List of Israeli inventions and discoveries
- Johnson–Lindenstrauss lemma, a mathematical result concerning low-distortion embeddings of points from high-dimensional into low-dimensional Euclidean space contributed by Joram Lindenstrauss.
- Development of the measurement of rigidity by Elon Lindenstrauss in ergodic theory, and their applications to number theory.
- Proof of Szemerédi's theorem solved by Hillel Furstenberg
- Expansion of axiomatic set theory and the ZF set theory by Abraham Fraenkel.
- Development of the area of automorphic forms and L-functions by Ilya Piatetski-Shapiro.
- Development of Sauer–Shelah lemma and Shelah cardinal.
- Development of the first proof of the alternating sign matrix conjecture.
- Development of Zig-zag product of graphs, a method of combining smaller graphs to produce larger ones used in the construction of expander graphs by Avi Wigderson.
- Development of Bernstein–Sato polynomial and proof of the Kazhdan–Lusztig conjectures by Joseph Bernstein
- Generalization of the marriage theorem by obtaining the right transfinite conditions for infinite bipartite graphs. He subsequently proved the appropriate versions of the Kőnig theorem and the Menger theorem for infinite graphs by Ron Aharoni.
- Development of the Amitsur–Levitzki theorem by Shimshon Amitsur.
- Discovery of quasicrystals by Dan Shechtman of the Technion. The discovery led him to receive the Nobel Prize in Chemistry.
- Discovery of the role of protein Ubiquitin by Avram Hershko and Aaron Ciechanover of the Technion Institute (together with the American biologist Irwin Rose). The discovery led them to receive the Nobel Prize in Chemistry.
- Development of multiscale models for complex chemical systems by Arieh Warshel and Michael Levitt of the Weizmann Institute of Science (presently at University of Southern California and Stanford University, respectively), together with the Austrian-born American chemist Martin Karplus. The discovery led them to receive the Nobel Prize in Chemistry.
- Prediction of Quarks by Yuval Ne'eman of Tel Aviv University (together with the American physicist Murray Gell-Mann).
- Discovery of the Aharonov–Bohm effect by Yakir Aharonov and David Bohm.
- Formulation of Black holes Entropy by Jacob Bekenstein of the Hebrew University of Jerusalem.
- World's smallest video camera – a camera with a 0.99 mm (0.039 in) diameter, designed to fit in a tiny endoscope designed by Medigus.
- Development of the "Pillcam" by Given Imaging, the first Capsule endoscopy solution to record images of the digestive tract. The capsule is the size and shape of a pill and contains a tiny camera.This article needs additional citations for verification. (September 2017) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
- Line free single power bicentric prismatic spectacle lens for correction of anisometropia. Sydney J. Bush UK patent no. 1539381.
- Eshkol-Wachman Movement Notation – a notation system for recording movement on paper that has been used in many fields, including dance, physical therapy, animal behavior and early diagnosis of autism.
- Development of Azilect, a drug for Parkinson's disease, by Moussa Youdim and John Finberg from the Technion - Israel Institute of Technology, and commercialized by Teva Pharmaceutical Industries.
- Development of the Copaxone immunomodulator drug for treating multiple sclerosis. It was developed in the Weizmann Institute of Science in Israel by Michael Sela, Ruth Arnon and Deborah Teitelbaum.
- Development of the Interferon proteins by Michel Revel from the Weizmann Institute of Science in Israel.
- Development of taliglucerase alfa (Elelyso), a recombinant glucocerebrosidase enzyme produced from transgenic carrot cell cultures. Taliglucerase alfa won approval from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration in May 2012 as an orphan drug for the treatment of Type 1 Gaucher's disease.
- Development of Chimeric Antigen Receptor
- Work of Daniel Kahneman and Amos Tversky of the Hebrew University of Jerusalem explaining irrational human economic choices. The work led Daniel to receive the Nobel Prize in Economics.
- Developments in Game theory. Israel Aumann of the Hebrew University of Jerusalem received the Nobel Prize in Economics for his work in this field.
- The Rubinstein bargaining model, one of the most influential findings in game theory, refers to a class of bargaining games that feature alternating offers through an infinite time horizon. The proof is from Ariel Rubinstein 1982.
- Nanowire – a conductive wire made of a string of tiny particles of silver, a thousand times thinner than a human hair. Developed by Uri Sivan, Erez Braun and Yoav Eichen from the Technion.
- World's smallest DNA computing machine system – "the smallest biological computing device" ever constructed, according to Guinness Book of Records, which is composed of enzymes and DNA molecules capable of performing simple mathematical calculations and which uses its input DNA molecule as its sole source of energy. Developed in 2003 in the Weizmann Institute of Science by professor Ehud Shapiro and his team.
Theoretical computer scienceEdit
- The concept of nondeterministic finite automatons, introduced by Michael O. Rabin
- Amir Pnueli introduced temporal logic into computing science
- Lempel–Ziv–Welch algorithm, a universal lossless data compression algorithm created by Abraham Lempel and Jacob Ziv of the Technion institute, together with the American Information theorist, Terry Welch.
- RSA public key encryption, introduced by Adi Shamir with Ron Rivest, and Leonard Adleman
- Differential cryptanalysis, co-invented by Adi Shamir
- Shamir's Secret Sharing, invented by Adi Shamir
- USB flash drive – a flash memory data storage device integrated with a USB interface. The Israeli company M-Systems (in partnership with IBM) developed and manufactured the first USB flash drives available in North America. This claim is challenged by multiple companies in the following four countries who also independently developed USB technology: Singapore (Trek Technology), the People's Republic of China (PRC) (Netac Technology) and the Republic of China (Taiwan). See USB Flash drive § Patent controversy.
- The Intel 8088 – the first PC CPU from IBM that was designed in Israel, at Intel's Haifa laboratory.
- Quicktionary Electronic dictionary – a pen-sized scanner able to scan words or phrases and immediately translate them into other languages, or keep them in memory in order to transfer them to the PC. Developed by the company Wizcom Technologies Ltd.
- Laser Keyboard – virtual keyboard is projected onto a wall or table top and allows to type handheld computers and cell phones. Developed simultaneously by the Israeli company Lumio and Silicon Valley startup company Canesta. The company subsequently licensed the technology to Celluon of Korea.
- TDMoIP (TDM over IP) − in telecommunications, the emulation of time-division multiplexing (TDM) over a packet switched network (PSN), developed by engineers at RAD Data Communications
- the first Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) based PC to Phone software solution – developed by VocalTec.
Computer and mobile softwareEdit
- Babylon, a single-click computer translation, dictionary and information source utility program, developed by Amnon Ovadia.
- GetTaxi, an application that connects between customers and taxi drivers using the its proprietary GPS system, enabling users to order a cab either with their smartphone or through the company's website. It was founded by Israeli entrepreneurs Shahar Waiser and Roi More.
- ICQ, an Instant Messaging software developed initially in 1996 by the Israeli company Mirabilis and later procured by AOL.
- Mobileye, vision-based advanced driver-assistance systems (ADAS) providing warnings for collision prevention and mitigation. Many companies developing autonomous vehicles, such as BMW, rely on Mobileye's technology.
- OrCam MyEye, is a portable, artificial vision device that allows the visually impaired to understand text and identify objects through audio feedback describing what such people are unable to see.
- Umoove, a high-tech startup company that invented a software only solution for face and eye tracking is located in Israel.
- Viber, a proprietary cross-platform instant messaging voice-over-Internet Protocol application for smartphones. Developed by American-Israeli entrepreneur Talmon Marco, Viber reached 200 million users in May 2013.
- Waze, a GPS-based geographical navigation application program for smartphones with GPS support and display screens, which provides turn-by-turn information and user-submitted travel times and route details, downloading location-dependent information over the mobile telephone network. Waze Ltd., which was founded in 2008 in Israel by Uri Levine, software engineer Ehud Shabtai and Amir Shinar, and is now available in over 100 countries, was acquired by Google for a reported $1.1 billion.
- WeCU (pronounced 'We See You') Technologies, is a technology able to pickup, analyze, and identify in realtime terrorists. WeCU is being implemented in airports around the world to help identify potential terrorists.
- IMI Tavor TAR-21 is an Israeli bullpup assault rifle.
- The Uzi submachine gun was developed by Maj. Uziel Gal in the 1950s.
- Python a short-range air-to-air missile.
- Desert Eagle a short range pistol.
- Protector USV is an unmanned surface vehicle, developed by the Rafael Advanced Defense Systems. It is the first of its kind to be used in combat.
- Iron Dome – a mobile air defense system in development by Rafael Advanced Defense Systems and Israel Aircraft Industries designed to intercept short-range rockets and artillery shells. On April 7, 2011, the system successfully intercepted a Grad rocket launched from Gaza, marking the first time in history a short-range rocket was ever intercepted. The Iron Dome was later utilized more fully in the Israeli-Gaza conflict of 2012, where it displayed a very high rate of efficiency (95%–99%) in intercepting enemy projectiles. Further production of the Iron Dome system will be financed and supported by the United States government.
- Arrow 3 is an anti-ballistic missile defense system capable of shooting down ICBMs and other long range missiles.
- David's Sling is an air defense system capable of intercepting enemy planes, drones, tactical ballistic missiles, medium- to long-range rockets and cruise missiles. Along with Arrow 3 and the Iron Dome, it makes up Israel's defense "umbrella."
- MUSIC (Multi Spectral Infrared Countermeasure) – a system that counter surface-to-air heat-seeking missiles. It is manufactured by Elbit Systems.
- MagnoShocker – combines a metal detector and a taser to immediately neutralize a dangerous person, developed by the mathematician Amit Weissman and his colleagues Adir Kahn and Zvi Jordan.
- Wall radar – a unique radar utilizing Ultra Wide Band (UWB) to allow users to see through walls. Developed by the Israeli company Camro.
- on YouTube A unique evacuation method developed by Israeli company Agilite Gear, comprises a strap allowing you to carry the wounded person on your back.
- The Emergency Bandage is a first field dressing which can be applied and secured with one hand to prevent bleeding from battlefield injuries.
Agriculture and breedingEdit
- Golden hamster – first domesticated for pet use by a Hebrew University of Jerusalem zoologist in 1930
- Drip irrigation systems – The huge worldwide industry of modern drip irrigation all began when Israeli engineer Simcha Blass noticed a tree growing bigger than its neighbors in the Israeli desert, and found that it was fed by a leaking water pipe. Netafim, the company founded in 1965 to commercialize his idea, is recognized as the worldwide pioneer in smart drip- and micro-irrigation. It has revolutionized the agricultural industry.
- Hybrid cucumber seeds – In the 1950s, Prof. Esra Galun of the Weizmann Institute developed hybrid seed production of cucumbers and melons, disease-resistant cucumbers and cucumbers suitable for mechanical harvesting. Galun and his colleagues invented a technique for producing hybrid cucumber seeds without hand pollination.
- Grain cocoons – invented by international food technology consultant Professor Shlomo Navarro, the GrainPro Cocoons provide a simple and cheap way for African and Asian farmers to keep their grain market-fresh, as huge bags keep both water and air out, making sure the harvest is clean and protected even in extreme heat and humidity.
- Biological pest control – invented in Kibbutz Sde Eliyahu by a company called Bio-Bee, it breeds beneficial insects and mites for biological pest control and bumblebees for natural pollination in greenhouses and open fields. The company's top seller worldwide and especially in the U.S. is a two-millimeter-long, pear-shaped orange spider that is a highly efficient enemy of the spider mite, a devastating agricultural pest.
- AKOL – a Kibbutz-based company which gives low-income farmers the ability to get top-level information from professional sources.
- Reusable plastic trays – a Tal-Ya Water Technologies invention used to collect dew from the air, reducing the need to water crops by up to 50 percent.
- "Zero-discharge" system – an invention of the Israeli GFA company which allows fish to be raised virtually anywhere by eliminating the environmental problems in conventional fish farming, without being dependent on electricity or proximity to a body of water.
- TraitUP – a new technology that enables the introduction of genetic materials into seeds without modifying their DNA, immediately and efficiently improving plants before they're even sowed. It was developed by Hebrew University agricultural scientists Ilan Sela and Haim D. Rabinowitch.
- Judean date palm – oldest seed ever to be revived, restoring an extinct cultivar
- The Tomaccio cherry tomato was developed by several Israeli laboratories, the dominant ones being those led by Professor Nahum Keidar and Professor Chaim Rabinovitch from the Agriculture Faculty of the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Rehovot Campus.
Consumer goods and appliancesEdit
- Epilator (originally "Epilady") – an electrical device used to remove hair by mechanically grasping multiple hairs simultaneously and pulling them out. It was developed and originally manufactured at Kibbutz HaGoshrim.
- Wonder Pot – a pot developed for baking on the stovetop rather than in an oven.
- Micronized coating instant hot water pipes developed by A.C.T.
- Rummikub – a tile-based game for two to four players invented by Ephraim Hertzano.
- Hidato – a logic puzzle game invented by mathematician Gyora Benedek.
- Taki – an Israeli card game invented by Haim Shafir.
- Mastermind – an Israeli board game invented by Mordecai Meirowitz.
- Guess Who? – a two-player guessing game invented by Theo & Ora Coster (a.k.a. Theora Design).
Food and drinkEdit
- Ptitim, also called Israeli couscous worldwide, is a wheat-based baked pasta. It was initially invented during the austerity period in Israel when Rice and Semolina were scarce.
- Safed cheese or Tzfat cheese is a semi-hard, salty cheese produced in Israel from sheep's milk. It was first produced by the Hameiri dairy in Safed in 1840 and is still produced there by descendants of the original cheese makers.
- Jerusalem mixed grill is a grilled meat dish considered a specialty of Jerusalem. It consists of chicken hearts, spleens and livers mixed with bits of lamb cooked on a flat grill, seasoned with onion, garlic, juniper berries, black pepper, cumin, turmeric and coriander
- Sabich is a sandwich, consisting of a pita stuffed with fried eggplant and hard-cooked eggs. Local consumption is said to have stemmed from a tradition among Mizrahi Jews, who ate it on Shabbat morning.
- Karat Caviar is a Russian Osetra caviar brand farmed in the Golan and has won several international awards. The Russian Osetra fingerlings were imported from the Caspian Sea.
- Limonana is a lemonade enriched with spearmint leaves
- Bamba (snack) is a peanut butter-flavored snack food manufactured by the Osem corporation in Holon, Israel.
- Israeli Salad, is a chopped raw vegetable salad of finely diced tomato, onion, cucumber, and bell or chili peppers, dressed with olive oil and freshly squeezed lemon juice.
- Water-Gen, is an Israeli developed device that offers a low cost method of turning air into water.
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