Ismail Kadare

Ismail Kadare (Albanian pronunciation: [ismaˈil kadaˈɾe], also spelled Ismaïl Kadaré in French; born 28 January 1936) is an Albanian novelist, poet, essayist, and playwright. He has been a leading literary figure in Albania since the 1960s. He focused on poetry until the publication of his first novel, The General of the Dead Army, which made him a leading literary figure in Albania and famous internationally.[1] In 1996, France made him a foreign associate of the Académie des Sciences Morales et Politiques of France.

Ismail Halit Kadare

Ismail Kadare.jpg
Born (1936-01-28) 28 January 1936 (age 84)
Gjirokastër, Kingdom of Albania
OccupationNovelist, poet, essayist, screenwriter, playwright
NationalityAlbanian
Period1954–present
Notable worksThe General of the Dead Army

The Siege
Chronicle in Stone
The Palace of Dreams
The File on H.
The Pyramid
Spiritus

The Fall of the Stone City
Notable awardsPrix mondial Cino Del Duca
1992
Man Booker International Prize
2005
Prince of Asturias Awards
2009
Jerusalem Prize
2015
The Order of Legion of Honour
2016
Park Kyong-ni Prize
2019
Neustadt International Prize for Literature
2020
SpouseHelena Kadare
Children2; including Ambassador Besiana Kadare

Signature

In 1992 he was awarded the Prix mondial Cino Del Duca; in 1998, the Herder Prize; in 2005, Kadare won the inaugural Man Booker International Prize; in 2009, the Prince of Asturias Award of Arts; in 2015, the Jerusalem Prize; and in 2016, he was a Commandeur de la Légion d'Honneur recipient. Furthermore, Kadare was awarded the Park Kyong-ni Prize in 2019, and the Neustadt International Prize for Literature in 2020.[2]

Kadare is regarded by some as one of the greatest European writers and intellectuals of the 20th century and, in addition, as a universal voice against totalitarianism.[3][4] He is the husband of author Helena Kadare, and the father of Ambassador Besiana Kadare.

Early and personal lifeEdit

Ismail Kadare was born in Gjirokastër, an historic Ottoman city of tall stone houses in southern Albania near the border with Greece, to Halit Kadare, a post office employee, and Hatixhe Dobi, a homemaker, and lived there on a narrow street known as "Lunatics' Lane."[5][6][7] On his mother's side of the family, his great-grandfather was a bejtexhi of the Bektashi Order known as Hoxhë Dobi.[8] He was born into a Muslim and bourgeois family.[9] Kadare himself is an atheist.[10] He has been a resident of France since the early 1990s.

He is married to an Albanian author, Helena Kadare (née Gushi), and has two daughters. His daughter Besiana Kadare is the Albanian Ambassador to the United Nations, a Vice President of the United Nations General Assembly for its 75th session, and Albania's Ambassador to Cuba.[11]

Early yearsEdit

When he was 13 years of age, Kadare read Macbeth and so he was attached with literature. At this age he wrote his first short stories that were published at the Pionieri journal in Tirana,[12] In 1954 he published his first collection of poems Boyish inspirations ("Frymëzime djaloshare"). He attended primary and secondary schools in Gjirokastër and studied Languages and Literature at the Faculty of History and Philology of the University of Tirana. In 1956 Kadare received a teacher's diploma.

At this time Kadare wrote one of his earliest pieces, "The Princess Argjiro," which takes as its theme the origins of his hometown. The work was denounced and an official reader's report was commissioned, pointing out the historical and ideological errors. The young poet was criticized implicitly for disregarding socialist literary principles.

Kadare then studied literature during the Khrushchev era at the Maxim Gorky Literature Institute in Moscow from 1958, until Albania broke off its political and economic ties with the Soviet Union in 1960. There he would learn to become a socialist writer and ‘engineer of human souls’ to construct the new Albania alongside economists, technologists, and administrators. In Moscow he met all kinds of writers united under the banner of Socialist Realism. The he also had the opportunity to read contemporary Western literature that had been translated into Russian during the thaw period, such as Jean Paul Sartre and Albert Camus.[13] Kadare regarded Maxim Gorky's teachings as deadly to true literature.[14] He rejected the canon of Socialist Realism and committed himself internally to do the opposite of what dogmatics taught regarding "good literature".[15][16] He also cultivated a stance of contempt for the party hacks and the nomenklatura, an attitude which, he writes, was the product of youthful arrogance rather than of considered political opposition.[17] While studying literature in Moscow he managed to get a collection of his poems published in Russian, and there he also wrote his first novel The City with no Signs in 1959, intentionally defying the rules of socialist realism.[18] The City with no Signs is a powerful critique of socialist careerism and hence of Albanian socialism.[19]

Early literary career (1960-70)Edit

At the Gorky Institute, Kadare had made up his mind about what not to write and what was not real literature. Rejecting the canons of socialist realism, he undertook to do the opposite of what communist dogmatics taught about "good" literature".[15]

Kadare returned home in October 1960 on Albanian orders, before the Soviet ultimatum in late 1961.[20] He worked as a journalist and then embarked on a literary career.[6] He missed the cosmopolitanism of Moscow and the access to a wide range of contemporary and classical literature. At this time he discovered in himself a sense of ethnicity which would become his mainstay in his isolated socialist homecountry.[21] At that time Kadare had a reputation for poetry. The youth liked his works and, for them he had something new to say. His future wife Helena, then a schoolgirl, wrote a fan letter to the young writer, which would eventually lead to their marriage. Kadare entered the circles of writers and had good relations with literary figures. In 1961 he published a volume of poetry entitled My Century.[20]

He managed to publish an excerpt from his first novel camouflaged as a short story under the title "Coffeehouse Days", in the youth journal, although it was banned immediately on appearance,[22][23][24] contributing to the young author’s reputation for decadence.[17] Kadare was advised by his close friends not to tell anybody about the actual novel, so it stayed in his drawers for decades until the communist regime fell in 1990.

In 1963, Kadare published his novel titled The General of the Dead Army. The novel was criticized by official literary critics and then ignored as if it did not exist. Reason for that was that Kadare had avoided the realist socialist style while the Communist Party had also been intentionally ignored. Kadare's novel was in stark contrast to other writers of that time who glorified the communist revolution. Apart from that, while the poets and novelists of that time used to write about the ideological sun that warmed all communists, in this novel, Kadare, as in his other novels, removed neither the clouds nor the rain from the Albanian countryside.[25][26] His next novel, The Monster, published in the magazine Nëntori in 1965, was labeled 'decadent' and banned upon publication.

In writings by literary critics throughout the 60s, Kadare is sometimes advised how to write in the future but mostly ignored, in favor of the "Great writers" of the time which critics preferred.[14]

By the mid 1960s, the thaw of the early part of the decade was over, and the situation changed dramatically. In 1967, Albania launched its own Cultural Revolution, and Kadaré was sent along with other writers to the country to learn about life alongside the peasants and workers.[27] Kadare was sent to Berat where he spent two years.[15] The experience of inner exile and the political 'frost’ of the late 1960s opened Kadare’s eyes to the personal effects of the terror. He experienced for the first time a self-criticism, and witnessed the humiliation of his friend, the writer Dhimiter Xhuvani. Two dramatists were also sentenced to 8 years in prison each, for a flawed piece.[27] Writers and artists at the time faced indifference from the democratic world outside, which did not react in their defense. They realized that they were at the mercy of the state, who could do with them whatever it pleased without facing repercussions.[28]

International breakthroughEdit

The General of the Dead Army, would be Kadare's first great success outside Albania.[29] The French translation by Isuf Vrioni,[30] published in 1970 in Paris by Albin Michel, led to Kadare's international breakthrough.[14] After the success of The General of The Dead Army in the West in 1970, the older generation of Albanian writers and dogmatic literary critics became extremely embittered: "This novel was published by the bourgeoisie and this cannot be accepted", says a report by the secret police. The writers united against the "darling of the West."[31] Kadare’s enemies in the secret police and the old guard of the Politburo referred to him as an agent of the West, which was one of the most dangerous accusations that could be made in this state.[32] After offending the authorities with a political poem in 1975, as a punishment he was sent to do manual labor deep in the countryside for a period of time, and he was also forbidden to publish any novels in the future. In response, after his return to Tirana, Kadare began to camouflage his novels as "novellas" and publish them as such.[15]

In the '70s, Kadare would abandon contemporary themes in his literature and escape to myths, legends and the distant past, in order to create a nobler Albania, of the era of European humanism, as a challenge and counterweight to the official glorification of the socialist period as the most glorious period in the history of nation. He would take historical themes from the Ottoman Empire in order to denounce communist Albania with allusions. [33]

The Great TerrorEdit

In 1981, he published The Palace of Dreams, an anti-totalitarian novel written and published in the heart of a totalitarian country.[34] Kadare had camouflaged an excerpt of The Palace of Dreams as a short story and published it, alongside some of his other new novels', in his 1980 collection of four novellas, Gjakftohtësia (Cold-bloodedness). Due to its seemingly historical nature, the excerpt went unnoticed by the censors. The following year, under the same title, Kadare managed to sneak the whole novel in the second edition of Emblema e dikurshme (Signs of the past); due to the fact that the story had already been green-lighted once, it managed to escape the attention of the censors once again.[35] However, once published, people started noticing how much the novel setting resembled the inner city of Tirana and the totalitarian atmosphere in their own country. Due to the novel's obvious allusions to the situation in Albania at that time, an emergency meeting of the Albanian Writers Union was called and The Palace of Dreams was expressly and severely condemned, in the presence of several members of the Politburo. Kadare was accused of attacking the socialist government in a covert manner.[36] As a result, the work was banned.[37]

The same year Kadare had sent the novel The Concert to the publisher. It was viewed by the authorities as an anticommunist work, a mockery of the political system and an open opposition to communist ideology.[38] The authorities were initially reluctant to imprison or purge Kadare, as he had become an internationally recognized literary figure and it would have caused an international backlash, which, given the country's rapid economic decline, the authorities wanted to avoid at all costs.[39] Kadare was also accused by the president of the Albanian League of Writers and Artists of deliberately evading politics by cloaking much of his fiction in history and folklore. Western press reacted to the condemnation of The Palace of Dreams and protests mounted in the West in defense of the author.[15] Around this time, the communist ruler Enver Hoxha had initiated the process of eliminating Kadare, but backed off due to Western reaction.[40] There was a nightly presence of thugs outside Kadare's apartment.[41]

In January 1985 his novel A Moonlit Night was published, only to be banned by the authorities.[42] [43] On the 9th of April 1985 the communist head of state Enver Hoxha fell into a coma; on the night between 10/11 April, he passed away, aged 76. On the evening of the ailing dictator’s death, April 10th, members of the Union of Writers, the Politburo, and Central Committee of the Communist Party hastily organized a sitting in order to condemn Kadare's latest novel Moonlit Night.[44]

The same year Kadare wrote Agamemnon's Daughter – a direct critique of the oppressive regime in Albania, which was smuggled out of the country with the help of Kadare's French editor Claude Durand.[45] In early 1990 Kadare requested a meeting with Ramiz Alia and urged him to end human rights abuses, to implement democratic and economic reforms and to end the isolation of the country. Kadare was disappointed with Alia's slow reaction.

In October 1990, Kadare sought political asylum in France.[46][47] In 1990, Kadare claimed political asylum in France, issuing statements in favor of democratization. Some intellectuals, at great personal risk, publicly supported Kadare, whom the authorities had declared a traitor. Due to his popularity, the authorities did not find enough support against him and his books were not banned.[46][48]

After receiving political asylum and settling in France, Kadare was able to exercise his profession in complete freedom. His exile in Paris was fruitful and enabled him to succeed further, writing both in Albanian and in French.[49] In 1994 he began to work on the first bilingual volume of his work with the French publishing house Fayard.[50]

During the 1990s and 2000s Kadare has been asked multiple times by both major political parties in Albania to become a consensual President of Albania, but he has declined.[51][52]

LegacyEdit

Kadare's literary works were conceived in the bedrock of a small literature such as Albanian literature, almost unknown before in Europe or the rest of the world.[53] With Kadare it became known, read and appreciated. For the first time in its history, through Kadare, Albanian literature has been integrated into the wider European and world literature.[54]

Ismail Kadare's oeuvre is a literature of resistance. Kadare managed to write normal literature in an abnormal country - a communist dictatorship. His oeuvre represents a continuous struggle to get his literary works published, going against state policy, at times even putting his own life at risk. Kadare devised numerous strategies and cunning stratagems in order to outwit communist censors.[55]

His oeuvre in general has been in theoretical and practical opposition to the mandatory socialist realism.[53] Kadare challenged socialist realism for three decades and opposed it with his subjective realism,[56] [57] avoiding state censorship by using allegorical, symbolic, historical and mythological means.[58]

The conditions in which Kadare lived and published his works were not comparable to other European communist countries where at least some level of public dissent was tolerated, rather, the situation in Albania was comparable to North Korea or the Soviet Union in the 1930s under Stalin. Despite all of this, Kadare used any opportunity to attack the regime in his works, by means of political allegories, which were picked up by educated Albanian readers.[59] Henri Amouroux, a member of the Académie des Sciences Morales et Politiques of France, pointed out that Soviet dissidents including Solzhenitsyn had published their works during the era of de-Stalinization, whereas Kadare lived and published his works in a country which remained Stalinist until 1990.[60]

RecognitionEdit

 
Kadare on Albania's postal stamps

In 1996 Kadare became a lifetime member of the Academy of Moral and Political Sciences of France, where he replaced philosopher Karl Popper.[52] In 1992, he was awarded the Prix mondial Cino Del Duca, and in 2005 he received the inaugural Man Booker International Prize. In 2009, Kadare was awarded the Prince of Asturias Award for Literature.[61] In the same year he was awarded an Honorary Degree of Science in Social and Institutional Communication by the University of Palermo in Sicily.

In 2015, he was awarded the bi-annual Jerusalem Prize.[62] He won the 2019 Park Kyong-ni Prize, an international award based in South Korea.[63]

In 2019, Kadare was nominated for the famous Neustadt International Prize for Literature by Bulgarian poet and writer Kapka Kassobova. He was selected as the 2020 Neustadt laureate by the Prize's jury in October 2019.[64] He won the Neustadt International Prize for Literature in 2020.[2]

He won the 2020 Prozart Award, given by the International Literature Festival "PRO-ZA Balkan," for his contributions to the development of the literature in Balkans.[65]

The London newspaper The Independent said of Kadare: "He has been compared to Gogol, Kafka and Orwell. But Kadare's is an original voice, universal yet deeply rooted in his own soil".[66]

Literary themesEdit

The central theme of his works is totalitarianism and its mechanisms.[67] Kadare's novels draw on legends surrounding the historical experiences of Albanian people, the representation of classical myths in modern contexts, and the totalitarian regime in Albania. They are obliquely ironic as a result of trying to withstand political scrutiny. Among his best-known books are The General of the Dead Army (1963), The Siege (1970), The Ghost Rider (1980), Broken April (1980),[16] The Palace of Dreams (1981), The Pyramid (1992), and The Successor (2003).

The Pyramid (1992) is a political allegory set in Egypt in the 26th century BC and after. In it, Kadare mocked any dictator's love for hierarchy and useless monuments. In some of Kadare's novels, comprising the so-called "Ottoman Cycle", the Ottoman Empire is used as the archetype of a totalitarian state. Kadare's 1996 novel Spiritus, marks a narrative and compositional turning point in his literary career. The influence of this novel will be felt in all of Kadare's subsequent novels.[68] It deals with group of foreigners who are touring Eastern Europe after the fall of communism and hear exciting rumours during their stay in Albania about the capture of the spirit from the dead. As it turns out, the spirit is in fact a listening device known to the notorious secret service as a "hornet".[39]

The Fall of the Stone City (2008) was awarded the Rexhai Surroi Prize in Kosovo, and was shortlisted for Independent Foreign Fiction Prize in 2013.[69]

OeuvreEdit

Kadare has been mentioned as a possible recipient of the Nobel Prize in Literature several times. His works have been published in about 45 languages.[70] [71][72] In English, some of works have been translated by David Bellos.[73] although not from the Albanian original, but from French translations.

The following Kadare novels have been translated into English:

English translationsEdit

Works published in AlbanianEdit

The complete works (except for the essays) of Ismail Kadare were published by Fayard, simultaneously in French and Albanian, between 1993 and 2004.[75] Omitted from the list are the poetry and the short stories. Kadare's original Albanian language works have been published exclusively by Onufri Publishing House since 1996,[76] as single works or entire sets. Being published in 2009 the complete works in 20 volumes.[77]

The dates of publication given here are those of the first publication in Albanian, unless stated otherwise.

Novels and novellasEdit

  • Gjenerali i ushtrisë së vdekur (The General of the Dead Army) (1963)
  • Përbindëshi (The Monster) (1965)
  • Lëkura e daulles (The Wedding) (1967)
  • Kështjella (The Siege) (1970)
  • Kronikë në gur (Chronicle in Stone) (1971)
  • Dimri i vetmisë së madhe (The Winter of Great Solitude) (1973)
  • Nëntori i një kryeqyteti (November of a Capital) (1975)
  • Muzgu i perëndive të stepës (Twilight of the Eastern Gods) (1978)
  • Komisioni i festës (The Feast Commission) (1978)
  • Ura me tri harqe (The Three-arched Bridge) (1978)
  • Kamarja e turpit (The Traitor's Niche) (1978)
  • Prilli i thyer (Broken April) (1980)
  • Kush e solli Doruntinën? (The Ghost Rider) (1980)
  • Pallati i ëndrrave (The Palace of Dreams) (1981)
  • Nata me hënë (A Moonlit Night) (1985)
  • Viti i mbrapshtë (The Dark Year) (1985)
  • Krushqit janë të ngrirë (The Wedding Procession Turned to Ice) (1985)
  • Koncert në fund të dimrit (The Concert) (1988)
  • Dosja H. (The File on H.) (1989)
  • Qorrfermani (The Blinding Order) (1991)
  • Piramida (The Pyramid) (1992)
  • Hija (The Shadow) (1994)
  • Shkaba (The Eagle) (1995)
  • Spiritus (1996)
  • Qyteti pa reklama (The City with no Signs) (1998, written in 1959)
  • Lulet e ftohta të marsit (Spring Flowers, Spring Frost) (2000)
  • Breznitë e Hankonatëve (2000)
  • Vajza e Agamemnonit (Agamemnon's Daughter) (2003)
  • Pasardhësi (The Successor) (2003)
  • Jeta, loja dhe vdekja Lul Mazrekut (Life, Game and Death of Lul Mazrek) (2003)
  • Çështje të marrëzisë (A Question of Lunacy) (2005)
  • Darka e Gabuar (The Fall of the Stone City) (2008)
  • E penguara: Rekuiem për Linda B. (A Girl in Exile) (2009)
  • Aksidenti (The Accident) (2010)
  • Mjegullat e Tiranës (Tirana's Mists) (2014, originally written in 1957–58)
  • Kukulla (The Doll) (2015)

PlaysEdit

  • Stinë e mërzitshme në Olimp (Stormy Weather on Mount Olympus) (1998)

ScreenplaysEdit

  • Sorkadhet e trembura (Frightened Gazelles) (2009)

PoetryEdit

  • Frymëzime djaloshare (1954)
  • Ëndërrimet (1957)
  • Princesha Argjiro (1957)
  • Shekulli im (1961)
  • Përse mendohen këto male (1964)
  • Motive me diell (1968)
  • Koha (1976)
  • Ca pika shiu ranë mbi qelq (2004)
  • Pa formë është qielli (2005)
  • Vepra poetike në një vëllim (2018)

EssaysEdit

  • Autobiografia e popullit në vargje (The People's Autobiography in Verse) (1971)
  • Eskili, ky humbës i madh (Aeschylus, The Lost) (1985)
  • Ftesë në studio (Invitation to the Writer's Studio) (1990)
  • Nga një dhjetor në tjetrin (Albanian Spring) (1991)
  • Kushëriri i engjëjve (The Angels' Cousin) (1997)
  • Kombi shqiptar në prag të mijëvjeçarit të tretë (The Albanian Nation on the Threshold of the Third Millennium) (1998)
  • Unaza në kthetra (The Ring on the Claw) (2001)
  • Poshtërimi në Ballkan (Abasement in the Balkans) (2004)
  • Identiteti evropian i shqiptarëve (The European Identity of Albanians) (2006)
  • Dantja i pashmangshëm (Dante, The Inevitable) (2006)
  • Hamlet, le prince impossible (Hamlet, The Impossible Prince) (2007)
  • Don Kishoti në Ballkan (Don Quixote in the Balkans) (2009)
  • Mosmarrëveshja, mbi raportet e Shqipërisë me vetveten (2010)
  • Mbi krimin në Ballkan; Letërkëmbim i zymtë (On Crime in the Balkans)(2011)
  • Çlirimi i Serbisë prej Kosovës (Serbia's Liberation from Kosovo) (2012)
  • Mëngjeset në Kafe Rostand (Mornings in Cafe Rostand) (2014)
  • Arti si mëkat (Art as a Sin) (2015)
  • Uragani i ndërprerë: Ardhja e Migjenit në letërsinë shqipe (The Interrupted Hurricane: The Advent of Migjeni in Albanian Literature) (2015)
  • Tri sprova mbi letërsinë botërore (Essays on World Literature) (2017)
  • Kur sunduesit grinden When Rulers Quarrel (2018)

Story collectionsEdit

  • Emblema e dikurshme (1977)
  • Ëndërr mashtruese (1991)
  • Tri këngë zie për Kosovën (1998)
  • Vjedhja e gjumit mbretëror (1999)
  • Përballë pasqyrës së një gruaje (2001)
  • Bisedë për brilantet në pasditen e dhjetorit (2013)
  • Koha e dashurisë (Rrëfim Trikohësh) (2015)
  • Proza e shkurtër, në një vëllim (2018)

QuotesEdit

  • “Literature led me to freedom. Not the other way round.”

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Apolloni 2012, p. 25
  2. ^ a b "Albania's writer Ismail Kadare awarded Neustadt Prize". AP News. 5 October 2020.
  3. ^ Fundacion Princessa de Asturias (24 June 2009). "Ismaíl Kadare, Prince of Asturias Award Laureate for Literature". Fundacion Princessa de Asturias. Retrieved 12 March 2017.
  4. ^ Jose Carlos Rodrigo Breto (2018). Ismail Kadare: La grand estratagema (in Spanish). Barcelona: Ediciones del Subsuelo. pp. 317–318. ISBN 978-84-947802-0-2. Y que este libro sea el principio de toda una serie de ensayos que pueda cosntruir para abundar y ahondar en la obra del escritor que considero como más importante del Siglo XXI, y uno de los más importantes de la segunda mitad del Siglo XX.
  5. ^ "The Fall of the Stone City, By Ismail Kadare (trs John Hodgson)". The Independent. 25 August 2012.
  6. ^ a b Ismail Kadare, Albanian writer, Britannica.com. Retrieved 24 January 2018.
  7. ^ EDT, Ismail Kadare On 10/10/11 at 1:00 AM (10 October 2011). "Ismail Kadare Reflects onGjirokastër, Albania". Newsweek.
  8. ^ Novruz Shehu (11 August 2006). "Gjenealogji krijuese hoxhë Dobi, stërgjyshi poet i Kadaresë: duke gërmuar në rrënjët e shpirtit letrar të shkrimtarit të njohur". Shqip. p. 42. Retrieved 29 October 2019.
  9. ^ "A Girl in Exile by Ismail Kadare, Reviewed by John Sutherland". The Times. 19 March 2016.
  10. ^ John Murray (25 January 1998). "Books: The orphan's voice". The Independent.
  11. ^ "New Permanent Representative of Albania Presents Credentials | Meetings Coverage and Press Releases". www.un.org.
  12. ^ Kryeziu-Shkreta, Jorina (3 February 2015). "Bibliografi e veprës së Kadaresë". panorama.com.al. Panorama.
  13. ^ Morgan 2011, pp. 49–50
  14. ^ a b c Apolloni 2012, pp. 33–34
  15. ^ a b c d e Fayé, Éric (1993). Kadaré, Ismail (ed.). œuvres completes: tome 1. Editions Fayard. pp. 10–25.
  16. ^ a b c Liukkonen, Petri. "Ismail Kadare". Books and Writers. Finland: Kuusankoski Public Library. Archived from the original on 13 January 2015.
  17. ^ a b Morgan 2011, p. 54
  18. ^ Ndue Ukaj (27 May 2016). "Ismail Kadare: Letërsia, identiteti dhe historia". Gazeta Ekspress (in Albanian). Retrieved 12 March 2017. Except from the book Kadare, leximi dhe interpretimet.
  19. ^ Morgan 2011, pp. 60–61
  20. ^ a b Morgan 2011, p. 66
  21. ^ Morgan 2011, p. 63
  22. ^ Morgan 2011, p. 68
  23. ^ "Dite kafenesh, Ismail Kadare". Libraria ShtepiaeLibrit.com.
  24. ^ Kadare 2011, p. 128
  25. ^ Apolloni, Ag (2012). Paradigma e Proteut (in Albanian). Prishtinë: OM. pp. 33–34. "Romani Gjenerali i ushtrisë së vdekur i Ismail Kadaresë, i botuar në vitin 1963, u kritikua nga kritika zyrtare, mandej u hesht sikur të mos ekzistonte fare, për t’u shfaqur prapë në vitin 1967 si një version i ri i romanit, natyrisht me disa kompromise të vogla, të cilat prapë nuk e kënaqën kritikën zyrtare, por as nuk e dëmtuan dukshëm veprën; assesi romani nuk arriti të deformohej siç e donte doktrina socrealiste. Ndryshe nga Shuteriqi, Musaraj, Abdihoxha etj., që glorifikonin revolucionin dhe socializmin; ndryshe nga idealisti Petro Marko që udhëhiqej nga ideja e internacionales komuniste; ndryshe nga Dritëro Agolli që kritikonte lëshimet e sistemit, por jo sistemin, - Ismail Kadare me romanin e parë kishte injoruar stilin socrealist, kishte shmangur heroin pozitiv, kishte harruar qëllimisht rolin e Partisë në zhvillimet aktuale dhe kishte treguar se mund të shkruhej roman edhe pa e përmendur Partinë dhe pa pasur nevojë për mësimet e Gorkit, të cilat ai i kishte konceptuar si vdekjeprurëse për letërsinë e vërtetë. Ashtu si e kishte injoruar ai Partinë, edhe Partia do ta injoronte atë. Në shkrimet kritike që bëhen gjatë viteve ’60, Kadare herë “këshillohet” si duhet të shkruajë në të ardhmen, herë përmendet kalimthi, e më shpesh injorohet fare. Derisa shkrimtarët zyrtarë të Shqipërisë, ndiheshin komod me sistemin dhe shkruanin për diellin ideologjik që i ngroh të gjithë komunistët njësoj, Kadare nuk ia hiqte retë as shiun tokës shqiptare. Përballë zhvillimit industrial të vendit, përballë peizazheve urbane dhe motit të mirë që proklamonte Partia dhe letërsia e saj, në romanet e Kadaresë ishte një truall i vështirë dhe vazhdimisht bënte mot i keq.
  26. ^ Morgan 2011, p. 89
  27. ^ a b Morgan 2011, pp. 106–107
  28. ^ Kadare 2011, pp. 169–170
  29. ^ Morgan 2011, p. 74
  30. ^ "1998 | Jusuf Vrioni: Back to Tirana, 1943-1947". www.albanianhistory.net.
  31. ^ Sinani, Shaban (2011). Letërsia në totalitarizëm dhe "Dossier K". Naim Frashëri. pp. 94–96.
  32. ^ Morgan 2011, p. 143
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Further readingEdit

External linksEdit