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Ismail Kadare (Albanian pronunciation: [ismaˈil kadaˈɾe], also spelled Ismaïl Kadaré in French; born 28 January 1936) is an Albanian novelist, poet, essayist and playwright. During the communist regime he was a member of the People's Assembly for 12 years (1970–82),[1] and deputy chairman of the Democratic Front.[2] He started writing poetry[3] until the publication of his first novel The General of the Dead Army,[4] which made him a leading literary figure in Albania and famous internationally. In 1996, he became a foreign associate of the Académie des Sciences Morales et Politiques of France.

Ismail Halit Kadare

Ismail Kadare.jpg
Born (1936-01-28) 28 January 1936 (age 83)
Gjirokastër, Kingdom of Albania
OccupationNovelist, poet, essayist, screenwriter, playwright
NationalityAlbanian
Period1954–present
Notable worksThe General of the Dead Army

The Siege
Chronicle in Stone
The Palace of Dreams
The File on H.
The Pyramid
Spiritus

The Fall of the Stone City
Notable awardsPrix mondial Cino Del Duca
1992
Man Booker International Prize
2005
Prince of Asturias Awards
2009
Jerusalem Prize
2015
The Order of Legion of Honour
2016
Park Kyong-ni Prize
2019
Neustadt International Prize for Literature
2020

Signature

In 1992, he was awarded the Prix mondial Cino Del Duca; in 1998, the Herder Prize; in 2005, he won the inaugural Man Booker International Prize; in 2009, the Prince of Asturias Award of Arts; in 2015, the Jerusalem Prize, and in 2016, he was a Commandeur de la Légion d'Honneur recipient.

Kadare is regarded by some as one of the greatest European writers and intellectuals of the 20th century and, in addition, as a universal voice against totalitarianism.[5] Critical opinion is divided as to whether Kadare should be considered to have been a dissident or a conformist during the Communist period.[6] Some academic commentators now regard Kadare's depiction of Albania under the Ottoman Empire as indebted to communist-era Orientalist artistic production,[7] condemning it as Eurocentric, essentialist, fundamentalist and anti-modernist,[8] giving rise to Islamophobia and racism.[7]

Life and workEdit

Ismail Kadare was born on 28 January 1936 in Gjirokastër in Albania, to Halit Kadare, a post office employee,[9] and Hatixhe Dobi, a homemaker. When he was 13 years of age he read Macbeth and so he was attached with literature. At this age he wrote his first short stories that were published at the Pionieri journal in Tirana,[10] In 1954 he published his first collection of poems Boyish inspirations ("Frymëzime djaloshare"). At 17 years old he wrote two poems about Stalin, that according to Noel Malcolm, helped in the process of publishing his collection of poems after a year.[2] He attended primary and secondary schools in Gjirokastër and studied Languages and Literature at the Faculty of History and Philology of the University of Tirana. In 1956 Kadare received a teacher's diploma. He later studied at the Maxim Gorky Literature Institute in Moscow from 1958 to 1960.[6]

While studying literature in Moscow he managed to get a collection of his poems published in Russian, and there he also wrote his first novel The City with no Signs in 1959.[11] Two years of study-abroad experience enabled him to catch literature's core and its relationship with politics. He perceived the Pasternak incident and understood the writer's part and the potential dangers of literary creation.[12]

After returning home in 1960 because of the Soviet-Albanian split, he worked as a journalist and then embarked on a literary career.[9] He tried to publish a fragment of his first novel camouflaged as a short story titled "Coffeehouse Days". Upon being published in the literary magazine Zëri i Rinisë in 1962, it was immediately banned by the authorities.[13] He was advised by his close friends not to tell anybody about the actual novel, so it stayed in his drawers for decades until the communist regime fell in 1990.

In 1963, he published his first novel titled The General of the Dead Army, which was not received well by communist critics in Albania at the time.[14] His next novel, The Monster, published in the magazine Nëntori in 1965, was banned immediately. After the success of The General he was chosen member of the People's Assembly until 1982,[1] and was forced to be part of the Party of Labour of Albania.[15] After offending the authorities with a political poem in 1975, as a punishment he was sent to do manual labor deep in the countryside for a period of time, and he was also forbidden to publish any novels in the future. In response, after his return to Tirana, Kadare began to camouflage his novels as "novellas" and publish them as such.[16]

In 1981, he published The Palace of Dreams, an anti-totalitarian novel written and published in the heart of a totalitarian country.[17] The novel was harshly condemned in a Writer's Plenum and the writer was accused of making allusions to Communist Albania in it, citing several ambiguous passages as proof for these claims. As a result, the work was banned.[18] Kadare was also accused by the president of the League of Albanian Writers and Artists of deliberately evading politics by cloaking much of his fiction in history and folklore. Western press reacted to the condemnation of the novel and protests mounted in the West in defense of the author.[16] Around this time, the communist ruler Enver Hoxha had initiated the process of eliminating Kadare, but backed off due to Western reaction.[19] In January 1985 his novel A Moonlit Night was published, only to be banned by the authorities a few months later.[20] At that time he wrote Agamemnon's Daughter, and according to his French publisher Claude Durand, he smuggled out of the country a part of his writings conceiling them and accredit them to Siegfried Lenz.[21]

At the end of October 1990 he was allowed to go for treatment in France according to a source,[22] according to another he fled with a regular visa for his entire family,[23] and applied for political asylum in France, where after settling he was able to exercise his profession in complete freedom. His exile in Paris was fruitful and enabled him to succeed further, both in Albanian and in French.[24] The official position of the state authorities on the occasion of his escape that "the Act is punishable, the writer remains".[23] In 1994 he began to work on the first bilingual volume of his work with the French publishing house Fayard.[25] During the 1990s and 2000s he was offered multiple times to become President of Albania, but declined.[26] He returned to Albania for the first time after 12 years in 2002.[24]

Personal lifeEdit

He is married to an Albanian author, Helena Kadare (née Gushi), and has two daughters. His daughter Besiana is the Albanian ambassador to the United Nations.[27]

Relationship with Albanian authoritiesEdit

According to his friend, writer and ex-minister Teodor Laço "few could knew the pains, troubles and the eavesdropping atmosphere surrounding him, hence Kadare was seen as a privileged man."[23] Genuinely valued for his talent, in the '60s he was endorsed by figures such as Todi Lubonja[28] and Fadil Paçrami.[29]

After the success of The General in the West in 1970, he was chosen member of the People's Assembly for 12 years in a row,[1] and was mandatory for him to adere the Party of Labour of Albania.[15] The older generation of Albanian writers and official literary critics became extremely embittered by it: "This novel was published by the bourgeoisie and this can not be accepted", says a report by the Sigurimi.[30]

Critical responseEdit

Critical interpretationsEdit

 
Kadare on Albania's Postal stamps

For his part, Kadare has stated that he had never claimed to be an "Albanian Solzhenitsyn" or a dissident, and that "dissidence was a position no one could occupy [in Enver Hoxha's Albania], even for a few days, without facing the firing squad. On the other hand, my books themselves constitute a very obvious form of resistance".[31] Henri Amouroux, a member of the Académie des Sciences Morales et Politiques of France, pointed out that Soviet dissidents including Solzhenitsyn had published their works during the era of de-Stalinization, whereas Kadare lived and published his works in a country which remained Stalinist until 1990.[32] Robert Elsie, an expert in Albanian studies also stressed the fact that the conditions in which Kadare lived and published his works were not comparable to other European communist countries where at least some level of public dissent was tolerated, rather, the situation in Albania was comparable to North Korea or the Soviet Union in the 1930s under Stalin. Despite all of this, Kadare used any opportunity to attack the regime in his works, by means of political allegories, which were picked up by educated Albanian readers.[33] The London newspaper The Independent said of Kadare: "He has been compared to Gogol, Kafka and Orwell. But Kadare's is an original voice, universal yet deeply rooted in his own soil".[34]

CriticismEdit

After the success of The General, the writers united against the "darling of the West."[30] He already had some sort of domestic prominence, three of his novels - The Palace of Dreams, Time of the Dragons, A Moonlit Night - were withdrawn from circulation withal.[35] Even though, the official literary critic during the communist regime presented the works of Kadare as the most representative pieces of literature of socialist realism,[36] given that he wrote them with the regime's support.[37] In an interview in 1979 he asserted that "the socialist realism method, contrary to everything blasphemy that the black propagandas have adressed and adress to it, grants the writer boundless opportunities to create literary oeuvres of the highest ideoartistic order". Afterwards in 1990 he has expressed that "socialist realism is the last and culminating period of Albanian literature."[38] After the fall of the regime and reevalutions of his literary work, he stated "My work isn't part of socialist realism".[36]

Albanian literary critics greatly differ in their opinions towards the writer's oeuvre. Some depict him as a conformist writer, dutiful towards the national consciousness manipulation, a writer that gave contributed to the development of socialist realism in Albanian literature.[36] Others see in his oeuvres intentional defiance of the rules,[11] or ignoring socialist realism, due to lack of positive heroes and the Communist Party.[39]

Criticism towards Kadare deals not only with his works, but above all with his political attitude towards the communist system in Albania.[40] The American journalist Stephen Suleyman Schwartz labelles Kadare's oeuvre as mere novels worthy of reading during vacations. He highlights Kadare's defamations and insults of pre-communist Albanian intelligentsia and how in doing so he resembles to Enver Hoxha. He quotes Kadare's strive to depict himself a dissident during the communist regime while he held public office during that time.[41] This was asserted even by the English academic Noel Malcolm during a polemic with the writer in The New York Review of Books in the '90s, that he remained a deputy in the Assembly when he self-presumed of being deported.[2]

TranslationsEdit

His first oeuvre being translated was The General in Bulgarian by Marina Marinova,[42] which was published in 1966.[14] After that it has been translated in Serbo-Croatian by Esad Mekuli and published in 1968.[43] After being translated in Turkish from Turkish writer, translator and movie director Atilla Tokatlı along with Necdet Sander and published in 1970 from Sander editions in Istanbul,[44] It was through the French translation of the book by Isuf Vrioni, published by Éditions Albin Michel in 1970,[45] which led to Kadare's international breakthrough.[46] In English, this work has been translated by Derek Coltman based on Vrioni's translation.[47] After Coltman, most of his works have been translated by David Bellos.[21]

Literary themesEdit

The central theme of his works is totalitarianism and its mechanisms.[48] Kadare's novels draw on legends surrounding the historical experiences of Albanian people, the representation of classical myths in modern contexts, and the totalitarian regime in Albania. They are obliquely ironic as a result of trying to withstand political scrutiny. Among his best-known books are The General of the Dead Army (1963), The Siege (1970), The Ghost Rider (1980), Broken April (1980),[6] The Palace of Dreams (1981), The Pyramid (1992), and The Successor (2003).

The Pyramid (1992) is a political allegory set in Egypt in the 26th century BC and after. In it, Kadare mocked any dictator's love for hierarchy and useless monuments. In some of Kadare's novels, comprising the so-called "Ottoman Cycle", the Ottoman Empire is used as the archetype of a totalitarian state. Kadare's 1996 novel Spiritus, marks a narrative and compositional turning point in his literary career. The influence of this novel will be felt in all of Kadare's subsequent novels.[49] It deals with group of foreigners who are touring Eastern Europe after the fall of communism and hear exciting rumours during their stay in Albania about the capture of the spirit from the dead. As it turns out, the spirit is in fact a listening device known to the notorious secret service as a "hornet".[50]

Awards and honoursEdit

In 1996 Kadare became a foreign associate to the chair left vacant by the death of Karl Popper of the Academy of Moral and Political Sciences of France,[51] where he replaced the philosopher Karl Popper. In 1992, he was awarded the Prix mondial Cino Del Duca, and in 2005 he was awarded with the inaugural Man Booker International Prize. In 2009, Kadare was awarded the Prince of Asturias Award for Literature.[52] In the same year he was awarded an Honorary Degree of Science in Social and Institutional Communication by the University of Palermo in Sicily. In 2015, he was awarded the bi-annual Jerusalem Prize.[53] He won the 2019 Park Kyong-ni Prize, an international award based in South Korea.[54]The Fall of the Stone City (2008) was awarded the Rexhai Surroi Prize in Kosovo, and was shortlisted for Independent Foreign Fiction Prize in 2013.[55] In 2019, Kadare was nominated for the Neustadt International Prize for Literature by Bulgarian poet and writer Kapka Kassobova. He was selected as the 2020 Neustadt laureate by the Prize's jury on October 16, 2019.[56]

Religious and political beliefsEdit

Kadare was born in a Muslim and bourgeois family.[57] On his mother's side of the family, his great-grandfather was a bejtexhi of the Bektashi sufi tariqa known as Hoxhë Dobi.[58] During the Albanian Cultural Revolution of 1967, Kadare was one of the top intellectuals proned to be a cutting edge against religion.[59] Although coming from a Muslim background,[60] Kadare himself claimed to be an atheist, according to John Murray in The Independent on 25 January 1998.[61]

After the '90s he attacked Islam openly: declaring in 1992 that “Albanians are among those people who have suffered equally from Communism and from Islam”, causing strong protests of the Albanian Muslim Diaspora in New York as a result.[62] Joining some Christian intellectuals, he argued that in order to get an opening towards Europe it is required to give up Islam by the population of Muslim origin, and maybe even convert to Christianity.[63]

After the exposition of Orientalism in socialist-era artistic production, modern scholars have cogitated on his Islamophobia, racism,[7] Orientalist agenda,[37][64][65] by employing his reputation to interpolate malevolence towards Albania's Ottoman past, doing so in mainstream media habitually.[37] By doing so he equates the reintroduction of the Muslim faith in Albania as a step in a benighted past,[66] labelling it as a by-product of foreign (Ottoman) invasion, and ought be abandoned.[67]

Political backgroundEdit

In his early verse collections he vehemently expressed his reliance how the leadership of the Party would build up a paradise-like Albania.[12] The poem Përse mendohen këto male (What Do These Mountains Think About, 1963) portrays the Party as the savior of the Albanian people.[68]

BibliographyEdit

Kadare has been mentioned as a possible recipient of the Nobel Prize in Literature several times. His works have been published in about 20 languages.[69][70]

The following Kadare novels have been translated into English:

English translationsEdit

Works published in AlbanianEdit

The complete works (except for the essays) of Ismail Kadare were published by Fayard, simultaneously in French and Albanian, between 1993 and 2004.[72] Omitted from the list are the poetry and the short stories. Kadare's original Albanian language works have been published exclusively by Onufri Publishing House since 1996,[73] as single works or entire sets. Being published in 2009 the complete works in 20 volumes.[74]

The dates of publication given here are those of the first publication in Albanian, unless stated otherwise.

Novels and novellasEdit

  • Gjenerali i ushtrisë së vdekur (The General of the Dead Army) (1963)
  • Përbindëshi (The Monster) (1965)
  • Lëkura e daulles (The Wedding) (1967)
  • Kështjella (The Siege) (1970)
  • Kronikë në gur (Chronicle in Stone) (1971)
  • Dimiri i vetmisë së madhe (The Great Winter) (1972)
  • Nëntori i një kryeqyteti (November of a Capital) (1975)
  • Muzgu i perëndive të stepës (Twilight of the Eastern Gods) (1978)
  • Komisioni i festës (The Feast Commission) (1978)
  • Ura me tri harqe (The Three-arched Bridge) (1978)
  • Kamarja e turpit (The Traitor's Niche) (1978)
  • Prilli i thyer (Broken April) (1980)
  • Kush e solli Doruntinën? (The Ghost Rider) (1980)
  • Pallati i ëndrrave (The Palace of Dreams) (1981)
  • Nata me hënë (A Moonlit Night) (1985)
  • Viti i mbrapshtë (The Dark Year) (1985)
  • Krushqit janë të ngrirë (The Wedding Procession Turned to Ice) (1985)
  • Koncert në fund të dimrit (The Concert) (1988)
  • Dosja H. (The File on H.) (1989)
  • Qorrfermani (The Blinding Order) (1991)
  • Piramida (The Pyramid) (1992)
  • Hija (The Shadow) (1994)
  • Shkaba (The Eagle) (1995)
  • Spiritus (1996)
  • Qyteti pa reklama (The City with no Signs) (1998, written in 1959)
  • Lulet e ftohta të marsit (Spring Flowers, Spring Frost) (2000)
  • Breznitë e Hankonatëve (2000)
  • Vajza e Agamemnonit (Agamemnon's Daughter) (2003)
  • Pasardhësi (The Successor) (2003)
  • Jeta, loja dhe vdekja Lul Mazrekut (Life, Game and Death of Lul Mazrek) (2003)
  • Çështje të marrëzisë (A Question of Lunacy) (2005)
  • Darka e Gabuar (The Fall of the Stone City) (2008)
  • E penguara: Rekuiem për Linda B. (A Girl in Exile) (2009)
  • Aksidenti (The Accident) (2010)
  • Mjegullat e Tiranës (Tirana's Mists) (2014, originally written in 1957–58)
  • Kukulla (The Doll) (2015)

PlaysEdit

  • Stinë e mërzitshme në Olimp (Dull Season in Olympus) (1998)

ScreenplaysEdit

  • Sorkadhet e trembura (Frightened Gazelles) (2009)

PoetryEdit

  • Frymëzime djaloshare (1954)
  • Ëndërrimet (1957)
  • Princesha Argjiro (1957)
  • Shekulli im (1961)
  • Përse mendohen këto male (1964)
  • Shqiponjat fluturojnë lart (1966)
  • Motive me diell (1968)
  • Koha (1976)
  • Ca pika shiu ranë mbi qelq (2004)
  • Pa formë është qielli (2005)
  • Vepra poetike në një vëllim (2018)

EssaysEdit

  • Autobiografia e popullit në vargje (The People's Autobiography in Verse) (1971)
  • Eskili, ky humbës i madh (Aeschylus, The Lost) (1985)
  • Ftesë në studio (Invitation to the Writer's Studio) (1990)
  • Nga një dhjetor në tjetrin (Albanian Spring) (1991)
  • Kushëriri i engjëjve (The Angels' Cousin) (1997)
  • Kombi shqiptar në prag të mijëvjeçarit të tretë (The Albanian Nation on the Threshold of the Third Millennium) (1998)
  • Unaza në kthetra (The Ring on the Claw) (2001)
  • Poshtërimi në Ballkan (Abasement in the Balkans) (2004)
  • Identiteti evropian i shqiptarëve (The European Identity of Albanians) (2006)
  • Dantja i pashmangshëm (Dante, The Inevitable) (2006)
  • Hamlet, le prince impossible (Hamlet, The Impossible Prince) (2007)
  • Don Kishoti në Ballkan (Don Quixote in the Balkans) (2009)
  • Mosmarrëveshja, mbi raportet e Shqipërisë me vetveten (2010)
  • Mbi krimin në Ballkan; Letërkëmbim i zymtë (On Crime in the Balkans)(2011)
  • Çlirimi i Serbisë prej Kosovës (Serbia's Liberation from Kosovo) (2012)
  • Mëngjeset në Kafe Rostand (Mornings in Cafe Rostand) (2014)
  • Arti si mëkat (Art as a Sin) (2015)
  • Uragani i ndërprerë: Ardhja e Migjenit në letërsinë shqipe (The Interrupted Hurricane: The Advent of Migjeni in Albanian Literature) (2015)
  • Tri sprova mbi letërsinë botërore (Essays on World Literature) (2017)
  • Kur sunduesit grinden When Rulers Quarrel (2018)

Story collectionsEdit

  • Emblema e dikurshme (1977)
  • Ëndërr mashtruese (1991)
  • Tri këngë zie për Kosovën (1998)
  • Vjedhja e gjumit mbretëror (1999)
  • Përballë pasqyrës së një gruaje (2001)
  • Bisedë për brilantet në pasditen e dhjetorit (2013)
  • Koha e dashurisë (Rrëfim Trikohësh) (2015)
  • Proza e shkurtër, në një vëllim (2018)

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b c Istrefi, Diana (2005). "Ligjvënësit shqiptarë 1920-2005" (PDF). parlament.al. Tiranë. pp. 15–16.
  2. ^ a b c Malcolm, Noel (15 January 1998). "'In the Palace of Nightmares': An Exchange". nybooks.com.
  3. ^ Morgan 2011, p. 66.
  4. ^ Apolloni 2012, p. 25
  5. ^ Fundacion Princessa de Asturias (24 June 2009). "Ismaíl Kadare, Prince of Asturias Award Laureate for Literature". Fundacion Princessa de Asturias. Retrieved 12 March 2017.
  6. ^ a b c Liukkonen, Petri. "Ismail Kadare". Books and Writers. Finland: Kuusankoski Public Library. Archived from the original on 13 January 2015.
  7. ^ a b c Besnik Pula (2006). "Review of Arratisje nga lindja: orientalizmi shqiptar nga Naimi te Kadare [Escaping from the East: Albanian orientalism from Naim Frasheri to Kadare], by Enis Sulstarova". 2 (1). Albanian Journal of Politics: 77. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  8. ^ Adrian Brisku (December 2006). "Occidentalizing the Past and Orientalizing the Present: Ismail Kadare's and President Moisiu's "European" Albanian Identity". 2 (2). Albanian Journal of Politics. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  9. ^ a b Ismail Kadare, Albanian writer, Britannica.com. Retrieved 24 January 2018.
  10. ^ Kryeziu-Shkreta, Jorina (3 February 2015). "Bibliografi e veprës së Kadaresë". panorama.com.al. Panorama.
  11. ^ a b Ndue Ukaj (27 May 2016). "Ismail Kadare: Letërsia, identiteti dhe historia". Gazeta Ekspress (in Albanian). Retrieved 12 March 2017. Except from the book Kadare, leximi dhe interpretimet.
  12. ^ a b Ke 2013, p. 3
  13. ^ Kadare 2011, p. 128
  14. ^ a b Morgan 2011, p. 89.
  15. ^ a b Jean-Paul Champseix. "Ismaïl Kadaré: un écrivain national sur la sellette". Encyclopædia Universalis. Retrieved 29 October 2019.
  16. ^ a b Fayé, Éric (1993). Kadaré, Ismail (ed.). œuvres completes: tome 1. Editions Fayard. pp. 10–25.
  17. ^ Apolloni 2012, p. 24
  18. ^ Kadare 2011, p. 380
  19. ^ Sadik Bejko (2007). Disidentët e rremë. 55. p. 26.
  20. ^ Robert Elsie (Spring 1994). "Clair de lune by Ismaïl Kadaré, Jusuf Vrioni; La Grande Muraille, suivi de Le firman aveugle by Ismaïl Kadaré, Jusuf Vrioni" (PDF). 68 (2). World Literature Today: 406. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  21. ^ a b Wood, James (20 December 2010). "Chronicles and Fragments: The novels of Ismail Kadare". The New Yorker. Condé Nast: 139–143. Retrieved 11 August 2011.(subscription required)
  22. ^ Wojciech Roszkowski, Jan Kofman (2016). Biographical Dictionary of Central and Eastern Europe in the Twentieth Century. Routledge. pp. 418–419. ISBN 9781317475941.
  23. ^ a b c Laço, Teodor (2012). "Kadare më tha: sakrifikohen më lehtë tre byroistë se sa unë: dy situatat kritike për Ismail Kadarenë, Pleniumi IV dhe arratisja në Francë: [raportet e shkrimtarit me regjimin, intervista]". shekulli.com.al. Interviewed by Leonard Veizi. Shekulli (gazetë). - Nr. 3810, 1 tetor 2012. pp. 4–5.
  24. ^ a b Elsie, Robert (2005). Modern Albanian Literature and its reception in the english-speaking world (lecture) (PDF).
  25. ^ Bellos, David (May 2005). "The Englishing of Ismail Kadare: Notes of a retranslator". complete-review.com. The Complete Review.
  26. ^ Kadare 2011, p. 183
  27. ^ "Besiana Kadare ambassador".
  28. ^ "Kadri Hazbiu pështyu kur lexoi "Dimrin e vetmisë së madhe"". Press reader. Gazeta Shqiptare. 9 November 2011. Retrieved 30 September 2019.
  29. ^ Lubonja, Liri (19 June 2015). "Kadare prishi miqësinë me ne, do të "pastrojë" biografinë". Panorama.
  30. ^ a b Sinani, Shaban (2011). Letërsia në totalitarizëm dhe "Dossier K". Naim Frashëri. pp. 94–96. ISBN 9789928109095.
  31. ^ Ehrenreich, Ben (8 November 2005). "Fates of State: Booker winner Ismail Kadare's art of enigma". The Village Voice. Villagevoice.com. Archived from the original on 26 November 2005. Retrieved 11 August 2011.
  32. ^ Henri Amouroux (28 October 1996). "Installation de M.Islmail Kadare – Associé étranger" (PDF). Académie des Sciences morales et politiques. p. 7. Retrieved 6 March 2017.
  33. ^ Robert Elsie (2005). Albanian Literature: A Short History. London: I.B.Taurus. pp. 182–183. ISBN 1-84511-031-5.
  34. ^ Shusha Guppy, "The Books Interview: Ismail Kadare – Enver's never-never land" The Independent, 27 February 1999.
  35. ^ Raymond Detrez (2001). "Albania". In Derek Jones (ed.). Censorship: A World Encyclopedia. Routledge. p. 27. ISBN 9781136798641.
  36. ^ a b c Sulstarova 2006, p. 120
  37. ^ a b c Blumi 2018, pp. 63–64
  38. ^ Sulstarova 2006, p. 119
  39. ^ Apolloni 2012, p. 33-34.
  40. ^ Thomas Kacza (2013). Ismail Kadare – verehrt und umstritten (PDF). Privatdruck, Bad Salzuflen.
  41. ^ Stephen Schwartz (16 June 2013). "Kadare si Enveri, s'merr dot Nobelin një shkrimtar që shkarravit noveleçka që lexohen për pushime". Retrieved 29 October 2019.
  42. ^ "Shuhet Marinova, përkthyesja e Kadaresë dhe e Migjenit". Panorama. 16 February 2012. Retrieved 29 October 2019.
  43. ^ "Ismail Kadare, gjysëm shekulli i Gjeneralit të ushtrisë së vdekur". Shqiptarja.com. 1 December 2013. Retrieved 29 October 2019.
  44. ^ Hasan Anamur (2013). Başlangıçtan Bugüne Fransızcadan Türkçeye Yapılmış Çeviriler ile Fransız Düşünürler, Yazarlar, Sanatçılar Üzerine Türkçe Yayınları İçeren Bir Kaynakça Denemesi. Gündoğan Yayınları. p. 563. ISBN 9789755202358.
  45. ^ Morgan 2011, p. 142.
  46. ^ Robert Elsie's comment, 1998 – Jusuf Vrioni: Back to Tirana, 1943–1947
  47. ^ Elsie 2005, p. 246.
  48. ^ Fundacion Princessa de Asturias (24 June 2009). "Ismaíl Kadare, Prince of Asturias Award Laureate for Literature". Fundacion Princessa de Asturias. Retrieved 25 March 2017.
  49. ^ Jose Carlos Rodrigo Breto (2018). Ismail Kadare: La grand estratagema (in Spanish). Barcelona: Ediciones del Subsuelo. pp. 199–204. ISBN 978-84-947802-0-2.
  50. ^ Elsie 2005, p. 180.
  51. ^ "ISMAÏL KADARÉ" (in French). Académie des Sciences Morales et Politiques. 2003.
  52. ^ Price of Asturias awards laureates 2009
  53. ^ Rebecca Wojno (15 January 2015). "Albanian writer to receive Jerusalem Prize". The Times of Israel.
  54. ^ 2019 박경리문학상 수상자 이스마일 카다레 Ismail Kadare [Park Kyung-ri Literary Award winner Ismail Kadare 2019]. tojicf.org (in Korean). 19 September 2019. Retrieved 23 September 2019.
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SourcesEdit

Further readingEdit

  • Akademia e Shkencave e Shqipërisë (2008) (in Albanian), Fjalor Enciklopedik Shqiptar 2 (Albanian encyclopedia), Tirana, ISBN 978-99956-10-28-9
  • Elsie, Robert, Historical Dictionary of Albania, New Edition, 2004, ISBN 0-8108-4872-4
  • Gould, Rebecca. "Allegory and the Critique of Sovereignty: Ismail Kadare's Political Theologies", Studies in the Novel vol. 44, no. 2 (Summer 2012): 208–230.
  • Hysa, Shefki, "The Diplomacy of self-denial" (Diplomacia e vetëmohimit), publicistic, Tirana, 2008. ISBN 978-99956-650-3-6
  • Morgan, Peter (2011) "Ismail Kadare's Inner Emigration", in Sara Jones & Meesha Nehru (Eds.), Writing under Socialism, (pp. 131–142). Nottingham, UK: Critical, Cultural and Communications (CCC) Press.
  • Morgan, Peter (2011) "Greek Civilisation as a Theme of Dissidence in the Work of Ismail Kadare", Modern Greek Studies (Australia and New Zealand), 15, 16–32.
  • Morgan, Peter (2010) Ismail Kadare: The Writer and the Dictatorship 1957–1990, Oxford: Legenda, 2010, Albanian translation 2011.
  • Morgan, Peter (2010) Kadare post Communism: Albania, the Balkans and Europe in the Work of Ismail Kadare, 1990–2008, Australian Research Council (ARC)/Discovery Projects (DP).
  • Morgan, Peter (2005) "Ismail Kadare: Creativity under Communism", The Australian Newspaper.
  • Ossewaarde, Marinus (2015). "Ismail Kadere's Idea of Europe". The European Legacy. Routledge. 20 (5): 715–730. ISSN 1084-8770.
  • Rranzi, Paulin. "Personalities – Missionaries of Peace" publicistic, (2011), Tirana, ISBN 978-99956-43-60-7

External linksEdit