggio" Brigade – 45th (I-III) & 46th (I-III) Infantry Regiments
    • "Torino" Brigade – 81st (I-III) & 82nd (IV-VI; 9 cos only) Infantry Regiments
    • 13th Field Artillery Regiment (8 batteries) 75/911 (arr. 31 May); 5th Co, 1st Sapper Regiment
  • 18th Division (Lieutenant General Vittorio Carpi)
    • "Alpi" Brigade – 51st (I-III) & 52nd (II-IV) Infantry Regiments
    • "Calabria" Brigade – 59th (I-III) & 60th (II-IV) Infantry Regiments
    • 33rd Field Artillery Regiment (8 batteries) 75/911; 8th Co, 1st Sapper Regiment
  • Additional Organic
    • Mixed Regular & Mobile Militia Alpini Battalions – Fenestrelle (28, 29, 30, 83 Cos); Pieve di Cadore (67, 68, 75, 96 Cos) & Belluno (77–79, 106 Cos)
    • Territorial Militia Alpini Battalions – Val Chisone (228–230 Cos); Val Piave (267 & 268 Cos) & Val Cordevole (206 & 266 Cos)
    • Torino-Susa Group of Mt. Artillery (Mt batteries 2 & 3)
    • Belluno Group of Mt. Artillery (Mt batteries 22, 23, 24, & 58)
    • Como Group of Mt. Artillery (Mt batteries 34, 35 & 36)
  • Corps Troops
    • 3rd Bersaglieri Regiment (Btns 18, 20 & 25)
    • 9th Lancer Regiment of Firenza (arr. 5 June)
    • 1st Field Artillery Regiment (8 batteries) 75/911 (2 batteries arr. 26 May)
    • 5th Telegraph Co

Army Troops

  • XVI Battalion, Royal Custom Guards (Frontier)
  • 1 regiment of mobile territorial infantry (3 battalions)
  • 5th & 6th Groups, 2nd Heavy Field Artillery Regiment (batteries 11, 12, 13 & 14)
  • 1 battalion of Miners (12, 16, 20 & 21 Cos)
  • 22nd Telegraph Co
  • 1st Pontoon Co
  • 1 section radiotelegraph
  • 1 squad telephotography

Carnia Zone


source:[al] Lieutenant General Clemente Lequio

  • 8 Mixed Regular & Mobile Militia Alpini battalions: Mondovi (9-11, 114 Cos); Pieve di Teco (2, 3, 8, 107, 115 Cos); Ceva (1, 4 & 5, 98, 116 Cos); Borgo San Dalmazzo (13–15, 99, 117 Cos); Dronero (17–19, 81, 101 Cos); Saluzzo (21–23, 80, 100 Cos); Tolmezzo (6, 12, 72, 109 Cos) & Gemona (69–71, 97 Cos)
  • 8 Territorial Militia Alpini battalions: Val d’Eilero (209, 210 cos); Val d’ Arroscia (202, 203, 208 Cos); Val Tanaro (201, 204 cos); Valle Stura (213–215 cos); Val Maira (217–219 cos); Val Varaita (221–223 cos); Val Tagliamento (212 & 272 cos) & Val Fella (269 & 270 cos)
  • VIII, XIX & XX Battalions, Royal Customs Guards (Coastal)
  • 1 squadron, 13th Light Cavalry Regiment of Monferrato
  • 6 batteries of mountain artillery: Mt batteries 13, 14, 15 & 55 (Conegliano Group); Mt battery 51 (Torino-Susa Group) & Mt battery 52 (Torino-Aosta Group)
  • 2 batteries of 70 A. pack (pack batteries 3 & 15)
  • 4th & 6th Cos, Miners
  • 6th & 21st Cos 1st Sapper Regiment
  • 19th Telegraph Co

High Command Troops



VIII Corps


source:[am] Lieutenant General Ottavio Briccola

  • 16th Division (Major General Luciano Secco)
    • "Friuli" Brigade – 87th (I bis, II bis, III bis; 9 cos only) & 88th (I-III) Infantry Regiments
    • "Cremona" Brigade – 21st (I-III) & 22nd (I, III, IV) Infantry Regiments
    • 32nd Field Artillery Regiment (8 batteries) 75/906 (arr. 29 May); 8th Co, 2nd Sapper Regiment
  • 29th Division (Lieutenant General Fortunato Marazzi)[an]
    • "Perugia" Brigade – 129th (I-III) & 130th (I-III) Infantry Regiments
    • "Lazio" Brigade – 131st (I-III) & 132nd (I-III) Infantry Regiments
    • 37th Field Artillery Regiment (6 batteries) 75/906 (arr. 31 May); Special Co, 2nd Sapper Regiment
  • Corps Troops
    • 23rd Light Cavalry Regiment of Umberto I
    • 7th Field Artillery Regiment (8 batteries) (arr. Early June) 75/911
    • 14th Telegraph Co

X Corps


source:[ao] Lieutenant General Domenico Grandi

  • 19th Division (Lieutenant General Giuseppe Ciancio)
    • "Siena" Brigade – 31st (I, III, IV) & 32nd (I-III) Infantry Regiments
    • "Palermo" Brigade – 39th (I-III) & 40th (I, II, IV) Infantry Regiments
    • 24th Field Artillery Regiment (8 batteries) 75/906 (arr. 5–9 June)
    • 9th Co, 1st Sapper Regiment
  • 20th Division (Lieutenant General Eduardo Coardi di Carpenetto)
    • "Savona" Brigade – 15th (I-III) & 16th (II bis, IV & V; only 9 cos) Infantry Regiments
    • "Cagliari" Brigade – 63rd (I, II & IV) & 64th (I-III) Infantry Regiments
    • 34th Field Artillery Regiment (8 batteries) 75/906 (arr. 5–6 June); 10th Co, 1st Sapper Regiment
  • Corps Troops
    • 12th Field Artillery Regiment (8 batteries) 75/911 (arr. 6–9 June)
    • 15th Telegraph Co

XIII Corps


source:[ap] Lieutenant General Gaetano Zoppi

  • 25th Division (Major General Luigi Capello)[aq]
    • "Macerata" Brigade – 121st (I-III) & 122nd (I-III) Infantry Regiments
    • "Sassari" Brigade – 151st (I-III) & 152nd (I-III) Infantry Regiments
    • 46th Field Artillery Regiment (8 batteries) 75/906; 15th Co, 2nd Sapper Regiment
  • 30th Division (Lieutenant General Arcangelo Scotti)[ar]
    • "Piacenza" Brigade – 159th (I-III) & 160th (I-III) Infantry Regiments
    • "Alessandria" Brigade – 155th (I-III) & 156th (I-III) Infantry Regiments
    • 39th Field Artillery Regiment (6 batteries) 75/906 (arr. 13 June); 18th Co, 1st Sapper Regiment
  • 31st Division (Lieutenant General Annibale Gastaldello)[as]
    • "Chieti" Brigade – 123rd (I-III) & 124th (I-III) Infantry Regiments
    • "Barletta" Brigade – 137th (I-III) & 138th (I-III) Infantry Regiments
    • 43rd Field Artillery Regiment (6 batteries) 75/906 (arr. 2 June)
    • 25th Field Artillery Regiment (3 batteries) 75/906 (arr. 1 June)
    • 13th Co, 1st Sapper Regiment
  • Corps Troops
    • 49th, 50th & 52nd Bersaglieri Battalions (mobile militia)
    • 44th Field Artillery Regiment (6 batteries) 75/906 (arr. 8–9 June)
    • 5th Pontoon Co
    • 18th Telegraph Co

XIV Corps


source:[at] Lieutenant General Paolo Morrone

  • 26th Division (Major General Michele Salazar)
    • "Caltanissetta" Brigade – 147th (I-III) & 148th (I-III) Infantry Regiments
    • "Catania" Brigade – 145th (I-III) & 146th (I-III) Infantry Regiments
    • 49th Field Artillery Regiment (5 batteries) 75/906 (arr. 12 June)
    • 6th Squadron, 16th Light Cavalry Regiment of Lucca
    • 19th Co, 2nd Sapper Regiment
  • 27th Division (Lieutenant General Guglielmo Pecori Giraldi)
    • "Benevento" Brigade – 133rd (I-III) & 134th (I-III) Infantry Regiments
    • "Campagnia" Brigade – 135th (I-III) & 136th (I-III) Infantry Regiments
    • 38th Field Artillery Regiment (6 batteries) 75/906 (arr. 8 June); 20th Co, 2nd Sapper Regiment
  • 28th Division (Lieutenant General Giuseppe Queirolo)[au]
    • "Bari" Brigade – 139th (I-III) & 140th (I-III) Infantry Regiments
    • "Catanzaro" Brigade – 141st (I-III) & 142nd (I-III) Infantry Regiments
    • 45th Field Artillery Regiment (6 batteries) 75/906 (arr. 9–12 June); 21st Co, 2nd Sapper Regiment
  • Corps Troops
    • 56th Bersaglieri Battalion (mobile militia)
    • 47th Field Artillery Regiment (5 batteries) plus 3 batteries of 27th & 2 batteries of 19th Field Artillery Regiments; all 75/906
    • 30th Mountain Battery
    • 2nd & 9th Pontoon Cos
    • 23rd Telegraph Co

3rd Cavalry Division


Lieutenant General Carlo Guicciardi di Cervarolo

  • 5th Cavalry Brigade – 12th Light Cavalry Regiment of Saluzzo (arr. 7 June) & 24th Light Cavalry Regiment of Vincinza (arr. 20 May)
  • 6th Cavalry Brigade – 3rd Cavalry Regiment Savoia (arr 6 June) & 8th Lancer Regiment of Montebello (arr. 3 June)
  • 3rd Group Horse Artillery (Horse Artillery batteries 5 & 6) 75/912 (29 May at Ponte di Piave)

4th Cavalry Division


source:[av] Lieutenant General Alessandro Malingri di Bagnolo

  • 4th Cavalry Brigade – 1st Cavalry Regiment Nizza (arr. 5 June) & 26th Lancer Regiment of Vercelli (arr. 5 June)
  • 8th Cavalry Brigade – 19th Light Cavalry Regiment Guide (Squadron Nos 1, 3, 4, 5 & 6)[aw] (arr. 8 June) & 28th Light Cavalry Regiment of Treviso (arr. 7 June)
  • 4th Group Horse Artillery (Horse Artillery batteries 7 & 8) 75/912 (left Milano 4 June for Portogruaro)


  • "Padova" Brigade[ax] – 117th (I-III) & 118th (I-III) Infantry Regiments
  • "Trappani" Brigade[ay] – 144th Infantry Regiment (I, II, III; 9 cos only) & 149th Infantry Regiment[az]
  • Royal Carabinieri Regiment of 3 battalions (9 cos)
  • 19th Co, 1st Sapper Regiment[ax]
  • 1st[ax] & 7th Telegraph Cos
  • 15th Co, Miners[ax]
  • 15th Pontoon Co[ax]
  • Dirigibles P4,[ax] P5, M1
  • 4 squadrons aeroplanes (Nos. 4th Bleriot,[ax] 5th Newport, 9th & 10th H. Farman)

See also



  1. ^ The French units were (i) 12th Army Corps (France) (ii) 10th Army (France) and (iii) 31st Army Corps (France) comprising (1) 23rd Division, 24th Division, (2) 46th Division, 47th Division and (3) 64th Division, 65th Division respectively.[33]
  2. ^ Roman numerals indicate battalion numbers; missing numbers were with the Colonial Army
  3. ^ The other 3 batteries were assigned to XIV Corps.
  4. ^ 75 mm Krupp cannon (75/27 Model 1906).
  5. ^ One squadron attached to 1st Army.
  6. ^ The heavy field artillery batteries were armed with Krupp 149/12 howitzers, which were essentially Krupp 15 cm M. 1913 howitzers.
  7. ^ 11 June, 23rd squadron of mobile militia cavalry; 29 June, 21st squadron of mobile militia cavalry: both arrived & attached to V Corps. Attached: 305 mm howitzer battery 5 (arr. 1 June).
  8. ^ 4 June, 4th Group of mobile militia cavalry (Squadrons 7 & 8) arrived and attached to 15th Division.
  9. ^ Five batteries arrived on 26 May; the other two batteries assigned to XIV Corps.
  10. ^ Deport 75 mm cannon (75/27 Mod. 1911).
  11. ^ a b Under command of the Presidio of the Verona Fortress.
  12. ^ Under command of the Presidio of the Verona Fortress [Lieutenant General Gaetano Gabbo] (together with five batteries of 87 B, 1 battery of 149 G. & 2 batteries of 57)
  13. ^ 2 June, 1st Group of mobile militia cavalry (Squadrons 1 & 2) arrived and attached to 32nd Division.
  14. ^ 3 June 14 Light Cavalry Regiment of Alessandria arrived and attached to IV Corps. Also on 3 June, 2nd Group of mobile militia cavalry (Squadrons 3 & 4) arrived and attached to IV Corps.
  15. ^ 1st Co in the colonies; replaced with 1st bis Co.
  16. ^ 4 June 15 Light Cavalry Regiment of Lodi (Squadrons 2–6) arrived and attached to XII Corps. Squadron 1 was in Libya.
  17. ^ Table on allocation of mountain batteries (L'Esercito italiano nella grande guerra, Vol I-bis, p. 98) lists both 13th Group & 14th Group with the 36th Field Artillery.
  18. ^ 1st Group was with 23rd Division; 3rd Group was with 24th Division.
  19. ^ The 149 A cannon was a 149 mm cannon (model 149/35 A) with a steel barrel first manufactured in 1900 to replace the older 149 G (149/23).
  20. ^ The 149 G cannon was a 149 mm cannon (model 149/23) with a cast iron barrel first manufactured in 1882.
  21. ^ The 70 mm pack mountain gun (model 70/15) was introduced in 1904. The gun could be broken down into 4 pieces for transport by pack animals.
  22. ^ Attached for the "first bound forward": 149 G batteries 1–4.
  23. ^ On 26 May His Royal Highness assumed command of the 3rd Army, which from 24 to 26 May was held temporarily by General Garioni.
  24. ^ 28 May the 17th Light Cavalry Regiment of Caserta arrived and was attached to VI Corps. The regiment arrived with 5 squadrons, with 1st bis Squadron replacing 1st Squadron, which was in Libya.
  25. ^ The other squadron of this regiment was attached to the Carnia Zone command.
  26. ^ A Krupp 75 mm cannon designed for horse artillery (75/27 mod. 1912).
  27. ^ The 2nd Group of this regiment (batteries 4 & 5) was assigned to 1st Cavalry Division.
  28. ^ 10 June 29 Light Cavalry Regiment of Udine arrived and was attached to VII Corps. Also attached: 310 mm howitzer battery 6 (arr. 10 July)
  29. ^ Detached to 1st Cavalry Division, VI Corps
  30. ^ One battalion detached to 2nd Cavalry Division
  31. ^ 1st bis Co replaced 1st Co which was in the colonies.
  32. ^ 1st bis Co replaced 1st Co which was in the colonies; one battalion detached to 2nd Cavalry Division.
  33. ^ 2 June 11 Light Cavalry Regiment of Foggia arrived and was attached to this corps.
  34. ^ The Brigade headquarters and 10th Infantry Regiment detached to 2nd Cavalry Division.
  35. ^ Detached from the Queen's Brigade.
  36. ^ Attached: 149 A batteries Nos 8 & 9; 305 mm howitzer batteries Nos 1 (arr. 1 June) & 2 (arr. 2 June); 280 mm howitzer battery Nos 4 (arr. 6 June), 5 (arr. 3 June), 6 (arr. 3 June) & 7 (arr. 6 June); 210 mm howitzer battery No 2 (arr. 30 May); 210 mortar batteries Nos 7, 8 (both arr. 3 June), 9 (at Belluno 31 May), 10 & 11.
  37. ^ The other three batteries were assigned to 31st Division.
  38. ^ Controlled by the High Command. Attached: 149 A batteries Nos 2–6 (still at Stretti); 310 mm howitzer batteries Nos 3 & 4 (both arr. 1 June); 280 mm howitzer batteries Nos 1–3 (on 24 May via RR directed to Stazione for the Carnia ); 210 howitzer battery No 1 (on 24 May at Spillimbergo); 210 mm mortar batteries Nos 1, 2 (24 May both at Spilimbergo), 3 (29 May at Chiusaforte), 4 (24 May at Spilimbergo), 5 & 6.
  39. ^ 30 May the 2nd Bersagliari Cyclist Battalion left Rome to join this corps.
  40. ^ 29 May the 3rd Group of Mobile Militia cavalry (Squadrons Nos 5 & 6) arrived and were attached to 26th Division. 11 June, the 9th Group of Mobile Militia cavalry (Squadrons Nos 17 & 18) arrived and were attached to 29th Division.
  41. ^ 6 June 18 Light Cavalry Regiment of Piacenza arrived and was attached to X Corps; the regiment arrived with 5 squadrons ( Nos 1, 2, 4, 5& 6) with Squadron No 3 in Libya. 5 June 1 Bersagliari Cyclist Battalion left Naples to join this corps.
  42. ^ 5 June the Royal Piemonte Cavalry Regiment (-) (Squadrons Nos 3, 4 & 5) joined XIII Corps; the other two squadrons were attached to XIV Corps.
  43. ^ 3 June, the 10th Group of Mobile Militia cavalry (Squadron Nos 19 & 20) arrived and were attached to 25th Division.
  44. ^ 1 June, the 6th Group of Mobile Militia cavalry (Squadron Nos 11 & 12) arrived and were attached to 30th Division.
  45. ^ 12 June, the 8th Group of Mobile Militia cavalry (Squadron Nos 15 & 16) arrived and attached to 31st Division.
  46. ^ 5 June Squadron Nos 1 & 2 of Royal Piemonte Cavalry Regiment joined XIV Corps; the rest of the regiment joined XIII Corps.
  47. ^ 30 June, the 7th Group of Mobile Militia cavalry (Squadron Nos 13 & 14) arrived and was attached to 28th Division.
  48. ^ 3 June 4 Bersagliari Cyclist Battalion left Turin to join this division.
  49. ^ Squadron No 2 in Libya.
  50. ^ a b c d e f g Under the command of the Piazza di Venezia
  51. ^ The Trappani Brigade was constituted in Palermo on 14 January 1915 with 3 regiments 143rd, 144th and 149th. In May it was dissolved. On 4 May the 149th Regiment was transferred to Brindisi, where it remained at the disposition of the Navy until, on 23 June, it moved into a war zone (Treviso) at the disposition of the High Command. On 6 May the 143rd Regiment (composed of troops from both the 143rd and 144th Regiments) sailed for Libya. The remaining troops of the 143rd and 144th Regiments reformed on the 144th Regiment HQ. On 4 July, the 144th Regiment left for Spresiano. On 4 July the brigade reformed with two regiments: 144th (9 companies) and 149th (12 companies).
  52. ^ Detached to Brundisi; rejoined 4 July.


  1. ^ Mortara 1925, pp. 28–29 link text
  2. ^ "War Losses (Italy) | International Encyclopedia of the First World War (WW1)".
  3. ^ Statistics of the Military Effort of the British Empire During the Great War 1914–1920, The War Office, p. 744.
  4. ^ Glaise von Horstenau 1932, pp. BeiL. IV. V. VII. link text
  5. ^ "War Losses (Austria-Hungary)". International Encyclopedia of the First World War (WW1).
  6. ^ Tortato, Alessandro: La Prigionia di Guerra in Italia, 1914–1919, Milan 2004, pp. 49–50. Does not include 18,049 who died. Includes 89,760 recruited into various units and sent back to fight the AH army, and 12,238 who were freed.
  7. ^ Petra Svoljšak (1991). Slovene refugees in Italy during the First World War (Slovenski begunci v Italiji med prvo svetovno vojno), Ljubljana. Diego Leoni – Camillo Zadra (1995), La città di legno: profughi trentini in Austria 1915–1918, Trento-Rovereto 1995.
  8. ^ Robert Gerwarth (2020). November 1918 The German Revolution. Oxford University Press. p. 65. ISBN 9780192606334.
  9. ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 22 August 2017. Retrieved 22 August 2017.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  10. ^ Amended Version of the Triple Alliance
  11. ^ Alexander Jordan: Krieg um die Alpen: Der Erste Weltkrieg im Alpenraum und der bayerische Grenzschutz in Tirol. Berlin 2008, p. 60.
  12. ^ Hugo Hantsch: Leopold Graf Berchtold. Grand seigneur and statesman. Styria, Graz/Vienna/Cologne 1963, Volume 1: p. 567.
  13. ^ Hugo Hantsch: Leopold Graf Berchtold. Grand seigneur and statesman. Styria, Graz/Vienna/Cologne 1963, volume 2: pp. 705-717.
  14. ^ Helmut Peter, Das Wesen des Hochgebirgskrieges 1915–1917/1918. phil. Dipl., Wien 1997 (masch.), p. 6.
  15. ^ Jordan, Krieg, p. 88; Schaumann/Schubert, Süd-West-Front, S. 21.
  16. ^ Jordan, Krieg, p. 89
  17. ^ Rauchensteiner, Doppeladler; S. 244, Etschmann, Südfront, p. 27.
  18. ^ Etschmann, Südfront, p. 27, p. 29 f.
  19. ^ Jordan, Krieg, p. 220–223.
  20. ^ Cletus Pichler, Der Krieg in Tirol 1915/1916, Innsbruck 1924, p. 33 f.
  21. ^ Klavora, Karstfront, p. 21; Hans Jürgen Pantenius, Der Angriffsgedanke gegen Italien bei Conrad von Hötzendorf. Ein Beitrag zur Koalitionskriegsführung im Ersten Weltkrieg, Bd. 1, Wien 1984, 613 ff.
  22. ^ Wilcox, Vanda, Morale and the Italian Army during the First World War, Cambridge University Press, 2016 p. 95
  23. ^ Emilio de Bono, La guerra: Come e dove l'ho vista e combattuta io (Milan: A.Mondadori, 1935), p. 35.
  24. ^ Wilcox, Vanda, Morale and the Italian Army during the First World War, Cambridge University Press, 2016 p. 95
  25. ^ a b Keegan, John (1999). The First World War. Knopf, N.Y. pp. 226, 227. ISBN 0-375-40052-4.
  26. ^ Keegan 1998, p. 246.
  27. ^ Keegan 1998, p. 376.
  28. ^ a b Keegan 2001, p. 319.
  29. ^ Keegan 2001, p. 322.
  30. ^ Thompson, Mark (2008). The White War: Life and Death on the Italian Front, 1915–1919. London: Faber & Faber. ISBN 978-0-571-22333-6.
  31. ^ Williamson, Howard J. (2020). The award of the Military Medal for the campaign in Italy 1917-1918. privately published by Anne Williamson. ISBN 978-1-8739960-5-8. The book includes: – A detailed overview of the Italian Campaign and its battles. – Notes on the [five] Divisions engaged in Italy.
  32. ^ "Liste précise régiments [parmi 6 divisions] en Italie". Forum pages14-18 (in French). 10 April 2006. Retrieved 14 August 2020.
  33. ^ Pompé 1924, pp. 508–511, 730–731, 826.
  34. ^ "From the website of the museum of the war on Adamello". Archived from the original on 22 July 2011. Retrieved 29 April 2018.
  35. ^ Ministry of War and later Ministry of Defence: Albo d’Oro [Roll of Honour], 28 vols., Rome 1926–1964.
  36. ^ Pierluigi Scolè, [1], [in:] International Encyclopedia of the First World War [accessed May 31, 2021]
  37. ^ Anatol Schmied-Kowarzik, War Losses (Austria-Hungary), [in:] International Encyclopedia of the First World War [accessed May 31, 2021]
  38. ^ Anatol Schmied-Kowarzik, War Losses (Austria-Hungary), [in:] International Encyclopedia of the First World War [accessed May 31, 2021]
  39. ^ a b Paul O'Brien. Mussolini in the First World War: the Journalist, the Soldier, the Fascist. Oxford, England, UK; New York, New York, USA: Berg, 2005. Pp. 17.
  40. ^ Giuseppe Praga, Franco Luxardo. History of Dalmatia. Giardini, 1993. Pp. 281.
  41. ^ Low, Alfred D. (1974). The Anschluss Movement, 1918–1919, and the Paris Peace Conference. Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society. p. 296. ISBN 0-87169-103-5. Jump up ^
  42. ^ Andrea di Michele. "Trento, Bolzano e Innsbruck: l'occupazione militare italiana del Tirolo (1918–1920)" (PDF) (in Italian). Archived from the original (PDF) on 22 August 2017. Retrieved 22 August 2017.
  43. ^ Comando Supremo, headed by Lieutenant General Count Luigi Cadorna.




  1. ^ Presumed dead by 1921
  2. ^ c. 300,000 alone during Caporetto 24 October – 19 November 1917
  3. ^ Exact figures missing in von Horstenau's work for the year 1916 are provided for August in Wilfried Thanner, Analyse des Stellungskrieges am Isonzo von 1915–1917, p. 301 link text and for the time period 15 May – 31 July 1916, from k.u.k. official reports, in Gianni Pieropan, 1916. Le montagne scottano, Tamari editori, Bologna, 1968, p. 214.
  4. ^ 150,812 soldiers and 4,538 officers killed in action.
  5. ^ How many of the 175,041 missing were presumed dead by 1921 is not determined. Overall 341,601 Austro-Hungarian soldiers and officers were missing and presumed dead by 1921, an unknown share of that falls onto the Italian Front.
  6. ^ c. 380.000 alone during Vittorio Veneto 24 October – 4 November 1918